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1.
eClinicalMedicine ; 56:101785, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165232

ABSTRACT

Summary Background The SAVE-MORE trial demonstrated that anakinra treatment in COVID-19 pneumonia with plasma soluble urokinase plasminogen activator (suPAR) levels of 6 ng/mL or more was associated with 0.36 odds for a worse outcome compared to placebo when expressed by the WHO-Clinical Progression Scale (CPS) at day 28. Herein, we report the results of subgroup analyses and long-term outcomes. Methods This prospective, double-blind, randomised clinical trial, recruited patients with a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, in need of hospitalisation, lower respiratory tract infection and plasma suPAR ≥6 ng/mL from 37 academic and community hospitals in Greece and Italy. Patients were 1:2 randomised to subcutaneous treatment with placebo or anakinra (100 mg) once daily for 10 days. Pre-defined subgroups of Charlson's comorbidity index (CCI), sex, age, level of suPAR, and time from symptom onset were analysed for the primary endpoint (overall comparison of distribution of frequencies of the scores from the WHO-CPS between treatments on day 28), by multivariable ordinal regression analysis in the intention to treat (ITT) population. This trial is registered with the EU Clinical Trials Register (2020-005828-11) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04680949). Findings Patients were enrolled between 23 December 2020 and 31 March 2021;189 patients in the placebo arm and 405 patients in the anakinra arm were the ITT population. Multivariable analysis showed that anakinra treatment was accompanied by significantly lower odds for worse outcome compared to placebo at day 28 for all studied subgroups (CCI ≥ 2, OR: 0.34, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.22–0.50;CCI < 2, OR: 0.38, 95% CI 0.21–0.68;suPAR > 9 ng/mL, OR: 0.35, 95% CI 0.19–0.66;suPAR 6–9 ng/mL, OR: 0.35, 95% CI 0.24–0.52;patients ≥65 years, OR: 0.41, 95% CI 0.25–0.66;and patients <65 years, OR: 0.29, 95% CI 0.19–0.45). The benefit was uniform, irrespective of the time from start of symptoms until the start of the study drug. At days 60 and 90, anakinra treatment had odds of 0.40 (95% CI 0.28–0.57) and 0.46 (95% CI 0.32–0.67) respectively, for a worse outcome compared to placebo. The costs of general ward stay, ICU stay, and drugs were lower with anakinra treatment. Interpretation Anakinra represents an important therapeutic tool in the management of COVID-19 that may be administered in all subgroups of patients;benefits are maintained until day 90. Funding Hellenic Institute for the Study of Sepsis;Swedish Orphan Biovitrum AB.

2.
Cytokine ; 162:156111, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2158716

ABSTRACT

Objectives Elevated concentrations of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) predict progression to severe respiratory failure (SRF) or death among patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and guide early anakinra treatment. As suPAR testing may not be routinely available in every health-care setting, alternative biomarkers are needed. We investigated the performance of C-reactive protein (CRP), interferon gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) for predicting SRF or death in COVID-19. Methods Two cohorts were studied;one discovery cohort with 534 patients from the SAVE-MORE clinical trial;and one validation cohort with 364 patients from the SAVE trial including also 145 comparators. CRP, IP-10 and TRAIL were measured by the MeMed Key® platform in order to select the biomarker with the best prognostic performance for the early prediction of progression into SRF or death. Results

4.
Nat Metab ; 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106513

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) cytotoxicity may involve inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. Fenofibrate activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro. Whether fenofibrate can be used to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in humans remains unknown. Here, we randomly assigned inpatients and outpatients with COVID-19 within 14 d of symptom onset to 145 mg of oral fenofibrate nanocrystal formulation versus placebo for 10 d, in a double-blinded fashion. The primary endpoint was a severity score whereby participants were ranked across hierarchical tiers incorporating time to death, mechanical ventilation duration, oxygenation, hospitalization and symptom severity and duration. In total, 701 participants were randomized to fenofibrate (n = 351) or placebo (n = 350). The mean age of participants was 49 ± 16 years, 330 (47%) were female, mean body mass index was 28 ± 6 kg/m2 and 102 (15%) had diabetes. Death occurred in 41 participants. Compared with placebo, fenofibrate had no effect on the primary endpoint. The median (interquartile range) rank in the placebo arm was 347 (172, 453) versus 345 (175, 453) in the fenofibrate arm (P = 0.819). There was no difference in secondary and exploratory endpoints, including all-cause death, across arms. There were 61 (17%) adverse events in the placebo arm compared with 46 (13%) in the fenofibrate arm, with slightly higher incidence of gastrointestinal side effects in the fenofibrate group. Overall, among patients with COVID-19, fenofibrate has no significant effect on various clinically relevant outcomes ( NCT04517396 ).

