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1.
Children (Basel) ; 10(5)2023 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245499

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential therapeutic role of exercise on health-related quality of life, assessed by the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI), coronary flow reserve (CFR), cardiac function, cardiorespiratory fitness, and inflammatory and cardiac blood markers in multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) patients. METHODS: This is a case series study of a 12-wk, home-based exercise intervention in children and adolescents after MIS-C diagnosis. From 16 MIS-C patients followed at our clinic, 6 were included (age: 7-16 years; 3 females). Three of them withdrew before the intervention and served as controls. The primary outcome was health-related quality of life, assessed PODCI. Secondary outcomes were CFR assessed by 13N-ammonia PET-CT imaging, cardiac function by echocardiography, cardiorespiratory fitness, and inflammatory and cardiac blood markers. RESULTS: In general, patients showed poor health-related quality of life, which seemed to be improved with exercise. Additionally, exercised patients showed improvements in coronary flow reserve, cardiac function, and aerobic conditioning. Non-exercised patients exhibited a slower pattern of recovery, particularly in relation to health-related quality of life and aerobic conditioning. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that exercise may play a therapeutic role in the treatment of post-discharge MIS-C patients. As our design does not allow inferring causality, randomized controlled trials are necessary to confirm these preliminary findings.

2.
Br J Sports Med ; 2023 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316701

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-lasting effects of COVID-19 may include cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal muscle, metabolic, psychological disorders and persistent symptoms that can impair health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We investigated the effects of a home-based exercise training (HBET) programme on HRQoL and health-related outcomes in survivors of severe/critical COVID-19. METHODS: This was a single-centre, single-blinded, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial. Fifty survivors of severe/critical COVID-19 (5±1 months after intensive care unit discharge) were randomly allocated (1:1) to either a 3 times a week (~60-80 min/session), semi-supervised, individualised, HBET programme or standard of care (CONTROL). Changes in HRQoL were evaluated through the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, and physical component summary was predetermined as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function, functional capacity, body composition and persistent symptoms. Assessments were performed at baseline and after 16 weeks of intervention. Statistical analysis followed intention-to-treat principles. RESULTS: After the intervention, HBET showed greater HRQoL score than CONTROL in the physical component summary (estimated mean difference, EMD: 16.8 points; 95% CI 5.8 to 27.9; effect size, ES: 0.74), physical functioning (EMD: 22.5 points, 95% CI 6.1 to 42.9, ES: 0.83), general health (EMD: 17.4 points, 95% CI 1.8 to 33.1, ES: 0.73) and vitality (EMD: 15.1 points, 95% CI 0.2 to 30.1, ES: 0.49) domains. 30-second sit-to-stand (EMD: 2.38 reps, 95% CI 0.01 to 4.76, ES: 0.86), and muscle weakness and myalgia were also improved in HBET compared with CONTROL (p<0.05). No significant differences were seen in the remaining variables. There were no adverse events. CONCLUSION: HBET is an effective and safe intervention to improve physical domains of HRQoL, functional capacity and persistent symptoms in survivors of severe/critical COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04615052.

3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 215, 2023 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2186053

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine whether Post-acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 Infection (PASC) are associated with physical inactivity in COVID-19 survivors. This is a cohort study of COVID-19 survivors discharged from a tertiary hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Patients admitted as inpatients due to laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 between March and August 2020 were consecutively invited for a follow-up in-person visit 6 to 11 months after hospitalization. Ten symptoms of PASC were assessed using standardized scales. Physical activity was assessed by questionnaire and participants were classified according to WHO Guidelines. 614 patients were analyzed (age: 56 ± 13 years; 53% male). Frequency of physical inactivity in patients exhibiting none, at least 1, 1-4, and 5 or more symptoms of PASC was 51%, 62%, 58%, and 71%, respectively. Adjusted models showed that patients with one or more persistent PASC symptoms have greater odds of being physically inactive than those without any persistent symptoms (OR: 1.57 [95% CI 1.04-2.39], P = 0.032). Dyspnea (OR: 2.22 [1.50-3.33], P < 0.001), fatigue (OR: 2.01 [1.40-2.90], P < 0.001), insomnia (OR: 1.69 [1.16-2.49], P = 0.007), post-traumatic stress (OR: 1.53 [1.05-2.23], P = 0.028), and severe muscle/joint pain (OR: 1.53 [95% CI 1.08-2.17], P = 0.011) were associated with greater odds of being physically inactive. This study suggests that PASC is associated with physical inactivity, which itself may be considered as a persistent symptom among COVID-19 survivors. This may help in the early identification of patients who could benefit from additional interventions tailored to combat inactivity (even after treatment of PASC), with potential beneficial impacts on overall morbidity/mortality and health systems worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Female , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Sedentary Behavior , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Progression
4.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 24(1): 10-16, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2122568

