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1.
Vaccines ; 10(4):582, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1810352

ABSTRACT

Background: Seasonal influenza can cause serious morbidity, mortality, and financial burden in pediatric and adult populations. The influenza vaccine (IV) is considered the most effective way to prevent influenza and influenza-like-illness (ILI) complications. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of the IV in a cohort of healthy children in Italy. Methods: From the Pedianet database, all healthy children aged six months–14 years between 2009–2019 were enrolled. Cox proportional-hazards models were fitted to estimate hazard ratios and the 95% confidence interval for the association between IV exposure during each season of interest (from October to April of each year) with incident influenza/ILI. Exposure was considered as a time-varying variable. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was calculated as (1-HR) × 100. The additive and prolonged effects of IV were evaluated across the seasons. Results: We found a high IV effectiveness among healthy children. No additional or prolonged effects were found. Conclusion: Our data indicates that IV was effective in preventing influenza/ILI in healthy children. Therefore, IV should be encouraged and provided free of charge to healthy children in all the Italian regions every year, reducing disease spread and lowering the burden on the pediatric population.

2.
Children ; 9(4):451, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1762221

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies has been approved in fragile populations, including kidney transplant recipients, who are at risk of developing severe COVID-19. Sotrovimab is the only currently available anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing monoclonal antibody with activity against the new Omicron variant of concern. While sotrovimab has been approved in adolescents and adults, studies regarding its efficacy and safety in children aged less than 12 years old and weighing less than 40 kg are still lacking. Here, we report a first case of a child, who was treated early with sotrovimab after a kidney transplant. Case Report: At the end of January 2022, a 11-year-old male child underwent a deceased-donor kidney transplant and became infected with SARS-CoV-2 during the first day after surgery. Due to the increased risk of developing severe COVID-19, based on the predominance of Omicron and the patient's renal function, the child was treated with sotrovimab. The clinical course was successful and no adverse reactions were reported. Conclusions: For the first time, we report the well-tolerated use of sotrovimab in children under 12 years old. As the pandemic affects children across the globe, urgent data on sotrovimab dosing in children with a higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 are needed.

3.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 815857, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715030

ABSTRACT

Background: To date, there's no evidence of an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection or more severe COVID-19 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, whether COVID-19 alters the clinical course of IBD or whether IBD treatment affects the immunological response to SARS-CoV-2 is still under investigation, especially in children. Aim: To assess the serological response to SARS-CoV-2 in children with IBD, and to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on the clinical course of IBD. Material and Methods: This prospective study enrolled children (0-18 years) followed-up at the University Hospital of Padova for IBD, who acquired a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between 02.2020 and 02.2021. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD IgG titer was evaluated at 3 months after infection and compared to that of a control group of healthy children matched for age, sex, and COVID-19 severity. Results: Twelve children with IBD (M = 5; median age 14 years) contracted COVID-19 during the study period. 11/12 patients were under immunomodulatory treatment (4/12 steroids; 6/12 azathioprine; 3/12 anti-TNFs; 2 vedolizumab; 1 ustekinumab). SARS-CoV-2 infection remained asymptomatic in 4/12 children and caused mild COVID-19 in the remaining 8. Mean anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG S-RBD titer was similar between IBD patients and controls (27.3 ± 43.8 vs. 36.8 ± 35.3 kAU/L, p = ns). No children experienced IBD flares nor required gastroenterological support during the infection period. Discussion: Children with IBD can mount a protective humoral response against SARS-CoV-2, which is comparable to that of their healthy peers regardless of ongoing immunomodulatory treatment. This study also supports the favorable course of PIBD during COVID-19 and vice-versa.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308828

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite SARS-CoV-2 immunizations have started in most countries, children are not currently included in the vaccination programs, thus it remains crucial to define their anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune response in order to minimize the risk for other epidemic waves. This study seeks to provide a description of the virology ad anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity in children with distinct symptomatology. METHODS: Between March and July 2020, we recruited 15 SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic (AS) and 51 symptomatic children (SY), stratified according to WHO clinical classification. We measured SARS-CoV-2 viral load using ddPCR and qPCR in longitudinally collected nasopharyngeal swabs samples. To define anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies we measured neutralization activity and total IgG load (Diasorin). We also evaluated antigen-specific B and CD8+T-cells, using a labelled S1+S2 protein and ICAM expression, respectively. Plasma protein profiling was performed with Olink. RESULTS: Virological profiling showed that AS had lower viral load at diagnosis (p=0.004) and faster virus clearance (p=0.0002) compared to SY. Anti-SARS CoV-2 humoral and cellular response did not appear to be associated with the presence of symptoms. AS and SY showed similar titers of SARS-CoV-2 IgG, levels of neutralizing activity, and frequency of Ag-specific B and CD8+T-cells. Whereas pro-inflammatory plasma protein profile was associated to symptomatology. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral and cellular response with any regards to symptomatology, suggesting the ability of both SY and AS to contribute towards herd immunity. The virological profiling of AS suggested that they have lower virus load associated with faster virus clearance.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308827