5.
Neurology ; 2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065058

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute arterial-ischemic-stroke (AIS) has been reported as a rare adverse-event following COVID-19-vaccination with mRNA or viral-vector vaccines. However, data are sparse regarding the risk of post-vaccination AIS and its potential association with thrombotic-thrombocytopenia-syndrome (TTS). METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled clinical trials (RCTs), pharmacovigilance registries, registry-based studies, observational cohorts and case-series was performed with the aim to calculate: (1) the pooled proportion of patients presenting with AIS following COVID-19-vaccination; (2) the prevalence of AIS after mRNA and vector-based vaccination; (3) the proportion of TTS among post-vaccination AIS-cases. Patient characteristics were assessed as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Two RCTs, three cohort and eleven registry-based studies comprising 17,481 AIS-cases among 782,989,363 COVID-19-vaccinations were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled proportion of AIS following exposure to any COVID-19-vaccine type was 4.7 cases per 100,000 vaccinations (95%CI:2.2-8.1; I2=99.9%). The pooled proportion of AIS following mRNA-vaccination (9.2 cases per 100,000 vaccinations; 95%CI: 2.5-19.3; I2=99.9%) did not differ compared to adenovirus-based-vaccination (2.9 cases per 100,000 vaccinations; 95%CI: 0.3-7.8; I2=99.9%). No differences regarding demographics were disclosed between patients with AIS following mRNA- or vector-based vaccination. The pooled proportion of TTS among post-vaccination AIS-cases was 3.1% (95%CI: 0.7-7.2%; I2=78.8%). CONCLUSIONS: The pooled proportion of AIS following COVID-19 vaccination is comparable to the prevalence of AIS in the general population and much lower than the AIS prevalence among SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. TTS is very uncommonly reported in patients with AIS following COVID-19 vaccination.

7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 873067, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2005866

ABSTRACT

In a recent study of our group with the acronym ACTIVATE, Bacillus Calmete-Guérin (BCG) vaccination reduced the occurrence of new infections compared to placebo vaccination in the elderly. Most benefit was found for respiratory infections. The ACTIVATE-2 study was launched to assess the efficacy of BCG vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this multicenter, double-blind trial, 301 volunteers aged 50 years or older were randomized (1:1) to be vaccinated with BCG or placebo. The trial end points were the incidence of COVID-19 and the presence of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (anti-SARS-CoV-2) antibodies, which were both evaluated through 6 months after study intervention. Results revealed 68% relative reduction of the risk to develop COVID-19, using clinical criteria or/and laboratory diagnosis, in the group of BCG vaccine recipients compared with placebo-vaccinated controls, during a 6-month follow-up (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.13-0.79). In total, eight patients were in need of hospitalization for COVID-19: six in the placebo group and two in the BCG group. Three months after study intervention, positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were noted in 1.3% of volunteers in the placebo group and in 4.7% of participants in BCG-vaccinated group. These data indicate that BCG vaccination confers some protection against possible COVID-19 among patients older than 50 years with comorbidities. BCG vaccination may be a promising approach against the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Bacillus , COVID-19 , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , BCG Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(18): e025198, 2022 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973987

