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1.
Trials ; 23(1):782, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2029731

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: At present, vaccines form the only mode of prophylaxis against COVID-19. The time needed to achieve mass global vaccination and the emergence of new variants warrants continued research into other COVID-19 prevention strategies. The severity of COVID-19 infection is thought to be associated with the initial viral load, and for infection to occur, viruses including SARS-CoV-2 must first penetrate the respiratory mucus and attach to the host cell surface receptors. Carrageenan, a sulphated polysaccharide extracted from red edible seaweed, has shown efficacy against a wide range of viruses in clinical trials through the prevention of viral entry into respiratory host cells. Carrageenan has also demonstrated in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A single-centre, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase III trial was designed. Participants randomised in a 1:1 allocation to either the treatment arm, verum Coldamaris plus (1.2 mg iota-carrageenan (Carragelose®), 0.4 mg kappa-carrageenan, 0.5% sodium chloride and purified water), or placebo arm, Coldamaris sine (0.5% sodium chloride) spray applied daily to their nose and throat for 8 weeks, while completing a daily symptom tracker questionnaire for a total of 10 weeks. PRIMARY OUTCOME: Acquisition of COVID-19 infection as confirmed by a positive PCR swab taken at symptom onset or seroconversion during the study. Secondary outcomes include symptom type, severity and duration, subsequent familial/household COVID-19 infection and infection with non-COVID-19 upper respiratory tract infections. A within-trial economic evaluation will be undertaken, with effects expressed as quality-adjusted life years. DISCUSSION: This is a single-centre, phase III, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess whether carrageenan nasal and throat spray reduces the risk of development and severity of COVID-19. If proven effective, the self-administered prophylactic spray would have wider utility for key workers and the general population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04590365;ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04590365. Registered on 19 October 2020.

2.
Partners in Research for Development ; 4:18-19, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1957982

ABSTRACT

It is reported that the rapid, targeted partnership response from the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) is supporting research projects that build resilience and respond to challenges the COVID-19 pandemic has presented to agriculture in partner countries. The ACIAR Alumni Research Support Facility (ARSF) has supported 66 alumni to undertake research to help with the pandemic recovery. Starting in 2020 and continuing in 2021, the ARSF projects cover a range of topics designed to address issues of importance to communities in the partner countries.

3.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927882

ABSTRACT

Background: Management of acute respiratory distress in patients with COVID-19 has changed over the course of the pandemic. The impact of length of time on High Flow Nasal Cannula (HFNC) prior to mechanical ventilation is unknown. Methods: This is a multi-center retrospective chart review of COVID-positive hospitalized patients, who received mechanical ventilation from March 2020- October 2021. The primary outcome variable was survival to discharge, variables collated included patient demographics, vital signs, comorbidities, including the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), as well as critical care therapeutic and diagnostic interventions. Results: All COVID-19 positive patients, with respiratory failure who underwent mechanical ventilation across study sites were included (N=709), of which 318 (45%) were accrued in March-May 2020. Patients had an average age of 62 (SD=15) years, majority male (67%), and an average CCI of 3.65 (SD=3.11). The unadjusted mortality for mechanically ventilated patients in our cohort was 56% (n=397). 169 (54%) of the remaining 312 were discharged home. Mortality varied over the study period, with the highest noted Nov 1st 2020 - Jan.31st 2021 (N=141, 69.8%) compared to other time periods (47-53%, p<0.0001). Notably at this time patients had the longest duration of pre-intubation high-flow oxygen support (mean 6.3 days vs. 4.2 days overall), the highest rate of Non-Invasiave Positive Pressure Ventilation (NIPPV) utilization (49% vs. 33% overall) and the lowest PaO2 to FiO2 ratio (mean 125 vs. 139 overall) (p<0.01). Duration of HFNC was independently associated with a higher risk of post-intubation mortality: OR (95% CI) = 3.1 (1.8-5.4) for 3-7 days, 7.2 (3.8-13.7) for ≥8 days (reference: 1-2 days) (p<0.0001) (accounting for age, gender, BMI and CCI). Furthermore, the magnitude of this association was found to vary between age groups: for 3-7 days duration (ref: 1-2 days), OR = 4.8 (1.9 - 12.1) in ≥65 years old vs. 2.1 (1.0 - 4.6) in <65 years old. Notably, at 8 days or more of HFNC, the association with age was reversed for ≥8 days duration (ref: 1-2 days): OR = 5.3 (2.0 - 13.9) in ≥65 years old vs. 8.6 (3.7 - 20.0) for <65 years old. Conclusion: The prolonged use of high flow oxygenation prior to mechanical intubation increased the risk of mortality, particularly in young patients use of HFNC for 8 days or more was associated with significantly higher mortality.