ABSTRACT

As the global COVID-19 pandemic progresses and with the school reopening, it is paramount to gain knowledge on adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in children in order to define possible immunization strategies and reconsider pandemic control measures. We analyzed anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (Ab) and their neutralizing activity (PRNT) in 42 COVID-19-infected children 7 days after symptoms onset. Individuals with specific humoral responses presented faster virus clearance, and lower viral load associated to a reduced in vitro infectivity. We demonstrated that the frequencies of SARS-CoV-2 specific CD4-CD40L+ T-cells and Spike specific B-cells were associated with the anti-SARS-CoV-2 Ab and the magnitude of neutralizing activity. The plasma proteome confirmed the association between cellular and humoral SARS-CoV-2 immunity, with PRNT+ patients showing higher viral signal transduction molecules (SLAMF1, CD244, CLEC4G). This work shed lights on cellular and humoral anti-SARS-CoV-2 responses in children which may drive future vaccination trials endpoints and quarantine measures policies.Funding: This work was made possible by support from Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital ricerca corrente 2020 to NC and ricerca corrente 2019 to PP, by PENTA and by Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Padova e Rovigo, Progetti di Ricerca Covid-19 (ADR participant).Conflict of Interest: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethical Approval: Local ethical committee approved the study and written informed consent was obtained from all participants or legal guardians.

6.
SSRN;
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-326281

ABSTRACT

Background: The omicron variant has spread globally at unprecedented speed due to a combination of epidemiological and virological factors that still need to be fully unraveled. Although boosting of immunity in vaccinated populations has proven to increase the antibody recognition for this variant, we still ignore the impact that this intervention has on protection from infection and disease. Methods: Relying on a live virus neutralization assay and a commercial chemiluminescence immunoassay targeting antibodies against the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the parental Spike protein, we tested the efficacy of homologous and heterologous booster vaccinations in inducing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 parental, delta, beta and omicron variants by history of SARS-CoV-2 infection and age of population. Booster vaccination was performed with the BNT126b2 vaccine, while individuals who underwent heterologous booster vaccination were primed with the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccine. Moreover, we studied the impact that prior immunity has on vaccination, in mildly infected individuals who received 2-3 doses of the BNT1262b vaccine at different times after infection. Children previously infected with delta were evaluated 3·5 months after infection. To translate neutralization data into estimates of protection, we relied on published predictive models and inferred variant-specific thresholds of protection for both assays and assessed the accuracy of the commercial assay at identifying highly protected individuals. Findings: We confirm that boosting significantly restores the ability of antibodies to recognize omicron and other variants, and that the homologous protocol with the BNT126b2 vaccine achieves higher and more broadly reactive neutralizing antibody titers, than those observed among individuals who crossed-over vaccines. On the other hand, mild prior infection with the parental virus and subsequent homologous vaccination with BNT126b2 induces high antibody levels, but with moderate breadth of response, while children aged 5-11 show negligible neutralizing antibodies against the omicron variant few months from infection. Neutralizing and binding antibodies correlate across all variants and allow the identification of variant-specific anti-RBD thresholds for 90% protection efficacy. Interpretation: Boosting with the BNT126b2 vaccine is an immediate and effective measure to increase the protection against omicron, in naïve, as well as in previously infected individuals. Identification through serological commercial assays of thresholds of protection against the omicron and delta variants is a crucial step towards large-scale serosurveys to finely assess infection risk both at population and individual level.

7.
Children (Basel) ; 8(12)2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554854

ABSTRACT

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in infants worldwide. The global direct medical cost associated with RSV LRTIs reaches billions of dollars, with the highest burden in low-middle-income countries. Many efforts have been devoted to improving its prevention and management, including both non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical strategies, often with limited routine use in high-income countries due to high costs. During the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, a dramatic decrease in RSV infections (up to 70-90%) has been reported around the globe, directly related to the implementation of containment measures (face masks, hand hygiene, and social distancing). Primary prevention has demonstrated the highest cost effectiveness ratio in reducing the burden of a respiratory infection such as RSV, never reached before. Thus, we emphasize the importance of non-pharmaceutical preventive hygiene measures that should be implemented and maintained even after the COVID-19 outbreak.

