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2.
Circulation ; 145(5): 345-356, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the clinical course and short-term outcomes of suspected myocarditis after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination has important public health implications in the decision to vaccinate youth. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on patients <21 years old presenting before July 4, 2021, with suspected myocarditis within 30 days of COVID-19 vaccination. Lake Louise criteria were used for cardiac MRI findings. Myocarditis cases were classified as confirmed or probable on the basis of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions. RESULTS: We report on 139 adolescents and young adults with 140 episodes of suspected myocarditis (49 confirmed, 91 probable) at 26 centers. Most patients were male (n=126, 90.6%) and White (n=92, 66.2%); 29 (20.9%) were Hispanic; and the median age was 15.8 years (range, 12.1-20.3; interquartile range [IQR], 14.5-17.0). Suspected myocarditis occurred in 136 patients (97.8%) after the mRNA vaccine, with 131 (94.2%) after the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine; 128 (91.4%) occurred after the second dose. Symptoms started at a median of 2 days (range, 0-22; IQR, 1-3) after vaccination. The most common symptom was chest pain (99.3%). Patients were treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (81.3%), intravenous immunoglobulin (21.6%), glucocorticoids (21.6%), colchicine (7.9%), or no anti-inflammatory therapies (8.6%). Twenty-six patients (18.7%) were in the intensive care unit, 2 were treated with inotropic/vasoactive support, and none required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or died. Median hospital stay was 2 days (range, 0-10; IQR, 2-3). All patients had elevated troponin I (n=111, 8.12 ng/mL; IQR, 3.50-15.90) or T (n=28, 0.61 ng/mL; IQR, 0.25-1.30); 69.8% had abnormal ECGs and arrhythmias (7 with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia); and 18.7% had left ventricular ejection fraction <55% on echocardiogram. Of 97 patients who underwent cardiac MRI at a median 5 days (range, 0-88; IQR, 3-17) from symptom onset, 75 (77.3%) had abnormal findings: 74 (76.3%) had late gadolinium enhancement, 54 (55.7%) had myocardial edema, and 49 (50.5%) met Lake Louise criteria. Among 26 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <55% on echocardiogram, all with follow-up had normalized function (n=25). CONCLUSIONS: Most cases of suspected COVID-19 vaccine myocarditis occurring in persons <21 years have a mild clinical course with rapid resolution of symptoms. Abnormal findings on cardiac MRI were frequent. Future studies should evaluate risk factors, mechanisms, and long-term outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Adolescent , Child , Electrocardiography/methods , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Male , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Young Adult
3.
Circulation ; 145(5): 345-356, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556204

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the clinical course and short-term outcomes of suspected myocarditis after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination has important public health implications in the decision to vaccinate youth. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on patients <21 years old presenting before July 4, 2021, with suspected myocarditis within 30 days of COVID-19 vaccination. Lake Louise criteria were used for cardiac MRI findings. Myocarditis cases were classified as confirmed or probable on the basis of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions. RESULTS: We report on 139 adolescents and young adults with 140 episodes of suspected myocarditis (49 confirmed, 91 probable) at 26 centers. Most patients were male (n=126, 90.6%) and White (n=92, 66.2%); 29 (20.9%) were Hispanic; and the median age was 15.8 years (range, 12.1-20.3; interquartile range [IQR], 14.5-17.0). Suspected myocarditis occurred in 136 patients (97.8%) after the mRNA vaccine, with 131 (94.2%) after the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine; 128 (91.4%) occurred after the second dose. Symptoms started at a median of 2 days (range, 0-22; IQR, 1-3) after vaccination. The most common symptom was chest pain (99.3%). Patients were treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (81.3%), intravenous immunoglobulin (21.6%), glucocorticoids (21.6%), colchicine (7.9%), or no anti-inflammatory therapies (8.6%). Twenty-six patients (18.7%) were in the intensive care unit, 2 were treated with inotropic/vasoactive support, and none required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or died. Median hospital stay was 2 days (range, 0-10; IQR, 2-3). All patients had elevated troponin I (n=111, 8.12 ng/mL; IQR, 3.50-15.90) or T (n=28, 0.61 ng/mL; IQR, 0.25-1.30); 69.8% had abnormal ECGs and arrhythmias (7 with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia); and 18.7% had left ventricular ejection fraction <55% on echocardiogram. Of 97 patients who underwent cardiac MRI at a median 5 days (range, 0-88; IQR, 3-17) from symptom onset, 75 (77.3%) had abnormal findings: 74 (76.3%) had late gadolinium enhancement, 54 (55.7%) had myocardial edema, and 49 (50.5%) met Lake Louise criteria. Among 26 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <55% on echocardiogram, all with follow-up had normalized function (n=25). CONCLUSIONS: Most cases of suspected COVID-19 vaccine myocarditis occurring in persons <21 years have a mild clinical course with rapid resolution of symptoms. Abnormal findings on cardiac MRI were frequent. Future studies should evaluate risk factors, mechanisms, and long-term outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Adolescent , Child , Electrocardiography/methods , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Male , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Young Adult
4.
Blood Adv ; 4(23): 6051-6063, 2020 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962802

