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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706748

ABSTRACT

While the role of active smoking on response to vaccines is yet to be fully understood, some real-world studies have outlined a possible link between smoking and humoral response to COVID-19 vaccines. Thus, the present rapid systematic review aimed at summarizing the current epidemiological evidence on this association. Following PRISMA and WHO guidelines on rapid systematic reviews, we systematically reviewed published literature on this topic and discussed the findings according to the aim of analysing smoking and its impact on humoral response to COVID-19 postvaccination antibody titres. The search strategy yielded a total of 23 articles. The sample size amongst the studies ranged between 74 and 3475 participants (median, 360), with the proportion of smokers being between 4.2% and 40.8% (median, 26.0%). The studies included in this review analysis investigated the dynamics of antibody response to different type of COVID-19 vaccines. In 17 out of 23 studies, current smokers showed much lower antibody titres or more rapid lowering of the vaccine-induced IgG compared with nonsmokers. This rapid systematic review indicates that active smoking negatively impacts humoral response to COVID-19 vaccines, although the pathophysiologic mechanisms for this association have not been entirely suggested. The results advocate targeted policies to promote tailored health promotion initiatives, which can increase risk perception and ensure appropriate protection measures to be taken to avoid the health consequences of COVID-19 in smokers.

4.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(3): E586-E591, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575500

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The aim of the current study was to assess if the frequency of internet searches for influenza are aligned with Italian National Institute of Health (ISS) cases and deaths. Also, we evaluate the distribution over time and the correlation between search volume of flu and flu symptoms with reported new cases of SARS-CoV-2. Materials and methods: The reported cases and deaths of flu and the reported cases of SARS-CoV-2 were selected from the reports of ISS, the data have been aggregated by week. The search volume provided by Google Trends (GT) has a relative nature and is calculated as a percentage of query related to a specific term in connection with a determined place and time-frame. Results: The strongest correlation between GT search and influenza cases was found at a lag of +1 week particularly for the period 2015-2019. A strong correlation was also found at a lag of +1 week between influenza death and GT search. About the correlation between GT search and SARS-CoV-2 new cases the strongest correlation was found at a lag of +3 weeks for the term flu. Conclusion: In the last years research in health care has used GT data to explore public interest in various fields of medicine. Caution should be used when interpreting the findings of digital surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Internet , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Search Engine
5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(12)2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554857

ABSTRACT

Ensuring timely access to affordable vaccines has been acknowledged as a global public health priority, as also recently testified by the debate sparked during the COVID-19 pandemic. Effective vaccine procurement strategies are essential to reach this goal. Nevertheless, this is still a neglected research topic. A narrative literature review on vaccine procurement was conducted, by retrieving articles from four academic databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, WebOfScience), 'grey' literature reports, and institutional websites. The aim was to clarify key concepts and definitions relating to vaccine procurement, describe main vaccine procurement methods, and identify knowledge gaps and future perspectives. A theoretical conceptual framework was developed of the key factors involved in vaccine procurement, which include quality and safety of the product, forecasting and budgeting, procurement legislation, financial sustainability, and plurality of manufacture, contracting, investment in training, storage and service delivery, monitoring and evaluation. This information can be useful to support policymakers during planning, implementation, and evaluation of regional and national vaccine procurement strategies and policies.

6.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S6): e2021487, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503980