8.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(1): e1-e5, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522380

ABSTRACT

Children, although at lower risk of poor outcomes from COVID-19 relative to adults, still stand to benefit from therapeutic interventions. Understanding of COVID-19 clinical presentation and prognosis in children is essential to optimize therapeutic trials design. This perspective illustrates how to collectively accelerate pediatric COVID-19 therapeutic research and development, based on the experience of the Global Accelerator for Paediatric Formulations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Research , Seizures/drug therapy , Child , Dosage Forms , Drug Compounding , Drug Development , Humans , Needs Assessment , Pharmaceutical Preparations , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 741796, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477826

ABSTRACT

Background: The immune response plays a pivotal role in dictating the clinical outcome in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected adults, but it is still poorly investigated in the pediatric population. Methods: Of 209 enrolled subjects, 155 patients were confirmed by PCR and/or serology as having coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Blood samples were obtained at a median of 2.8 (interquartile, 2.1-3.7) and 6.1 (5.3-7.2) months after baseline (symptom onset and/or first positive virus detection). The immune profiles of activation, senescence, exhaustion, and regulatory cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) were detected by a plaque reduction neutralization test. In available nasopharyngeal swabs at baseline, SARS-CoV-2 levels were quantified by digital droplet PCR (ddPCR). Results: Overall, COVID-19 patients had higher levels of immune activation, exhaustion, and regulatory cells compared to non-COVID-19 subjects. Within the COVID-19 group, activated and senescent cells were higher in adults than in children and inversely correlated with the nAbs levels. Conversely, Tregs and Bregs regulatory cells were higher in COVID-19 children compared to adults and positively correlated with nAbs. Higher immune activation still persisted in adults after 6 months of infection, while children maintained higher levels of regulatory cells. SARS-CoV-2 levels did not differ among age classes. Conclusions: Adults displayed higher immune activation and lower production of anti-SARS-CoV-2 nAbs than children. The different immune response was not related to different viral load. The higher expression of regulatory cells in children may contribute to reduce the immune activation, thus leading to a greater specific response against the virus.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections , B-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules/blood , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load/immunology
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 684760, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389258

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is currently causing hundreds of deaths every day in European countries, mostly in not yet vaccinated elderly. Vaccine shortage poses relevant challenges to health authorities, called to act promptly with a scarcity of data. We modeled the mortality reduction of the elderly according to a schedule of mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine that prioritized first dose administration. For the case study of Italy, we show an increase in protected individuals up to 53.4% and a decrease in deaths up to 19.8% in the cohort of over 80's compared with the standard vaccine recalls after 3 or 4 weeks. This model supports the adoption of vaccination campaigns that prioritize the administration of the first doses in the elderly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Europe , Humans , Italy , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294711

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Compared with adult patients, clinical manifestations of children's coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) are generally perceived as less severe. The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiac involvement in previously healthy children with asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed a cohort of 53 paediatric patients (29 males, 55%), mean age 7.5 ± 4.7 years, who had a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and were asymptomatic or only mildly symptomatic for COVID-19. Patients underwent standard transthoracic echocardiogram and speckle tracking echocardiographic study at least 3 months after diagnosis. Thirty-two age, sex, and body surface area comparable healthy subjects were used as control group. Left ventricular ejection fraction was within normal limits but significantly lower in the cases group compared to controls (62.4 ± 4.1% vs. 65.2 ± 5.5%; P = 0.012). Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (20.1 ± 3 mm vs. 19.8 ± 3.4 mm; P = 0.822) and left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (-21.9 ± 2.4% vs. -22.6 ± 2.5%; P = 0.208) were comparable between the two groups. Regional LV strain analysis showed a significant reduction of the LV mid-wall segments strain among cases compared to controls. Furthermore, in the cases group, there were 14 subjects (26%) with a regional peak systolic strain below -16% (-2.5 Z score in our healthy cohort) in at least two segments. These subjects did not show any difference regarding symptoms or serological findings. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection may affect left ventricular deformation in 26% of children despite an asymptomatic or only mildly symptomatic acute illness. A follow-up is needed to verify the reversibility of these alterations and their impact on long-term outcomes.