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We examined the impact of loss of skeletal muscle mass in post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospital readmission rate, self-perception of health, and health care costs in a cohort of COVID-19 survivors. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Tertiary Clinical Hospital. Eighty COVID-19 survivors age 59 ± 14 years were prospectively assessed. METHODS: Handgrip strength and vastus lateralis muscle cross-sectional area were evaluated at hospital admission, discharge, and 6 months after discharge. Post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 were evaluated 6 months after discharge (main outcome). Also, health care costs, hospital readmission rate, and self-perception of health were evaluated 2 and 6 months after hospital discharge. To examine whether the magnitude of muscle mass loss impacts the outcomes, we ranked patients according to relative vastus lateralis muscle cross-sectional area reduction during hospital stay into either "high muscle loss" (-18 ± 11%) or "low muscle loss" (-4 ± 2%) group, based on median values. RESULTS: High muscle loss group showed greater prevalence of fatigue (76% vs 46%, P = .0337) and myalgia (66% vs 36%, P = .0388), and lower muscle mass (-8% vs 3%, P < .0001) than low muscle loss group 6 months after discharge. No between-group difference was observed for hospital readmission and self-perceived health (P > .05). High muscle loss group demonstrated greater total COVID-19-related health care costs 2 ($77,283.87 vs. $3057.14, P = .0223, respectively) and 6 months ($90,001.35 vs $12, 913.27, P = .0210, respectively) after discharge vs low muscle loss group. Muscle mass loss was shown to be a predictor of total COVID-19-related health care costs at 2 (adjusted ß = $10, 070.81, P < .0001) and 6 months after discharge (adjusted ß = $9885.63, P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: COVID-19 survivors experiencing high muscle mass loss during hospital stay fail to fully recover muscle health. In addition, greater muscle loss was associated with a higher frequency of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 and greater total COVID-19-related health care costs 2 and 6 months after discharge. Altogether, these data suggest that the loss of muscle mass resulting from COVID-19 hospitalization may incur in an economical burden to health care systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Myalgia/epidemiology , Hand Strength , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Hospitalization , Health Care Costs , Survivors , Muscles , Fatigue/epidemiology
5.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 322(6): H906-H913, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765169

ABSTRACT

Studies have suggested a potential role of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. Herein, we tested whether brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) measured upon hospital admission are associated with acute in-hospital outcomes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. A total of 211 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were submitted to assessments of FMD and mean and maximum cIMT (cIMTmean and cIMTmax) within the first 72 h of hospital admission. Study primary outcome was a composite of intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, or death during the hospitalization. These outcomes were also considered independently. Thrombotic events were included as a secondary outcome. Odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using unadjusted and adjusted multivariable logistic regression models. Eighty-eight (42%) participants demonstrated at least one of the composite outcomes. cIMTmean and cIMTmax were predictors of mortality and thrombotic events in the univariate analysis (cIMTmean and mortality: unadjusted OR 12.71 [95% CI 1.71-94.48]; P = 0.014; cIMTmean and thrombotic events: unadjusted OR 11.94 [95% CI 1.64-86.79]; P = 0.015; cIMTmax and mortality: unadjusted OR 8.47 [95% CI 1.41-51.05]; P = 0.021; cIMTmax and thrombotic events: unadjusted OR 12.19 [95% CI 2.03-73.09]; P = 0.007). However, these associations were no longer present after adjustment for potential confounders (P > 0.05). In addition, FMD% was not associated with any outcome. In conclusion, cIMT and FMD are not independent predictors of clinical outcomes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. These results suggest that subclinical atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction may not be the main drivers of COVID-19 complications in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Studies have suggested a role of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in COVID-19 pathophysiology. In this prospective cohort study, we assessed the prognostic value of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in patients with COVID-19. Carotid IMT and FMD were not independent predictors of major outcomes. These results suggest that other risk factors may be the main drivers of clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , COVID-19 , Brachial Artery , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Dilatation , Endothelium, Vascular , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Ultrasonography , Vasodilation/physiology
6.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 132(3): 682-688, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731339