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The urgency of having rapidly safe and efficient COVID-19 vaccines called for the need to shorten trial phases, reduce sample sizes, and speed-up the approval process by the regulatory Agencies. In light of this, monitoring adverse effects (AEFI) (both immediate and at medium-long term) become of great importance. Aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the associations between several factors and risk of immediate AEFI. METHODS: Data come from the electronic dataset developed ad hoc to record demographic data, anamnesis and data related to immunization, set-up in the mass vaccination site in Novegro (Milan). Novegro mass vaccination site was one of the mass vaccinations sites with the highest flow in Lombardy Region, with a maximum capacity of 5,000 vaccinations/day. The center opened in April 2021 and closed the 1st of August 2021. A multivariable logistic regression model was used. Odds ratios adjusted (aOR) for age and sex are presented. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Analyses were conducting using STATA. RESULTS: Among the total of 314,671 subjects vaccinated, 0.5% developed an immediate AEFI, on average 17.0 ± 0.43 minutes after the administration. The three most frequent AEFI recorded were vagal response (30%), anxiety reaction (24%) and dizziness (21%). AEFI were more frequently observed among women [aOR= 2.24 (95%CI= 2.00 - 2.50)], and those with at least one previous disease [aOR= 1.47 (95%CI= 1.22-1.76)]. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, AEFI were less likely to occur for increasing age and after the second dose. Results from this large, complete and representative sample population regarding enrich the interesting scientific debate on potential adverse events following COVID-19 immunization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Vaccination , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Vaccination/adverse effects
7.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S6): e2021440, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: During the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries adopted restrictive measures to mitigate infection spread, which might have influenced people's lifestyle and dietary habits. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the impact of national lockdowns on adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD). METHODS: Studies were identified searching Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. Studies published until 4th May 2021 were included. We only considered studies reporting original data from quantitative analysis and assessing changes in adherence to the MD, using validated dietary scores, or in consumption of MD food items. Data extraction, pooling, and quality appraisal of included studies were conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. RESULTS: Forty-two studies were retrieved. After screening, 12 studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the review, of which 4 (33%) were longitudinal studies. Six (85.7%) of the seven studies that measured changes in MD adherence before-during lockdown reported an increase (rate of change of high-adherence to MD ranged between +3.3% and +21.9%). Evidence indicates that consumption of MD food items increased during lockdown but is heterogeneous in study design, quality, and findings. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest adherence to the MD during lockdown might have increased in some settings, while the determinants of such a trend are to be further explored. We raise awareness of the need to research further the impacts and long-term consequences of COVID-19 containment measures on dietary and lifestyle habits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Mediterranean , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S6): e2021419, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Europe, Italy and Lombardy, in autumn 2020, there was a steep increase in reported cases due to the second epidemic wave of SARS-Cov-2 infection. We aimed to evaluate the appropriateness of COVID-19 patients' admissions to the ED of the San Raffaele Hospital. METHODS: We compared data between the inter-wave period (IWP, from 1st to 30th September) and the second wave period (WP, 1st October to 15th November) focusing on the ED presentation, discharge priority colour code and outcomes. RESULTS: Out of 977 admissions with a SARS-Cov-2 positive swab, 6% were in the IWP and 94% in the WP. Red, yellow and white code increased (these latter from 1.8% to 5.4%) as well as self-presented in yellow and white code. Discharges home increased from 1.8% to 5.4%, while hospitalizations decreased from 63% to 51%. DISCUSSION: We found a rise in white codes (among self-presented patients), indicating inappropriateness of admissions. The increase in discharges suggests that several patients did not require hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic brought out the fundamental role of primary care to manage patients with low-intensity needs. The important increase in ED admissions of COVID-19 patients caused a reduction of NO-COVID-19 patients, with possible inadequate treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Urban , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481031

ABSTRACT

Digitalisation offers great potential to improve vaccine uptake, supporting the need for effective life-course immunisation services. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with public health experts from 10 Western European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, and the United Kingdom) to assess the current level of digitalisation in immunisation programmes and retrieve data on interventions and best practices. Interviews were performed using an ad hoc questionnaire, piloted on a sample of national experts. We report a mixed level of digital technologies deployment within vaccination services across Europe: Some countries are currently developing eHealth strategies, while others have already put in place robust programmes. Institutional websites, educational videos, and electronic immunisation records are the most frequently adopted digital tools. Webinars and dashboards represent valuable resources to train and support healthcare professionals in immunisation services organisation. Text messages, email-based communication, and smartphone apps use is scattered across Europe. The main reported barrier to the implementation of digital-based programmes is the lack of resources and shared standards. Our study offers a comprehensive picture of the European context and shows the need for robust collaboration between states and international institutions to share best practices and inform the planning of digital intervention models with the aim of countering vaccine hesitancy and increasing vaccine uptake.