ABSTRACT

Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) contributes significantly to COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. The urokinase receptor system is involved in the regulation of coagulation. Levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) reflect hyperinflammation and are strongly predictive of outcomes in COVID-19. Whether suPAR levels identify patients with COVID-19 at risk for VTE is unclear. Methods and Results We leveraged a multinational observational study of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 with suPAR and D-dimer levels measured on admission. In 1960 patients (mean age, 58 years; 57% men; 20% Black race), we assessed the association between suPAR and incident VTE (defined as pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis) using logistic regression and Fine-Gray modeling, accounting for the competing risk of death. VTE occurred in 163 (8%) patients and was associated with higher suPAR and D-dimer levels. There was a positive association between suPAR and D-dimer (ß=7.34; P=0.002). Adjusted for clinical covariables, including D-dimer, the odds of VTE were 168% higher comparing the third with first suPAR tertiles (adjusted odds ratio, 2.68 [95% CI, 1.51-4.75]; P<0.001). Findings were consistent when stratified by D-dimer levels and in survival analysis accounting for death as a competing risk. On the basis of predicted probabilities from random forest, a decision tree found the combined D-dimer <1 mg/L and suPAR <11 ng/mL cutoffs, identifying 41% of patients with only 3.6% VTE probability. Conclusions Higher suPAR was associated with incident VTE independently of D-dimer in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Combining suPAR and D-dimer identified patients at low VTE risk. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04818866.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator , Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
9.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 183, 2022 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clarithromycin may act as immune-regulating treatment in sepsis and acute respiratory dysfunction syndrome. However, clinical evidence remains inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate whether clarithromycin improves 28-day mortality among patients with sepsis, respiratory and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, clinical trial in patients with sepsis. Participants with ratio of partial oxygen pressure to fraction of inspired oxygen less than 200 and more than 3 SOFA points from systems other than the respiratory function were enrolled between December 2017 and September 2019. Patients were randomized to receive 1 gr of clarithromycin or placebo intravenously once daily for 4 consecutive days. The primary endpoint was 28-day all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were 90-day mortality; sepsis response (defined as at least 25% decrease in SOFA score by day 7); sepsis recurrence; and differences in peripheral blood cell populations and leukocyte transcriptomics. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients were allocated to each arm. By day 28, 27 (49.1%) patients in the clarithromycin and 25 (45.5%) in the placebo group died (risk difference 3.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) - 15.7 to 22.7]; P = 0.703, adjusted OR 1.03 [95%CI 0.35-3.06]; P = 0.959). There were no statistical differences in 90-day mortality and sepsis response. Clarithromycin was associated with lower incidence of sepsis recurrence (OR 0.21 [95%CI 0.06-0.68]; P = 0.012); significant increase in monocyte HLA-DR expression; expansion of non-classical monocytes; and upregulation of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Serious and non-serious adverse events were equally distributed. CONCLUSIONS: Clarithromycin did not reduce mortality among patients with sepsis with respiratory and multiple organ dysfunction. Clarithromycin was associated with lower sepsis recurrence, possibly through a mechanism of immune restoration. Clinical trial registration clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT03345992 registered 17 November 2017; EudraCT 2017-001056-55.


Subject(s)
Clarithromycin , Sepsis , Administration, Intravenous , Clarithromycin/pharmacology , Clarithromycin/therapeutic use , Humans , Multiple Organ Failure/complications , Multiple Organ Failure/drug therapy , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Sepsis/complications
10.
Nat Med ; 28(6): 1141-1148, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900513

ABSTRACT

Research and practice in critical care medicine have long been defined by syndromes, which, despite being clinically recognizable entities, are, in fact, loose amalgams of heterogeneous states that may respond differently to therapy. Mounting translational evidence-supported by research on respiratory failure due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection-suggests that the current syndrome-based framework of critical illness should be reconsidered. Here we discuss recent findings from basic science and clinical research in critical care and explore how these might inform a new conceptual model of critical illness. De-emphasizing syndromes, we focus on the underlying biological changes that underpin critical illness states and that may be amenable to treatment. We hypothesize that such an approach will accelerate critical care research, leading to a richer understanding of the pathobiology of critical illness and of the key determinants of patient outcomes. This, in turn, will support the design of more effective clinical trials and inform a more precise and more effective practice at the bedside.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Humans , Syndrome
11.
J Innate Immun ; : 1-14, 2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840690

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 has been associated with catastrophic inflammation. We present measurements in humans and a new animal model implicating a role in danger-associated molecular patterns. Calprotectin (S100A8/A9) and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) were measured in patients without/with ARDS, and admission calprotectin was associated with soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR). An animal model was developed by intravenous injection of plasma from healthy or patients with COVID-19 ARDS into C57/BL6 mice once daily for 3 consecutive days. Mice were treated with one anti-S100A8/A9 antibody, the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra or vehicle, and Flo1-2a anti-murine anti-IL-1α monoclonal antibody or the specific antihuman IL-1α antibody XB2001 or isotype controls. Cytokines and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in tissues. Calprotectin, but not HMGB1, was elevated in ARDS. Higher suPAR indicated higher calprotectin. Animal challenge with COVID-19 plasma led to inflammatory reactions in murine lung and intestines as evidenced by increased levels of TNFα, IL-6, IFNγ, and MPO. Lung inflammation was attenuated with anti-S100A8/A9 pre-treatment. Anakinra treatment restored these levels. Similar decrease was found in mice treated with Flo1-2a but not with XB2001. Circulating alarmins, specifically calprotectin, of critically ill COVID-19 patients induces tissue-specific inflammatory responses through an IL-1-mediated mechanism. This could be attenuated through inhibition of IL-1 receptor or of IL-1α.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820290

