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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(13)2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288807

ABSTRACT

External factors, such as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), can lead to cancellations and backlogs of cancer surgeries. The effects of these delays are unclear. This study summarised the evidence surrounding expectant management, delay radical prostatectomy (RP), and neoadjuvant hormone therapy (NHT) compared to immediate RP. MEDLINE and EMBASE was searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised controlled studies pertaining to the review question. Risks of biases (RoB) were evaluated using the RoB 2.0 tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. A total of 57 studies were included. Meta-analysis of four RCTs found overall survival and cancer-specific survival were significantly worsened amongst intermediate-risk patients undergoing active monitoring, observation, or watchful waiting but not in low- and high-risk patients. Evidence from 33 observational studies comparing delayed RP and immediate RP is contradictory. However, conservative estimates of delays over 5 months, 4 months, and 30 days for low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk patients, respectively, have been associated with significantly worse pathological and oncological outcomes in individual studies. In 11 RCTs, a 3-month course of NHT has been shown to improve pathological outcomes in most patients, but its effect on oncological outcomes is apparently limited.

2.
World J Urol ; 39(12): 4295-4303, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241604

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the cancellation or deferment of many elective cancer surgeries. We performed a systematic review on the oncological effects of delayed surgery for patients with localised or metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the targeted therapy (TT) era. METHOD: The protocol of this review is registered on PROSPERO(CRD42020190882). A comprehensive literature search was performed on Medline, Embase and Cochrane CENTRAL using MeSH terms and keywords for randomised controlled trials and observational studies on the topic. Risks of biases were assessed using the Cochrane RoB tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. For localised RCC, immediate surgery [including partial nephrectomy (PN) and radical nephrectomy (RN)] and delayed surgery [including active surveillance (AS) and delayed intervention (DI)] were compared. For metastatic RCC, upfront versus deferred cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN) were compared. RESULTS: Eleven studies were included for quantitative analysis. Delayed surgery was significantly associated with worse cancer-specific survival (HR 1.67, 95% CI 1.23-2.27, p < 0.01) in T1a RCC, but no significant difference was noted for overall survival. For localised ≥ T1b RCC, there were insufficient data for meta-analysis and the results from the individual reports were contradictory. For metastatic RCC, upfront TT followed by deferred CN was associated with better overall survival when compared to upfront CN followed by deferred TT (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.43-0.86, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Noting potential selection bias, there is insufficient evidence to support the notion that delayed surgery is safe in localised RCC. For metastatic RCC, upfront TT followed by deferred CN should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/mortality , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Kidney Neoplasms/mortality , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Time-to-Treatment , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Nephrectomy , Survival Rate
3.
Urologia ; 88(4): 298-305, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226830

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The current scenario of the COVID-19 pandemic is significantly different from that of the first, emergency phase. Several countries in the world are experiencing a second, or even a third, wave of contagion, while awaiting the effects of mass vaccination campaigns. The aim of this report was to provide an update of previously released recommendations on prioritization and restructuring of urological activities. METHODS: A large group of Italian urologists directly involved in the reorganization of their urological wards during the first and second phase of the pandemic agreed on a set of updated recommendations for current urology practice. RESULTS: The updated recommendations included strategies for the prioritization of both surgical and outpatient activities, implementation of perioperative pathways for patients scheduled for elective surgery, management of urological conditions in infected patients. Future scenarios with possible implementation of telehealth and reshaping of clinical practice following the effects of vaccination are also discussed. CONCLUSION: The present update may be a valid tool to be used in the clinical practice, may provide useful recommendations for national and international urological societies, and may be a cornerstone for further discussion on the topic, also considering further evolution of the pandemic after the recently initiated mass vaccination campaigns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Urology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization Programs , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Urologic Surgical Procedures
5.
Minerva Urol Nefrol ; 72(3): 376-383, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-616576

ABSTRACT

The public health emergency caused by the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in a significant reallocation of health resources with a consequent reorganization of the clinical activities also in several urological centers. A panel of Italian urologists has agreed on a set of recommendations on pathways of pre-, intra- and post-operative care for urological patients undergoing urgent procedures or non-deferrable oncological interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Simplification of the diagnostic and staging pathway has to be prioritized in order to reduce hospital visits and consequently the risk of contagion. In absence of strict uniform regulations that impose the implementation of nasopharyngeal swabs, we recommend that an accurate triage for COVID-19 symptoms be performed both by telephone at home before hospitalization and at the time of hospitalization. We recommend that during hospital stay patients should be provided with as many instructions as possible to facilitate their return to, and stay at, home. Patients should be discharged under stable good conditions in order to minimize the risk of readmission. It is advisable to reduce or reschedule post-discharge controls and implement an adequate system of communication for telemonitoring discharged patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Critical Pathways/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Urologic Diseases/surgery , Urology , COVID-19 , Elective Surgical Procedures , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Perioperative Care , Public Health , Triage , Urologic Neoplasms/surgery , Urologic Surgical Procedures , Urologists
6.
Eur Urol ; 78(6): 786-811, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-603742