10.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480893

ABSTRACT

We obtained data from Google Trends and Wikipedia in order to assess whether an analysis of Internet searches could provide information on the Internet users' behaviour/interest in diets. Differences in seasonality, year and before/during COVID-19 pandemic were assessed. From Wikipedia, we extracted the number of times a page is viewed by users, aggregated on monthly and seasonal bases. We also used Google Trends to evaluate the frequency of the users' web searches. The Mediterranean diet was the most frequently (33.9%), followed by the pescatarian diet (9.0%). Statistically, significant seasonal differences were found for the Mediterranean, vegetarian, Atkins, Scarsdale, and zone diets and pescetarianism. The most commonly searched diet and consequent diet-related queries on Google resulted to be: Dukan diet, Dukan and weight loss. Ketogenic, FODMAP and intermittent fasting diets were statistically more frequently searched during the pandemic compared with before. Our data show a different trend of searches based on the seasonality, year and the pandemic. These data could be useful for scientists, practitioners and policy makers because they can inform educational campaigns via the Internet, especially in periods when the population is more receptive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Consumer Health Information/trends , Diet, Healthy/trends , Internet Use/trends , Search Engine/trends , Humans , Italy , Nutritive Value , Seasons , Time Factors , Weight Loss
11.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S6): e2021462, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: After the first cases of COVID-19 detected in Wuhan (China), the virus rapidly spread in the world, so much so that on February 20 the first autochthonous case was officially identified in Italy. However, this person had no apparent history of travel abroad or contact with people tested positive for the virus. For this reason, the aim of this literature review was to reconstruct the epidemiological dynamics of the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Lombardy Region. METHODS: To this end, a systematic review was carried out on PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE, and on grey literature. All article assessing incidence, mortality and hospitalizations by Lombardy province and municipality, and the impact of the main containment and organizational measures were considered eligible. In addition, data on general mortality and mortality due to COVID-19, hospital admission, and serological and environmental were also retrieved. RESULTS: From the included studies, it emerged that Lombardy was the first European region in which the virus began to circulate as early as January 2020 (and probably even earlier). Despite the high number of cases and deaths recorded, the reproduction number observed in Lombardy Region was, at the beginning of March 2020, the same (or lower) than in other regions. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, data of the first epidemic wave in Lombardy, compared to other Italian and foreign regions, highlight the extreme criticality of having had the first autochthonous case (and the first substantial outbreaks) when knowledge was still scarce and individual prevention measures were not widespread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S6): e2021450, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Comirnaty® was the first COVID-19 vaccine available for the vaccination campaign of healthcare workers in Italy. With the aim of assessing vaccine safety, we conducted a cross-sectional survey administrating a voluntary-based questionnaire on adverse events following immunisation (AEFIs) in San Raffaele Hospital, Milano, Italy. METHODS: From 4th January 2021 to 27th April 2021, we collected 2,659 questionnaires (response rate: 24,5%). We analyzed data, reporting AEFIs by gender, age, self-reported severity, type, time of insurgence and duration, and estimating relative-risk ratios (RRR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: The most reported symptoms were injection site pain, fatigue, headache, myalgia, chills, fever, and arthralgia. Severe systemic reactions were more frequent after receiving the second dose (RRR 6.25, 95% CI 4.57-8.55), in women (RRR 3.33, 95% CI 2.30-4.82), and less frequent in individuals aged 60 or more (RRR 0.26, 95% CI 0.14-0.49). In addition, we noted a wide range of adverse events of special interest (AESIs). CONCLUSIONS: Consistently with clinical trials and pharmacovigilance surveillance, AEFIs were frequent, but severe ones were uncommon, supporting the massive implementation of the COVID-19 vaccination campaign and providing valuable data for a risk profiling of vaccinees. (www.actabiomedica.it).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccination , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination/adverse effects
14.
Public Health ; 198: 44-52, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294155

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: At the end of 2019, an acute infectious pneumonia (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) began in Wuhan, China, and subsequently spread around the world starting a pandemic. Globally, to date, there have been >118 million confirmed cases, including >2 million deaths. In this context, it has been shown that the psychological impact of the pandemic is important and that it can be associated with an increase in internet searches related to fear, anxiety, depression, as well as protective behaviours, health knowledge and even maladaptive behaviours. STUDY DESIGN: This is a systematic review. METHODS: This review aims to collect, analyse and synthesise available evidence on novel data streams for surveillance purposes and/or their potential for capturing the public reaction to epidemic outbreaks, particularly focusing on mental health effects and emotions. RESULTS: At the end of the screening process, 19 articles were included in this systematic review. Our results show that the COVID-19 pandemic had a great impact on internet searches for mental health of entire populations, which manifests itself in a significant increase of depressed, anxious and stressed internet users' emotions. CONCLUSIONS: Novel data streams can support public health experts and policymakers in establishing priorities and setting up long-term strategies to mitigate symptoms and tackle mental health disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Internet , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(6)2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259629

