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1.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 58, 2022 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770485

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Responding to the COVID-19 pandemic requires safe and efficient testing on a large scale over a prolonged period. Outpatient testing facilities can clinically assess and test symptomatic individuals and test asymptomatic contacts. This study identified the resources required to establish and maintain an Australian general practitioner (GP) led testing facility that combined a respiratory clinic for clinical assessment and testing with a drive-through testing facility. METHODS: Data were taken from clinic administrative records to identify the number of patients tested over the period April-June 2020. An independent auditor's report identified the resources used in establishing, running, and staffing both clinics for the same period. Analyses were performed using the minimum and maximum daily throughput to understand the effect of demand on price per sample collected. RESULTS: The respiratory clinic tested an average of 19 patients per day, at an estimated cost of $340.04 AUD. This varied to $687.99 AUD during the lowest demand scenario, and $281.04 AUD during the high demand scenario. The drive-through clinic tested an average of 47 patients per day, at an estimated cost of $153.57 AUD. This varied to $279.51 AUD during the lowest demand scenario, and $99.92 AUD during the high demand scenario. CONCLUSION: This study provides insight into the cost of testing at a drive through and respiratory clinic in Australia. The evidence highlights importance of considering variation in demand and the impact on efficiency, particularly where resource use is fixed in the short term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , General Practice , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics
2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High vaccine uptake requires strong public support, acceptance, and willingness. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study gathered survey data every four weeks between 1 October 2020 and 9 November 2021 in Victoria, Australia. Data were analysed for 686 participants aged 18 years and older. RESULTS: Vaccine intention in our cohort increased from 60% in October 2020 to 99% in November 2021. Vaccine intention increased in all demographics, but longitudinal trends in vaccine intention differed by age, employment as a healthcare worker, presence of children in the household, and highest qualification attained. Acceptance of vaccine mandates increased from 50% in October 2020 to 71% in November 2021. Acceptance of vaccine mandates increased in all age groups except 18-25 years; acceptance also varied by gender and highest qualification attained. The main reasons for not intending to be vaccinated included safety concerns, including blood clots, and vaccine efficacy. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccination campaigns should be informed by understanding of the sociodemographic drivers of vaccine acceptance to enable socially and culturally relevant guidance and ensure equitable vaccine coverage. Vaccination policies should be applied judiciously to avoid polarisation.

3.
Med J Aust ; 215(6): 273-278, 2021 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319820

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the concordance and acceptability of saliva testing with standard-of-care oropharyngeal and bilateral deep nasal swab testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in children and in general practice. DESIGN: Prospective multicentre diagnostic validation study. SETTING: Royal Children's Hospital, and two general practices (cohealth, West Melbourne; Cirqit Health, Altona North) in Melbourne, July-October 2020. PARTICIPANTS: 1050 people who provided paired saliva and oropharyngeal-nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 testing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Numbers of cases in which SARS-CoV-2 was detected in either specimen type by real-time polymerase chain reaction; concordance of results for paired specimens; positive percent agreement (PPA) for virus detection, by specimen type. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 54 of 1050 people with assessable specimens (5%), including 19 cases (35%) in which both specimens were positive. The overall PPA was 72% (95% CI, 58-84%) for saliva and 63% (95% CI, 49-76%) for oropharyngeal-nasal swabs. For the 35 positive specimens from people aged 10 years or more, PPA was 86% (95% CI, 70-95%) for saliva and 63% (95% CI, 45-79%) for oropharyngeal-nasal swabs. Adding saliva testing to standard-of-care oropharyngeal-nasal swab testing increased overall case detection by 59% (95% CI, 29-95%). Providing saliva was preferred to an oropharyngeal-nasal swab by most participants (75%), including 141 of 153 children under 10 years of age (92%). CONCLUSION: In children over 10 years of age and adults, saliva testing alone may be suitable for SARS-CoV-2 detection, while for children under 10, saliva testing may be suitable as an adjunct to oropharyngeal-nasal swab testing for increasing case detection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/virology , Young Adult
4.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 9: 100115, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Australia, COVID-19 diagnosis relies on RT-PCR testing which is relatively costly and time-consuming. To date, few studies have assessed the performance and implementation of rapid antigen-based SARS-CoV-2 testing in a setting with a low prevalence of COVID-19 infections, such as Australia. METHODS: This study recruited participants presenting for COVID-19 testing at three Melbourne metropolitan hospitals during a period of low COVID-19 prevalence. The Abbott PanBioTM COVID-19 Ag point-of-care test was performed alongside RT-PCR. In addition, participants with COVID-19 notified to the Victorian Government were invited to provide additional swabs to aid validation. Implementation challenges were also documented. FINDINGS: The specificity of the Abbott PanBioTM COVID-19 Ag test was 99.96% (95% CI 99.73 - 100%). Sensitivity amongst participants with RT-PCR-confirmed infection was dependent upon the duration of symptoms reported, ranging from 77.3% (duration 1 to 33 days) to 100% in those within seven days of symptom onset. A range of implementation challenges were identified which may inform future COVID-19 testing strategies in a low prevalence setting. INTERPRETATION: Given the high specificity, antigen-based tests may be most useful in rapidly triaging public health and hospital resources while expediting confirmatory RT-PCR testing. Considering the limitations in test sensitivity and the potential for rapid transmission in susceptible populations, particularly in hospital settings, careful consideration is required for implementation of antigen testing in a low prevalence setting. FUNDING: This work was funded by the Victorian Department of Health and Human Services. The funder was not involved in data analysis or manuscript preparation.

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