4.
Diabetic Medicine ; 39(SUPPL 1):13, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1868593

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In this study we set out to determine the relative likelihood of death following covid-19 infection in people with type 2 diabetes when compared to those without type 2 diabetes. Methods: Analysis of digital health record data was performed relating to people living in the Greater Manchester conurbation (population 2.82 million) who had a recorded diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and subsequent covid-19 confirmed infection. Each individual with type 2 diabetes (n = 13,807) was matched with three covid-19 infected non-diabetes controls (n = 39583). Results: For type 2 diabetes individuals, their mortality rate after a covid-19 positive test was 7.7% vs 6.0% in matched controls;the relative risk (RR) of death was 1.28. From univariate analysis performed within type 2 diabetes individuals, likelihood of death following covid-19 recorded infection was lower in people taking metformin, sodium glucose cotransporter-inhibitor 2(SGLT-2i) or glucagon-like peptide-1( GLP-1) agonist. A lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was associated with a higher mortality rate, as was hypertension history. Likelihood of death following covid-19 infection was also higher in those people with diagnosis of COPD/severe enduring mental illness, and in people taking aspirin/ clopidogrel/insulin. Smoking in people with type 2 diabetes significantly increased mortality rate. In combined analysis of type 2 diabetes patients/controls, multiple regression modelling indicated that factors independently relating to higher likelihood of death (accounting for 26% of variance) were: type 2 diabetes/age/ malegender/social deprivation (higher Townsend index). Conclusion: Following confirmed infection with covid- 19 a number of factors are associated with mortality in type 2 diabetes individuals. Prescription of metformin, SGLT-2is or GLP-1 agonists + non-smoking status associated with reduced risk of death for people with type 2 diabetes. Age/male sex/social disadvantage associated with an increased risk of death.

5.
Journal of Diabetes Nursing ; 26(1):13, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1857258
6.
Journal of Diabetes Nursing ; 26(1):226, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1801413

ABSTRACT

One in three individuals have a >10% reduction in time in range in the week following COVID-19 vaccination.

7.
Diabetes Ther ; 13(5): 1037-1051, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787895

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Research is ongoing to increase our understanding of how much a previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects someone's risk of becoming seriously unwell following a COVID-19 infection. In this study we set out to determine the relative likelihood of death following COVID-19 infection in people with T2DM when compared to those without T2DM. This was conducted as an urban population study and based in the UK. METHODS: Analysis of electronic health record data was performed relating to people living in the Greater Manchester conurbation (population 2.82 million) who had a recorded diagnosis of T2DM and subsequent COVID-19 confirmed infection. Each individual with T2DM (n = 13,807) was matched with three COVID-19-infected non-diabetes controls (n = 39,583). Data were extracted from the Greater Manchester Care Record (GMCR) database for the period 1 January 2020 to 30 June 2021. Social disadvantage was assessed through Townsend scores. Death rates were compared in people with T2DM to their respective non-diabetes controls; potential predictive factors influencing the relative likelihood of admission were ascertained using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: For individuals with T2DM, their mortality rate after a COVID-19 positive test was 7.7% vs 6.0% in matched controls; the relative risk (RR) of death was 1.28. From univariate analysis performed within the group of individuals with T2DM, the likelihood of death following a COVID-19 recorded infection was lower in people taking metformin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) or a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonist. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and hypertension were associated with increased mortality and had odds ratios of 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.96-0.97) and 1.92 (95% confidence interval 1.68-2.20), respectively. Likelihood of death following a COVID-19 infection was also higher in those people with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or severe enduring mental illness but not with asthma, and in people taking aspirin/clopidogrel/insulin. Smoking in people with T2DM significantly increased mortality rate (odds ratio of 1.46; 95% confidence interval 1.29-1.65). In a combined analysis of patients with T2DM and controls, multiple regression modelling indicated that the factors independently relating to a higher likelihood of death (accounting for 26% of variance) were T2DM, age, male gender and social deprivation (higher Townsend score). CONCLUSION: Following confirmed infection with COVID-19 a number of factors are associated with mortality in individuals with T2DM. Prescription of metformin, SGLT2is or GLP-1 agonists and non-smoking status appeared to be associated with a reduced the risk of death for people with T2DM. Age, male sex and social disadvantage are associated with an increased risk of death.