12.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 32(8): 1833-1842, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282025

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although SARS-CoV-2 immunizations have started in most countries, children are not currently included in the vaccination programs; thus, it remains crucial to define their anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune response in order to minimize the risk for other epidemic waves. This study sought to provide a description of the virology ad anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity in children with distinct symptomatology. METHODS: Between March and July 2020, we recruited 15 SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic (AS) and 51 symptomatic (SY) children, stratified according to WHO clinical classification. We measured SARS-CoV-2 viral load using ddPCR and qPCR in longitudinally collected nasopharyngeal swab samples. To define anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, we measured neutralization activity and total IgG load (DiaSorin). We also evaluated antigen-specific B and CD8+T cells, using a labeled S1+S2 protein and ICAM expression, respectively. Plasma protein profiling was performed with Olink. RESULTS: Virological profiling showed that AS patients had lower viral load at diagnosis (p = .004) and faster virus clearance (p = .0002) compared with SY patients. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral and cellular response did not appear to be associated with the presence of symptoms. AS and SY patients showed similar titers of SARS-CoV-2 IgG, levels of neutralizing activity, and frequency of Ag-specific B and CD8+ T cells, whereas pro-inflammatory plasma protein profile was found to be associated with symptomatology. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral and cellular response with any regard to symptomatology, suggesting the ability of both SY and AS patients to contribute toward herd immunity. The virological profiling of AS patients suggested that they have lower virus load associated with faster virus clearance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral/blood , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests
13.
Pediatrics ; 148(3)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280670

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 may persist over time; however, knowledge regarding pediatric subjects is limited. METHODS: A single-center, prospective observational study was conducted on 57 family clusters of coronavirus disease 2019, including children of neonatal and pediatric age attending the University Hospital of Padua (Italy). For each patient, blood samples were collected for both the quantification of nAbs through a plaque reduction neutralizing test and the detection of antinucleocapsid-spike protein immunoglobulin G and/or immunoglobulin M. RESULTS: We analyzed 283 blood samples collected from 152 confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 cases (82 parents and 70 children or older siblings of median age of 8 years, interquartile range: 4-13), presenting asymptomatic or with mildly symptomatic disease. Despite the decrease of immunoglobulin G over time, nAbs were found to persist up to 7 to 8 months in children, whereas adults recorded a modest declining trend. Interestingly, children aged <6 years, and, in particular, those aged <3 years, developed higher long-lasting levels of nAbs compared with older siblings and/or adults. CONCLUSIONS: Mild and asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections in family clusters elicited higher nAbs among children.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Cluster Analysis , Data Collection , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Italy , Neutralization Tests , Prospective Studies , Symptom Assessment , Time Factors
14.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 59(8): 1444-1452, 2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186618

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: SARS-CoV-2 serology presents an important role in several aspects of COVID-19 pandemic. Immunoassays performances have to be accurately evaluated and correlated with neutralizing antibodies. We investigated the analytical and clinical performances of a SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG assay, automated on a high throughput platform, and the correlation of the antibodies (Ab) levels with the plaque reduction neutralization (PRNT50) Ab titers. METHODS: A series of 546 samples were evaluated by SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG assay (Snibe diagnostics), including 171 negative and 168 positive SARS-CoV-2 subjects and a further group of 207 subjects of the COVID-19 family clusters follow-up cohort. RESULTS: Assay imprecision ranged from 3.98 to 12.18% being satisfactory at low and medium levels; linearity was excellent in all the measurement range. Considering specimens collected after 14 days post symptoms onset, overall sensitivity and specificity were 99.0 and 92.5%, respectively. A total of 281 leftover samples results of the PRNT50 test were available. An elevated correlation was obtained between the SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG assay and the PRNT50 titer at univariate (ρ=0.689) and multivariate (ρ=0.712) analyses. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD IgG assay shows satisfactory analytical and clinical performances, and a strong correlation with sera neutralizing activity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Neutralization Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Female , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Subunits/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
16.
Cell Rep ; 34(11): 108852, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135278