ABSTRACT

This randomized controlled study aimed to investigate whether a single bout of exercise before the homologous booster dose of a SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine could enhance immunogenicity in patients with spondyloarthritis. We selected 60 consecutive patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA). Patients assigned to the intervention group performed an exercise bout comprising three exercises. Then, they remained at rest for 1 h before vaccination. The control group remained at rest before vaccination. Immunogenicity was assessed before (Pre) and 1 mo after (Post) the booster using seropositivity rates of total anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG, geometric mean titers of anti-S1/S2 IgG (GMT), frequency of neutralizing antibodies (NAb) positivity, and NAb activity. At Pre, 16 patients from the exercise group and 16 patients from the control group exhibited seropositivity for IgG (59% vs. 57.1%), and 1 mo after the booster dose, seropositivity occurred in 96% versus 100% of the cases. Only 10 patients from the exercise group and 12 patients from the control group showed positive NAb serology at Pre (37% vs. 42.8%). One month following the booster, NAb positivity was 96% versus 93%. GMT was comparable between groups at Pre. At Post, GMT increased similarly in both groups. Likewise, NAb activity was similar between groups at Pre and increased similarly in both of them as a result of the booster (47.5% vs. 39.9%). In conclusion, a single bout of exercise did not enhance immunogenicity to a homologous booster dose of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine among patients with spondyloarthritis.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We tested the role of exercise as an adjuvant to a booster of a COVID-19 vaccine. Immunocompromised patients were immunized after an acute bout of exercise or not. Patients exhibited an excellent immunogenicity in response to the booster dose. Exercise did not add to the vaccine effects on IgG or neutralizing antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated
7.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 804967, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604503

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to compare the time in physical activity (PA) [light (LPA), moderate and vigorous (MVPA)] and sedentary behavior (SB) (weekdays, weekends, or both) between Medical (MED) and Physical Education (PE) students who underwent remote classes imposed by the COVID-19. In addition, we compared symptoms of depression and anxiety and sleep quality. Methods: A cross-sectional study (272 MED and 95 PE students). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), Beck Inventory (Anxiety, Depression), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality were used to assess PA and SB, anxiety and depression symptoms, and quality of sleep, respectively. The data are presented as median and interquartile intervals 25-75. Results: We observed statistically significant differences between MED and PE students for MVPA [MED: 165 min per week (0-360) vs. PE: 420 min per week (180-670), p < 0.001], SB Total [MED: 10 h per day (8-12) vs. PE: 7 h per day (5-10), p < 0.001)], and anxiety symptoms [MED: 13 points (5-23) vs. PE: six points (2-16), p < 0.001)]. Conclusion: Together, our findings indicate that MED students spent less time in MVPA and more time in SB than PE students. MED students also presented worse mental health in the pandemic situation imposed by the COVID-19.

8.
Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle ; n/a(n/a), 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1409852

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Strength and muscle mass are predictors of relevant clinical outcomes in critically ill patients, but in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, it remains to be determined. In this prospective observational study, we investigated whether muscle strength or muscle mass are predictive of hospital length of stay (LOS) in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 patients. Methods We evaluated prospectively 196 patients at hospital admission for muscle mass and strength. Ten patients did not test positive for SARS-CoV-2 during hospitalization and were excluded from the analyses. Results The sample comprised patients of both sexes (50% male) with a mean age (SD) of 59 (±15) years, body mass index of 29.5 (±6.9) kg/m2. The prevalence of current smoking patients was 24.7%, and more prevalent coexisting conditions were hypertension (67.7%), obesity (40.9%), and type 2 diabetes (36.0%). Mean (SD) LOS was 8.6 days (7.7);17.0% of the patients required intensive care;3.8% used invasive mechanical ventilation;and 6.6% died during the hospitalization period. The crude hazard ratio (HR) for LOS was greatest for handgrip strength comparing the strongest versus other patients (1.47 [95% CI: 1.07?2.03;P = 0.019]). Evidence of an association between increased handgrip strength and shorter hospital stay was also identified when handgrip strength was standardized according to the sex-specific mean and standard deviation (1.23 [95% CI: 1.06?1.43;P = 0.007]). Mean LOS was shorter for the strongest patients (7.5 ± 6.1 days) versus others (9.2 ± 8.4 days). Evidence of associations were also present for vastus lateralis cross-sectional area. The crude HR identified shorter hospital stay for patients with greater sex-specific standardized values (1.20 [95% CI: 1.03?1.39;P = 0.016]). Evidence was also obtained associating longer hospital stays for patients with the lowest values for vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (0.63 [95% CI: 0.46?0.88;P = 0.006). Mean LOS for the patients with the lowest muscle cross-sectional area was longer (10.8 ± 8.8 days) versus others (7.7 ± 7.2 days). The magnitude of associations for handgrip strength and vastus lateralis cross-sectional area remained consistent and statistically significant after adjusting for other covariates. Conclusions Muscle strength and mass assessed upon hospital admission are predictors of LOS in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19, which stresses the value of muscle health in prognosis of this disease.

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