ABSTRACT

The trajectory from moderate and severe COVID-19 into acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) necessitating mechanical ventilation (MV) is a field of active research. We determined serum levels within 24 h of presentation of 20 different sets of mediators (calprotectin, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, interferons) of patients with COVID-19 at different stages of severity (asymptomatic, moderate, severe and ARDS/MV). The primary endpoint was to define associations with critical illness, and the secondary endpoint was to identify the pathways associated with mortality. Results were validated in serial measurements of mediators among participants of the SAVE-MORE trial. Levels of the proinflammatory interleukin (IL)-8, IL-18, matrix metalloproteinase-9, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B and calprotectin (S100A8/A9) were significantly higher in patients with ARDS and MV. Levels of the anti-inflammatory IL-1ra and IL-33r were also increased; IL-38 was increased only in asymptomatic patients but significantly decreased in the more severe cases. Multivariate ordinal regression showed that pathways of IL-6, IL-33 and calprotectin were associated with significant probability for worse outcome. Calprotectin was serially increased from baseline among patients who progressed to ARDS and MV. Further research is needed to decipher the significance of these findings compared to other acute-phase reactants, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) or ferritin, for the prognosis and development of effective treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Calgranulin A , Critical Illness , Humans , Interleukins , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex
13.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(3)2022 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731897

ABSTRACT

This review aims to summarize current progress in the management of critically ill, using biomarkers as guidance for antimicrobial treatment with a focus on antimicrobial stewardship. Accumulated evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and observational studies in adults for the biomarker-guided antimicrobial treatment of critically ill (mainly sepsis and COVID-19 patients) has been extensively searched and is provided. Procalcitonin (PCT) is the best studied biomarker; in the majority of randomized clinical trials an algorithm of discontinuation of antibiotics with decreasing PCT over serial measurements has been proven safe and effective to reduce length of antimicrobial treatment, antibiotic-associated adverse events and long-term infectious complications like infections by multidrug-resistant organisms and Clostridioides difficile. Other biomarkers, such as C-reactive protein and presepsin, are already being tested as guidance for shorter antimicrobial treatment, but more research is needed. Current evidence suggests that biomarkers, mainly procalcitonin, should be implemented in antimicrobial stewardship programs even in the COVID-19 era, when, although bacterial coinfection rate is low, antimicrobial overconsumption remains high.

14.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(3): 100560, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706398

ABSTRACT

Most patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) experience mild, non-specific symptoms, but many develop severe symptoms associated with an excessive inflammatory response. Elevated plasma concentrations of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) provide early warning of progression to severe respiratory failure (SRF) or death, but access to suPAR testing may be limited. The Severe COvid Prediction Estimate (SCOPE) score, derived from circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein, D- dimers, interleukin-6, and ferritin among patients not receiving non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation during the SAVE-MORE study, offers predictive accuracy for progression to SRF or death within 14 days comparable to that of a suPAR concentration of ≥6 ng/mL (area under receiver operator characteristic curve 0.81 for both). The SCOPE score is validated in two similar independent cohorts. A SCOPE score of 6 or more is an alternative to suPAR for predicting progression to SRF or death within 14 days of hospital admission for pneumonia, and it can be used to guide treatment decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Prognosis , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Diabetes Care ; 45(3): 692-700, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638713