ABSTRACT

As the global COVID-19 pandemic progresses, it is paramount to gain knowledge on adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in children to define immune correlates of protection upon immunization or infection. We analyzed anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and their neutralizing activity (PRNT) in 66 COVID-19-infected children at 7 (±2) days after symptom onset. Individuals with specific humoral responses presented faster virus clearance and lower viral load associated with a reduced in vitro infectivity. We demonstrated that the frequencies of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+CD40L+ T cells and Spike-specific B cells were associated with the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and the magnitude of neutralizing activity. The plasma proteome confirmed the association between cellular and humoral SARS-CoV-2 immunity, and PRNT+ patients show higher viral signal transduction molecules (SLAMF1, CD244, CLEC4G). This work sheds lights on cellular and humoral anti-SARS-CoV-2 responses in children, which may drive future vaccination trial endpoints and quarantine measures policies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Proteome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Viral Load/immunology
17.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 594831, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972619

ABSTRACT

In the Veneto Region, an exponential spread of patients affected by 2019 novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been observed after February 21st. Since then, we have been evaluating children suspected or confirmed for SARS-CoV-2 infection. A protocol for pediatric hospital reorganization and children management has been developed, since the beginning of the epidemic. A pre-triage area has been created at the immediate entrance of the pediatric emergency room, for all uncritical pediatric patients. According to the epidemiologic and clinical risk factors, all children/adolescents have been addressing to one of the four different pathways created. The strict application of this protocol has been leading to quickly identification, isolation, and management of all positive children, preventing SARS-CoV-2 intrahospital spread.

18.
Eur J Pediatr ; 180(4): 1299-1305, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-866209

ABSTRACT

Between February and May 2020, during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, paediatric emergency departments in 12 European countries were prospectively surveyed on their implementation of SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19) testing and infection control strategies. All participating departments (23) implemented standardised case definitions, testing guidelines, early triage and infection control strategies early in the outbreak. Patient testing criteria initially focused on suspect cases and later began to include screening, mainly for hospital admissions. Long turnaround times for test results likely put additional strain on healthcare resources.Conclusion: Shortening turnaround times for SARS-CoV-2 tests should be a priority. Specific paediatric testing criteria are needed. What is Known: • WHO and public health authorities issued case definitions, testing and infection control recommendations for COVID-19 in January. • SARS-CoV-2 testing was made available across Europe in February. What is New: • Paediatric emergency departments implemented COVID-19-specific procedures rapidly, including case definitions, testing guidelines and early triage. • A third of surveyed departments waited more than 24 h for SARS-CoV-2 test to be reported, resulting in additional strain on resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Adolescent , COVID-19 Testing/standards , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Protocols , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infection Control/standards , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Male , Pediatrics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Prospective Studies , Triage/methods , Triage/standards , Triage/statistics & numerical data
19.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 8(3)2020 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-742764

ABSTRACT

Since February 2020, Italy has been faced with the dramatic spread of novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. This impetuous pandemic infection forced many hospitals to reorganize their healthcare systems. Predicting a rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus within our region, the Department for Women's and Children's Health promptly decided (i) to revise the distribution of the clinical areas in order to create both designated COVID-19 and COVID-19-free areas with their own access, (ii) to reinforce infection prevention control (IPC) measures for all healthcare workers and administrative staff and (iii) to adopt the new "double-gate approach": a phone call pre-triage and nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 detection before the admission of all patients and caregivers. Between 21 February 2020 till 04 May 2020, only seven physicians, two nurses and two of the administrative staff resulted positive, all during the first week of March. No other cases of intra-department infection were documented among the healthcare workers since all the preventive procedures described above were implemented. It is predicted that similar situations can happen again in the future, and thus, it is necessary to be more prepared to deal with them than we were at the beginning of this COVID-19 pandemic.

20.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(1): 1-12, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739642

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND SETTING: Little is known about SARS-CoV-2 impact on some vulnerable subgroups, such as people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). In our study we reviewed the current knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 cases in PLWHA. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Google Scholar databases. Studies reporting data on PLWHA affected by SARS-CoV-2 were considered for inclusion. The aim of this study was the systematic characterization of cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWHA, particularly focusing on age, clinical findings at diagnosis, radiological features, therapeutic management and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Twenty three relevant articles were identified, which reported 164 adults with both HIV and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of those, the large majority were males (120/142, 84.5%), often with one or more comorbidities. Fifteen cases needed intensive care treatment and 16 died. For each group, respectively three patients had underlying comorbidities. There were no studies on children. The included studies were mostly retrospective or case series/reports (19 studies). The overall risk of bias was moderate, due to the study types and characteristics. CONCLUSION: It is still unclear if HIV infection may influence SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease course, however some PLWHA and particularly males affected by ARV-related complications may be at greater risk of severe Covid-19 course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , HIV Infections/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Comorbidity , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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