9.
Diabetes Ther ; 13(5): 1007-1021, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756922

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since early 2020 the whole world has been challenged by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the associated global pandemic (Covid-19). People with diabetes are particularly at high risk of becoming seriously unwell after contracting this virus. METHODS: This population-based study included people living in the Greater Manchester conurbation who had a recorded diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and subsequent Covid-19 infection. Each individual with T1DM (n = 862) or T2DM (n = 13,225) was matched with three Covid-19-infected non-diabetes controls. RESULTS: For individuals with T1DM, hospital admission rate in the first 28 days after a positive Covid-19 test was 10% vs 4.7% in age/gender-matched controls [relative risk (RR) 2.1]. For individuals with T2DM, hospital admission rate after a positive Covid-19 test was 16.3% vs 11.6% in age/gender-matched controls (RR 1.4). The average Townsend score was higher in T2DM (1.8) vs matched controls (0.4), with a higher proportion of people with T2DM observed in the top two quintiles of greatest disadvantage (p < 0.001). For Covid-19-infected individuals with T1DM, factors influencing admission likelihood included age, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, HbA1c, low HDL-cholesterol, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and being of African/mixed ethnicity. In Covid-19-infected individuals with T2DM, factors related to a higher admission rate included age, Townsend index, comorbidity with COPD/asthma and severe mental illness (SMI), lower eGFR. Metformin prescription lowered the likelihood. For multivariate analysis in combined individuals with T2DM/controls, factors relating to higher likelihood of admission were having T2DM/age/male gender/diagnosed COPD/diagnosed hypertension/social deprivation (higher Townsend index) and non-white ethnicity (all groups). CONCLUSION: In a UK population we have confirmed a significantly higher likelihood of admission in people with diabetes following Covid-19 infection. A number of factors mediate that increased likelihood of hospital admission. For T2DM, the majority of factors related to increased admission rate are common to the general population but more prevalent in T2DM. There was a protective effect of metformin in people with T2DM.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321814

ABSTRACT

“India fights Corona”, proclaims the media. ‘Stay home’, ‘social distancing’, ‘lock down’ are the phrases ringing in every home. The Corona pandemic has drawn the attention of many scientists to fight against the virus. We report herein, a set of newly identified molecules which can presumably act as potential inhibitors of Covid-19 main protease. A fast mode approach using a combinatorial structure based strategy which includes high throughput virtual screening, molecular docking, water map calculations and data base search was applied to identify these molecules. The PDB structures, 5R82, 6Y2G were used as the basis for this study. Data bases viz., Enamine, Drug Bank, Natural product, Specs and few antiviral drugs were used for screening. Water map analysis yielded insights into the design of more potential molecules. Considering the need of the hour, this study may help in the discovery and development of anti-viral drugs against Covid-19.

11.
Diabet Med ; 39(4): e14774, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583592

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Evidence suggests that some people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) experience temporary instability of blood glucose (BG) levels after COVID-19 vaccination. We aimed to assess this objectively. METHODS: We examined the interstitial glucose profile of 97 consecutive adults (age ≥ 18 years) with T1DM using the FreeStyle Libre® flash glucose monitor in the periods immediately before and after their first COVID-19 vaccination. The primary outcome measure was percentage (%) interstitial glucose readings within the target range 3.9-10 mmol/L for 7 days prior to the vaccination and the 7 days after the vaccination. Data are mean ± standard error. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in the % interstitial glucose on target (3.9-10.0) for the 7 days following vaccination (mean 52.2% ± 2.0%) versus pre-COVID-19 vaccination (mean 55.0% ± 2.0%) (p = 0.030). 58% of individuals with T1DM showed a reduction in the 'time in target range' in the week after vaccination. 30% showed a decrease of time within the target range of over 10%, and 10% showed a decrease in time within target range of over 20%. The change in interstitial glucose proportion on target in the week following vaccination was most pronounced for people taking metformin/dapagliflozin + basal bolus insulin (change -7.6%) and for people with HbA1c below the median (change -5.7%). CONCLUSION: In T1DM, we have shown that initial COVID-19 vaccination can cause temporary perturbation of interstitial glucose, with this effect more pronounced in people talking oral hypoglycaemic medication plus insulin, and when HbA1c is lower.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Glycemic Control , Vaccination , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Glycemic Control/methods , Glycemic Control/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
12.
Journal of College Science Teaching ; 51(1):12-18, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1564161