ABSTRACT

Most children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have mild or minimal disease, with a small proportion developing severe disease or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Complement-mediated thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) has been associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in adults but has not been studied in the pediatric population. We hypothesized that complement activation plays an important role in SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and sought to understand if TMA was present in these patients. We enrolled 50 hospitalized pediatric patients with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 21, minimal coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]; n = 11, severe COVID-19) or MIS-C (n = 18). As a biomarker of complement activation and TMA, soluble C5b9 (sC5b9, normal 247 ng/mL) was measured in plasma, and elevations were found in patients with minimal disease (median, 392 ng/mL; interquartile range [IQR], 244-622 ng/mL), severe disease (median, 646 ng/mL; IQR, 203-728 ng/mL), and MIS-C (median, 630 ng/mL; IQR, 359-932 ng/mL) compared with 26 healthy control subjects (median, 57 ng/mL; IQR, 9-163 ng/mL; P < .001). Higher sC5b9 levels were associated with higher serum creatinine (P = .01) but not age. Of the 19 patients for whom complete clinical criteria were available, 17 (89%) met criteria for TMA. A high proportion of tested children with SARS-CoV-2 infection had evidence of complement activation and met clinical and diagnostic criteria for TMA. Future studies are needed to determine if hospitalized children with SARS-CoV-2 should be screened for TMA, if TMA-directed management is helpful, and if there are any short- or long-term clinical consequences of complement activation and endothelial damage in children with COVID-19 or MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cluster Analysis , Complement Membrane Attack Complex/metabolism , Creatinine/blood , Female , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/complications
5.
CJC Open ; 2(6): 632-640, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-753776

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since April 2020, there have been numerous reports of children presenting with systemic inflammation, often in critical condition, and with evidence of recent infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This condition, since defined as the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), is assumed to be a delayed immune response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and there are frequently cardiac manifestations of ventricular dysfunction and/or coronary artery dilation. METHODS: We surveyed the inpatient MIS-C management approaches of the members of the International Kawasaki Disease Registry across 38 institutions and 11 countries. RESULTS: Among the respondents, 56% reported using immunomodulatory treatment for all MIS-C patients, regardless of presentation. Every respondent reported use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), including 53% administering IVIG in all patients. Steroids were most often used for patients with severe clinical presentation or lack of response to IVIG, and only a minority used steroids in all patients (14%). Acetylsalicylic acid was frequently used among respondents (91%), including anti-inflammatory and/or antiplatelet dosing. Respondents reported use of prophylactic anticoagulation, especially in patients at higher risk for venous thromboembolism, and therapeutic anticoagulation, particularly for patients with giant coronary artery aneurysms. CONCLUSIONS: There is variation in management of MIS-C patients, with suboptimal evidence to assess superiority of the various treatments; evidence-based gaps in knowledge should be addressed through worldwide collaboration to optimize treatment strategies.