ABSTRACT

A mass vaccination center is a location, normally used for nonhealthcare activities, set up for high-volume and high-speed vaccinations during infectious disease emergencies. The high contagiousness and mortality of COVID-19 and the complete lack of population immunity posed an extraordinary threat for global health. The aim of our research was to collect and review previous experiences on mass vaccination centers. On 4 April 2021, we developed a rapid review searching four electronic databases: PubMed/Medline, Scopus, EMBASE, Google Scholar and medRxiv. From a total of 2312 papers, 15 of them were included in the current review. Among them, only one article described a COVID-19 vaccination center; all of the others referred to other vaccinations, in particular influenza. The majority were conducted in the United States, and were simulations or single-day experiences to practice a mass vaccination after bioterrorist attacks. Indeed, all of them were published after September 11 attacks. Regarding staff, timing and performance, the data were highly heterogenous. Several studies used as a model the Center for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. Results highlighted the differences around the definition, layout and management of a mass vaccination center, but some aspects can be considered as a core aspect. In light of this, we suggested a potential definition. The current review answers to the urgency of organizing a mass vaccination center during the COVID-19 pandemic, highlighting the most important organizational aspects that should be considered in the planning.

16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(8)2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194649

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a novel infectious disease which has rapidly spread around the globe, disrupting several aspects of public life over the past year. After numerous infection clusters emerged among travelers hosted in ski resorts in early 2020, several European countries closed ski areas. These measures were mostly upheld throughout the 2020 and 2021 winter season, generating significant economic loss for mountain communities. The aim of this rapid systematic review was to explore the association between recreational skiing and the spread of COVID-19. This review was conducted according to the WHO practical guidelines on rapid reviews and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. PubMed, Scopus, MedRxiv and Promed-mail were screened to identify relevant scientific and grey literature published since the emergence of COVID-19. Among the 11 articles included, seven focused on cases recorded during the first epidemic wave, when COVID-19 containment measures were not yet mandatory. Most infection clusters could be directly linked to public gatherings which took place without the enforcement of restrictions. There is currently no evidence to suggest an association between COVID-19 spread and recreational skiing. It may be reasonable to consider the reopening of ski areas in compliance with strict rules and preventive measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Skiing , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Acta Biomed ; 91(9-S): 7-18, 2020 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-671594

ABSTRACT

We analyzed the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic in 9 metropolitan regions of the world with similar socio-demographic characteristics, daytime commuting population and business activities: the New York State, Bruxelles-Capital, the Community of Madrid, Catalonia, the Île-de-France Region, the Greater London county, Stockholms län, Hovedstaden (Copenhagen) and the Lombardy Region. The Lombardy region reported the highest COVID-19 crude mortality rate (141.0 x 100,000) 70-days after the onset of the epidemic, followed by the Community of Madrid (132.8 x 100,000) New York State (120.7 x 100,000). The large variation in COVID-19 mortality and case-fatality rates for COVID-19 in different age strata suggested a more accurate analysis and interpretation of the epidemic dynamics after standardization of the rates by age. The share of elder populations (>70 years) over total population varies widely in the considered study settings, ranging from 6.9% in Catalonia to 17.0% in Lombardy. When taking age distribution into consideration the highest standardized mortality rate was observed in the State of New York (257.9 x 100,000); with figures in most of the European regions concentrated between 123.3 x 100,000 in Greater London and 177.7 x 100,000 in Bruxelles-Capital, lower in French and Danish regions. We also report and critical appraise, when available, COVID-19 mortality figures in capital cities, nursing homes, as well as excess mortality at country level. Our data raise awareness on the need for a more in-depth epidemiological analysis of the current COVID-19 public health emergency that further explores COVID-19 mortality determinants associated with health services delivery, community-level healthcare, testing approaches and characteristics of surveillance systems, including classification of COVID-19 deaths.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Acta Biomed ; 91(2): 23-30, 2020 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-301071

ABSTRACT

We analyzed the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic in 6 metropolitan regions with similar demographic characteristics, daytime commuting population and business activities: the New York metropolitan area, the Île-de-France region, the Greater London county, Bruxelles-Capital, the Community of Madrid and the Lombardy region. The highest mortality rates 30-days after the onset of the epidemic were recorded in New York (81.2 x 100,000) and Madrid (77.1 x 100,000). Lombardy mortality rate is below average (41.4 per 100,000), and it is the only situation in which the capital of the region (Milan) has not been heavily impacted by the epidemic wave. Our study analyzed the role played by containment measures and the positive contribution offered by the hospital care system. (www.actabiomedica.it).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , COVID-19 , Cities , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Hospitals , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Urban Health
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