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic forced higher-education institutions to close campuses and pivot all face-to-face (F2F) instruction online. This transition to Crisis Distance Education (CDE) was unprecedented in scope and speed as it was implemented globally. We surveyed students in a large, introductory-level biology course to understand their opinions about the curricular changes we implemented, usefulness of resources we provided, and the extent to which they felt supported by course personnel during the transition to CDE. The survey included both Likert-scale and open-ended questions. In general, students had a positive opinion of the transition, particularly the option for synchronous or asynchronous participation in the remainder of the course. Students valued opportunities to communicate with course personnel, but gave mixed responses for whether more or less communication was desired. Students reported high use of graded resources, but low use of ungraded resources. Our results suggest that when faced with an unexpected transition to CDE, it is important to maintain regular, supportive, and synchronous communication, but also remain flexible for asynchronous participation. Grades and immediate point rewards were important factors motivating student use of e-resources and maintaining student engagement. These factors are important considerations when shifting instruction to CDE for a limited or extended time.

15.
Br J Anaesth ; 127(2): 205-214, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has heavily impacted elective and emergency surgery around the world. We aimed to confirm the incidence of perioperative severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and associated mortality after surgery. METHODS: Analysis of routine electronic health record data from NHS hospitals in England. We extracted data from Hospital Episode Statistics in England describing adult patients undergoing surgery between January 1, 2020 and February 28, 2021. The exposure was SARS-CoV-2 infection defined by International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 codes. The primary outcome measure was 90 day in-hospital mortality. Data were analysed using multivariable logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index, Index of Multiple Deprivation, presence of cancer, surgical procedure type and admission acuity. Results are presented as n (%) and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: We identified 2 666 978 patients undergoing surgery of whom 28 777 (1.1%) had SARS-CoV-2 infection. In total, 26 364 (1.0%) patients died in hospital. SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with a much greater risk of death (SARS-CoV-2: 6153/28 777 [21.4%] vs no SARS-CoV-2: 20 211/2 638 201 [0.8%]; OR=5.7 [95% CI, 5.5-5.9]; P<0.001). Amongst patients undergoing elective surgery, 2412/1 857 586 (0.1%) had SARS-CoV-2, of whom 172/2412 (7.1%) died, compared with 1414/1 857 586 (0.1%) patients without SARS-CoV-2 (OR=25.8 [95% CI, 21.7-30.9]; P<0.001). Amongst patients undergoing emergency surgery, 22 918/582 292 (3.9%) patients had SARS-CoV-2, of whom 5752/22 918 (25.1%) died, compared with 18 060/559 374 (3.4%) patients without SARS-CoV-2 (OR=5.5 [95% CI, 5.3-5.7]; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The low incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in NHS surgical pathways suggests current infection prevention and control policies are highly effective. However, the high mortality amongst patients with SARS-CoV-2 suggests these precautions cannot be safely relaxed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/surgery , Elective Surgical Procedures/mortality , Elective Surgical Procedures/trends , Hospital Mortality/trends , Population Surveillance , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , England/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Population Surveillance/methods
16.
Queen Mary Journal of Intellectual Property ; 11(2):117-123, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1266861
17.
J Hosp Infect ; 106(3): 536-553, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In pandemics such as COVID-19, shortages of personal protective equipment are common. One solution may be to decontaminate equipment such as facemasks for reuse. AIM: To collect and synthesize existing information on decontamination of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) using microwave and heat-based treatments, with special attention to impacts on mask function (aerosol penetration, airflow resistance), fit, and physical traits. METHODS: A systematic review (PROSPERO CRD42020177036) of literature available from Medline, Embase, Global Health, and other sources was conducted. Records were screened independently by two reviewers, and data was extracted from studies that reported on effects of microwave- or heat-based decontamination on N95 FFR performance, fit, physical traits, and/or reductions in microbial load. FINDINGS: Thirteen studies were included that used dry/moist microwave irradiation, heat, or autoclaving. All treatment types reduced pathogen load by a log10 reduction factor of at least three when applied for sufficient duration (>30 s microwave, >60 min dry heat), with most studies assessing viral pathogens. Mask function (aerosol penetration <5% and airflow resistance <25 mmH2O) was preserved after all treatments except autoclaving. Fit was maintained for most N95 models, though all treatment types caused observable physical damage to at least one model. CONCLUSIONS: Microwave irradiation and heat may be safe and effective viral decontamination options for N95 FFR reuse during critical shortages. The evidence does not support autoclaving or high-heat (>90°C) approaches. Physical degradation may be an issue for certain mask models, and more real-world evidence on fit is needed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Decontamination/standards , Equipment Reuse/standards , Guidelines as Topic , Hot Temperature , Respiratory Protective Devices/virology , Ultraviolet Rays , Humans
18.
Working Papers in Economics Department of Economics, University of Waikato ; 08(20), 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-911195