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) for reasons that are unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We leveraged the International Study of Inflammation in COVID-19 (ISIC), a multicenter observational study of 2,044 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, to characterize the impact of DM on in-hospital outcomes and assess the contribution of inflammation and hyperglycemia to the risk attributed to DM. We measured biomarkers of inflammation collected at hospital admission and collected glucose levels and insulin data throughout hospitalization. The primary outcome was the composite of in-hospital death, need for mechanical ventilation, and need for renal replacement therapy. RESULTS: Among participants (mean age 60 years, 58.2% males), those with DM (n = 686, 33.5%) had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of the primary outcome (37.8% vs. 28.6%) and higher levels of inflammatory biomarkers than those without DM. Among biomarkers, DM was only associated with higher soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) levels in multivariable analysis. Adjusting for suPAR levels abrogated the association between DM and the primary outcome (adjusted odds ratio 1.23 [95% CI 0.78, 1.37]). In mediation analysis, we estimated the proportion of the effect of DM on the primary outcome mediated by suPAR at 84.2%. Hyperglycemia and higher insulin doses were independent predictors of the primary outcome, with effect sizes unaffected by adjusting for suPAR levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the association between DM and outcomes in COVID-19 is largely mediated by hyperinflammation as assessed by suPAR levels, while the impact of hyperglycemia is independent of inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hyperglycemia , Biomarkers , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 889, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630723

ABSTRACT

Predicting the severity of COVID-19 remains an unmet medical need. Our objective was to develop a blood-based host-gene-expression classifier for the severity of viral infections and validate it in independent data, including COVID-19. We developed a logistic regression-based classifier for the severity of viral infections and validated it in multiple viral infection settings including COVID-19. We used training data (N = 705) from 21 retrospective transcriptomic clinical studies of influenza and other viral illnesses looking at a preselected panel of host immune response messenger RNAs. We selected 6 host RNAs and trained logistic regression classifier with a cross-validation area under curve of 0.90 for predicting 30-day mortality in viral illnesses. Next, in 1417 samples across 21 independent retrospective cohorts the locked 6-RNA classifier had an area under curve of 0.94 for discriminating patients with severe vs. non-severe infection. Next, in independent cohorts of prospectively (N = 97) and retrospectively (N = 100) enrolled patients with confirmed COVID-19, the classifier had an area under curve of 0.89 and 0.87, respectively, for identifying patients with severe respiratory failure or 30-day mortality. Finally, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal gene expression assay for the 6-messenger-RNA panel to facilitate implementation as a rapid assay. With further study, the classifier could assist in the risk assessment of COVID-19 and other acute viral infections patients to determine severity and level of care, thereby improving patient management and reducing healthcare burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gene Expression Regulation , RNA, Messenger/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Acute Disease , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies
17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(24): e023535, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566424

ABSTRACT

Background Use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEi/ARB) is thought to affect COVID-19 through modulating levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, the cell entry receptor for SARS-CoV2. We sought to assess the association between ACEi/ARB, biomarkers of inflammation, and outcomes in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Methods and Results We leveraged the ISIC (International Study of Inflammation in COVID-19), identified patients admitted for symptomatic COVID-19 between February 1, 2020 and June 1, 2021 for COVID-19, and examined the association between in-hospital ACEi/ARB use and all-cause death, need for ventilation, and need for dialysis. We estimated the causal effect of ACEi/ARB on the composite outcomes using marginal structural models accounting for serial blood pressure and serum creatinine measures. Of 2044 patients in ISIC, 1686 patients met inclusion criteria, of whom 398 (23.6%) patients who were previously on ACEi/ARB received at least 1 dose during their hospitalization for COVID-19. There were 215 deaths, 407 patients requiring mechanical ventilation, and 124 patients who required dialysis during their hospitalization. Prior ACEi/ARB use was associated with lower levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor and C-reactive protein. In multivariable analysis, in-hospital ACEi/ARB use was associated with a lower risk of the composite outcome of in-hospital death, mechanical ventilation, or dialysis (adjusted hazard ratio 0.49, 95% CI [0.36-0.65]). Conclusions In patients hospitalized for COVID-19, ACEi/ARB use was associated with lower levels of inflammation and lower risk of in-hospital outcomes. Clinical trials will define the role of ACEi/ARB in the treatment of COVID-19. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04818866.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies
18.
J Innate Immun ; 14(3): 218-228, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Macrophage activation-like syndrome (MALS) and complex immune dysregulation (CID) often underlie acute respiratory distress (ARDS) in COVID-19. We aimed to investigate the effect of personalized immunotherapy on clinical improvement of critical COVID-19. METHODS: In this open-label prospective trial, 102 patients with ARDS by SARS-CoV-2 were screened for MALS (ferritin >4,420 ng/mL) and CID (ferritin ≤4,420 ng/mL and low human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR expression on CD14-monocytes). Patients with MALS or CID with increased aminotransferases received intravenous anakinra; those with CID and normal aminotransferases received tocilizumab. The primary outcome was ≥25% decrease in the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and/or 50% increase in the respiratory ratio by day 8; 28-day mortality, change of SOFA score by day 28, serum biomarkers, and cytokine production by mononuclear cells were secondary endpoints. RESULTS: The primary study endpoint was met in 58.3% of anakinra-treated patients and in 33.3% of tocilizumab-treated patients (p: 0.01). Most patients in both groups received dexamethasone as standard of care. No differences were found in secondary outcomes, mortality, and SOFA score changes. Ferritin decreased among anakinra-treated patients; interleukin-6, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, and HLA-DR expression increased among tocilizumab-treated patients. Survivors by day 28 who received anakinra were distributed to lower severity levels of the WHO clinical progression scale. Greater incidence of secondary infections was found with tocilizumab treatment. CONCLUSION: Immune assessment resulted in favorable anakinra responses among critically ill patients with COVID-19 and features of MALS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ferritins , Humans , Immunotherapy , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Transaminases
19.
J Clin Med ; 10(22)2021 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524043