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused increased interest in the application of telehealth to provide care without exposing patients and physicians to the risk of contagion. The urological literature on the topic is sparse. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of the literature and evaluate all the available studies on urological applications of telehealth. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: After registration on PROSPERO, we searched PubMed and Scopus databases to collect any kind of studies evaluating any telehealth interventions in any urological conditions. The National Toxicology Program/Office of Health Assessment and Translation Risk of Bias Rating Tool for Human and Animal Studies was used to estimate the risk of bias. A narrative synthesis was performed. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: We identified 45 studies (11 concerning prostate cancer [PCa], three hematuria management, six urinary stones, 14 urinary incontinence [UI], five urinary tract infections [UTIs], and six other conditions), including 12 randomized controlled trials. The available literature indicates that telemedicine has been implemented successfully in several common clinical scenarios, including the decision-making process following a diagnosis of nonmetastatic PCa, follow-up care of patients with localized PCa after curative treatments, initial diagnosis of hematuria, management diagnosis and follow-up care of uncomplicated urinary stones and uncomplicated UTIs, and initial evaluation, behavioral therapies, and pelvic floor muscle training in UI patients, as well as follow-up care after surgical treatments of stress urinary incontinence or pelvic organ prolapse. The methodological quality of most of the reports was good. CONCLUSIONS: Telehealth has been implemented successfully in selected patients with PCa, UI, pelvic organ prolapse, uncomplicated urinary stones, and UTIs. Many urological conditions are suitable for telehealth, but more studies are needed on other highly prevalent urological malignant and benign conditions. Likely, the COVID-19 pandemic will give a significant boost to the use of telemedicine. More robust data on long-term efficacy, safety, and health economics are necessary. PATIENT SUMMARY: The diffusion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections has recently increased the interest in telehealth, which is the adoption of telecommunication to deliver any health care activity. The available literature indicates that telemedicine has been adopted successfully in selected patients with several common clinical urological conditions, including prostate cancer, uncomplicated urinary stones, uncomplicated urinary infections, urinary incontinence, or pelvic organ prolapse. Likely, the COVID-19 pandemic will give a significant boost to the use of telemedicine, but more robust data on long-term efficacy, safety, and costs are necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prostatic Neoplasms/therapy , Telemedicine , Urology , Decision Making , Hematuria/etiology , Humans , Male , Pelvic Organ Prolapse/therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Urinary Calculi/diagnosis , Urinary Calculi/therapy , Urinary Incontinence/therapy , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy
7.
Eur Urol Focus ; 6(5): 1058-1069, 2020 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-548746

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic raised concerns about the safety of laparoscopy due to the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) diffusion in surgical smoke. Although no case of SARS-CoV-2 contagion related to surgical smoke has been reported, several international surgical societies recommended caution or even discouraged the use of a laparoscopic approach. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of virus spread due to surgical smoke during surgical procedures. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We searched PubMed and Scopus for eligible studies, including clinical and preclinical studies assessing the presence of any virus in the surgical smoke from any surgical procedure or experimental model. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: We identified 24 studies. No study was found investigating SARS-CoV-2 or any other coronavirus. About other viruses, hepatitis B virus was identified in the surgical smoke collected during different laparoscopic surgeries (colorectal resections, gastrectomies, and hepatic wedge resections). Other clinical studies suggested a consistent risk of transmission for human papillomavirus (HPV) in the surgical treatments of HPV-related disease (mainly genital warts, laryngeal papillomas, or cutaneous lesions). Preclinical studies showed conflicting results, but HPV was shown to have a high risk of transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Although all the available data come from different viruses, considering that the SARS-CoV-2 virus has been shown in blood and stools, the theoretical risk of virus diffusion through surgical smoke cannot be excluded. Specific clinical studies are needed to understand the effective presence of the virus in the surgical smoke of different surgical procedures and its concentration. Meanwhile, adoption of all the required protective strategies, including preoperative patient nasopharyngeal swab for COVID-19, seems mandatory. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this systematic review, we looked at the risk of virus spread from surgical smoke exposure during surgery. Although no study was found investigating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or any other coronavirus, we found that the theoretical risk of virus diffusion through surgical smoke cannot be excluded.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Hepatitis B virus , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Laparoscopy , Papillomaviridae , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Smoke , COVID-19 , Colectomy , Condylomata Acuminata/surgery , Condylomata Acuminata/virology , Gastrectomy , Hepatectomy , Humans , Laryngeal Neoplasms/surgery , Laryngeal Neoplasms/virology , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Pandemics , Papilloma/surgery , Papilloma/virology , Papillomavirus Infections , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Warts/surgery , Warts/virology
9.
Eur Urol ; 78(1): 21-28, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-125264

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is unlike anything seen before by modern science-based medicine. Health systems across the world are struggling to manage it. Added to this struggle are the effects of social confinement and isolation. This brings into question whether the latest guidelines are relevant in this crisis. We aim to support urologists in this difficult situation by providing tools that can facilitate decision making, and to minimise the impact and risks for both patients and health professionals delivering urological care, whenever possible. We hope that the revised recommendations will assist urologist surgeons across the globe to guide the management of urological conditions during the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Management , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Societies, Medical , Urologic Diseases/therapy , Urology/standards , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Europe , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Urologic Diseases/complications , Urologic Diseases/diagnosis
10.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 3(3): 259-261, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47181
11.
Minerva Urol Nefrol ; 72(3): 369-375, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-13924

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and the disease it causes, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is generating a rapid and tragic health emergency in Italy due to the need to provide assistance to an overwhelming number of infected patients and, at the same time, treat all the non-deferrable oncological and benign conditions. A panel of Italian urologists has agreed on possible strategies for the reorganization of urological routine practice and on a set of recommendations that should facilitate the process of rescheduling both surgical and outpatient activities during the COVID-19 pandemic and in the subsequent phases. This document could be a valid tool to be used in routine clinical practice and, possibly, a cornerstone for further discussion on the topic also considering the further evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic. It also may provide useful recommendations for national and international urological societies in a condition of emergency.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Urologic Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Anesthesiology , COVID-19 , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Italy , Patient Care Team , Patient Safety , Urologic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Urologists , Urology
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