CONTEXTE: Depuis avril 2020, de nombreux cas d'enfants présentant une inflammation généralisée, se trouvant souvent dans un état critique et montrant des signes d'une infection récente au coronavirus du syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère 2 (SRAS-CoV-2), ont été signalés. On pense que cet état, désigné depuis sous le nom de syndrome inflammatoire multisystémique de l'enfant (SIME), pourrait être une réponse immunitaire tardive au virus de la maladie à coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19); les patients présentent souvent des manifestations cardiaques associées à une dysfonction ventriculaire ou à une dilatation des artères coronaires. MÉTHODOLOGIE: Nous avons mené un sondage sur les stratégies de prise en charge du SIME en milieu hospitalier auprès des membres du registre international de la maladie de Kawasaki, qui sont rattachés à 38 établissements répartis dans 11 pays. RÉSULTATS: Au total, 56 % des répondants ont déclaré opter pour un traitement immunomodulateur pour tous les patients présentant un SIME, quelles qu'en soient les manifestations. Tous les répondants ont déclaré avoir recours à l'administration d'immunoglobulines par voie intraveineuse, 53 % d'entre eux utilisant ce traitement chez tous les patients. Les stéroïdes étaient plus souvent utilisés chez les patients présentant des symptômes cliniques graves ou ne répondant pas aux immunoglobulines administrées par voie intraveineuse; seule une minorité de répondants ont déclaré utiliser des stéroïdes chez tous les patients (14 %). Les répondants utilisaient aussi fréquemment l'acide acétylsalicylique (91 %), à des doses anti-inflammatoires ou antiplaquettaires. Ils ont en outre déclaré avoir recours à des anticoagulants en prophylaxie, en particulier chez les patients présentant un risque élevé de thromboembolie veineuse, et à une anticoagulothérapie chez les patients présentant des anévrismes coronaires géants. CONCLUSIONS: La prise en charge des patients présentant un SIME varie d'un médecin à l'autre, et les données permettant d'évaluer la supériorité des divers traitements employés sont insuffisantes; il conviendrait donc de mettre en place des initiatives de collaboration afin de combler les lacunes des connaissances et d'optimiser les stratégies thérapeutiques.

6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(17): 1947-1961, 2020 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739886

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Centers from Europe and United States have reported an exceedingly high number of children with a severe inflammatory syndrome in the setting of coronavirus disease 2019, which has been termed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyze echocardiographic manifestations in MIS-C. METHODS: A total of 28 MIS-C, 20 healthy control subjects and 20 classic Kawasaki disease (KD) patients were retrospectively reviewed. The study reviewed echocardiographic parameters in the acute phase of the MIS-C and KD groups, and during the subacute period in the MIS-C group (interval 5.2 ± 3 days). RESULTS: Only 1 case in the MIS-C group (4%) manifested coronary artery dilatation (z score = 3.15) in the acute phase, showing resolution during early follow-up. Left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function measured by deformation parameters were worse in patients with MIS-C compared with KD. Moreover, MIS-C patients with myocardial injury were more affected than those without myocardial injury with respect to all functional parameters. The strongest parameters to predict myocardial injury in MIS-C were global longitudinal strain, global circumferential strain, peak left atrial strain, and peak longitudinal strain of right ventricular free wall (odds ratios: 1.45 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08 to 1.95], 1.39 [95% CI: 1.04 to 1.88], 0.84 [95% CI: 0.73 to 0.96], and 1.59 [95% CI: 1.09 to 2.34], respectively). The preserved LV ejection fraction (EF) group in MIS-C showed diastolic dysfunction. During the subacute period, LVEF returned to normal (median from 54% to 64%; p < 0.001) but diastolic dysfunction persisted. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike classic KD, coronary arteries may be spared in early MIS-C; however, myocardial injury is common. Even preserved EF patients showed subtle changes in myocardial deformation, suggesting subclinical myocardial injury. During an abbreviated follow-up, there was good recovery of systolic function but persistence of diastolic dysfunction and no coronary aneurysms.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Echocardiography , Heart/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology
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