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the potential beneficial effect of immunomodulation therapy on the thromboembolic risk in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Scopus for randomized trials reporting the outcomes of venous thromboembolism (VTE), ischemic stroke or systemic embolism, myocardial infarction, any thromboembolic event, and all-cause mortality in COVID-19 patients treated with immunomodulatory agents. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel random effects method. RESULTS: Among 8499 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 4638 were treated with an immunomodulatory agent, 3861-with usual care only. Among the patients prescribed immunomodulatory agents, there were 1.77 VTEs per 100 patient-months compared to 2.30 among those treated with usual care (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.61-1.16; I2: 0%). Among the patients who received an interleukin 6 (IL-6) antagonist, VTEs were reported in 12 among the 1075 patients compared to 20 among the 848 receiving the usual care (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.22-1.20; I2: 6%). Immunomodulators as an add-on to usual care did not reduce the risk of stroke or systemic embolism (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.50-2.40; I2: 0%) or of myocardial infarction (OR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.47-2.39; I2: 0%) and there was a nonsignificant reduction in any thromboembolic event (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.65-1.14; I2: 0%). CONCLUSIONS: We did not identify a statistically significant effect of immunomodulation on prevention of thromboembolic events in COVID-19. However, given the large effect estimate for VTE prevention, especially in the patients treated with IL-6 antagonists, we cannot exclude a potential effect of immunomodulation.

20.
Crit Care Med ; 49(12): 2042-2057, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522362

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 is a heterogeneous disease most frequently causing respiratory tract infection, which can induce respiratory failure and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in its severe forms. The prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019-related sepsis is still unclear; we aimed to describe this in a systematic review. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane, and Google Scholar databases were searched based on a prespecified protocol (International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews: CRD42020202018). STUDY SELECTION: Studies reporting on patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 diagnosed with sepsis according to sepsis-3 or according to the presence of infection-related organ dysfunctions necessitating organ support/replacement were included in the analysis. The primary end point was prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019-related sepsis among adults hospitalized in the ICU and the general ward. Among secondary end points were the need for ICU admission among patients initially hospitalized in the general ward and the prevalence of new onset of organ dysfunction in the ICU. Outcomes were expressed as proportions with respective 95% CI. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers independently screened and reviewed existing literature and assessed study quality with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the Methodological index for nonrandomized studies. DATA SYNTHESIS: Of 3,825 articles, 151 were analyzed, only five of which directly reported sepsis prevalence. Noting the high heterogeneity observed, coronavirus disease 2019-related sepsis prevalence was 77.9% (95% CI, 75.9-79.8; I2 = 91%; 57 studies) in the ICU, and 33.3% (95% CI, 30.3-36.4; I2 = 99%; 86 studies) in the general ward. ICU admission was required for 17.7% (95% CI, 12.9-23.6; I2 = 100%) of ward patients. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was the most common organ dysfunction in the ICU (87.5%; 95% CI, 83.3-90.7; I2 = 98%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of coronavirus disease 2019 patients hospitalized in the ICU meet Sepsis-3 criteria and present infection-associated organ dysfunction. The medical and scientific community should be aware and systematically report viral sepsis for prognostic and treatment implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Sepsis/etiology , Sepsis/virology , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/mortality , Severity of Illness Index
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