ABSTRACT

A popular narrative that New Zealand's policy response to Coronavirus was 'go hard, go early' is misleading. While restrictions were the most stringent in the world during the Level 4 lockdown in March and April, these were imposed after the likely peak in new infections. I use the time path of Covid-19 deaths for each OECD country to estimate inflection points. Allowing for the typical lag from infection to death, new infections peaked before the most stringent policy responses were applied in many countries, including New Zealand. The cross-country evidence shows that restrictions imposed after the inflection point in infections is reached are ineffective in reducing total deaths. Even restrictions imposed earlier have just a modest effect;if Sweden's more relaxed restrictions had been used, an extra 310 Covid-19 deaths are predicted for New Zealand - far fewer than the thousands of deaths predicted for New Zealand by some mathematical models.

19.
Working Papers in Economics Department of Economics, University of Waikato ; 06(20), 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-825456

ABSTRACT

The New Zealand policy response to Coronavirus (Covid-19) was the most stringent in the world during the Level 4 lockdown. At least ten billion New Zealand dollars of output (3.3% of GDP) were lost then, compared to staying at Level 2. For lockdown to be optimal requires large health benefits to offset these output losses. Forecast deaths from epidemiological models are not valid counterfactuals, due to poor identification. Instead, I use empirical data, based on variation amongst United States counties, over one-fifth of which just had social distancing rather than lockdown. Political drivers of lockdown provide identification. Lockdowns do not reduce Covid-19 deaths. This pattern is visible on each date that key lockdown decisions were made in New Zealand. The ineffectiveness of lockdowns implies New Zealand suffered large economic costs for little benefit in terms of lives saved.

20.
J Hosp Infect ; 106(1): 163-175, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716812

ABSTRACT

Inadequate supply of filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) for healthcare workers during a pandemic such as the novel coronavirus outbreak (SARS-CoV-2) is a serious public health issue. The aim of this study was to synthesize existing data on the effectiveness of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) for N95 FFR decontamination. A systematic review (PROSPERO CRD42020176156) was conducted on UVGI in N95 FFRs using Embase, Medline, Global Health, Google Scholar, WHO feed, and MedRxiv. Two reviewers independently determined eligibility and extracted predefined variables. Original research reporting on function, decontamination, or mask fit following UVGI were included. Thirteen studies were identified, comprising 54 UVGI intervention arms and 58 N95 models. FFRs consistently maintained certification standards following UVGI. Aerosol penetration averaged 1.19% (0.70-2.48%) and 1.14% (0.57-2.63%) for control and UVGI arms, respectively. Airflow resistance for the control arms averaged 9.79 mm H2O (7.97-11.70 mm H2O) vs 9.85 mm H2O (8.33-11.44 mm H2O) for UVGI arms. UVGI protocols employing a cumulative dose >20,000 J/m2 resulted in a 2-log reduction in viral load. A >3-log reduction was observed in seven UVGI arms using >40,000 J/m2. Impact of UVGI on fit was evaluated in two studies (16,200; 32,400 J/m2) and no evidence of compromise was found. Our findings suggest that further work in this area (or translation to a clinical setting) should use a cumulative UV-C dose of 40,000 J/m2 or greater, and confirm appropriate mask fit following decontamination.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfection/standards , Equipment Reuse/standards , Guidelines as Topic , Masks/standards , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Ultraviolet Rays , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Efficiency , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety/standards
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