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1.
BMJ Glob Health ; 8(6)2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235345

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic triggered a sense of vulnerability and urgency that led to concerted actions by governments, funders, regulators and industry to overcome traditional challenges for the development of vaccine candidates and to reach authorisation. Unprecedented financial investments, massive demand, accelerated clinical development and regulatory reviews were among the key factors that contributed to accelerating the development and approval of COVID-19 vaccines. The rapid development of COVID-19 vaccines benefited of previous scientific innovations such as mRNA and recombinant vectors and proteins. This has created a new era of vaccinology, with powerful platform technologies and a new model for vaccine development. These lessons learnt highlight the need of strong leadership, to bring together governments, global health organisations, manufacturers, scientists, private sector, civil society and philanthropy, to generate innovative, fair and equitable access mechanisms to COVID-19 vaccines for populations worldwide and to build a more efficient and effective vaccine ecosystem to prepare for other pandemics that may emerge. With a longer-term view, new vaccines must be developed with incentives to build expertise for manufacturing that can be leveraged for low/middle-income countries and other markets to ensure equity in innovation, access and delivery. The creation of vaccine manufacturing hubs with appropriate and sustained training, in particular in Africa, is certainly the way of the future to a new public health era to safeguard the health and economic security of the continent and guarantee vaccine security and access, with however the need for such capacity to be sustained in the interpandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ecosystem
2.
BMJ Glob Health ; 8(6)2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241519

ABSTRACT

Although significant progress has been made in achieving goals for COVID-19 vaccine access, the quest for equity and justice remains an unfinished agenda. Vaccine nationalism has prompted calls for new approaches to achieve equitable access and justice not only for vaccines but also for vaccination. This includes ensuring country and community participation in global discussions and that local needs to strengthen health systems, address issues related to social determinants of health, build trust and leverage acceptance to vaccines, are addressed. Regional vaccine technology and manufacturing hubs are promising approaches to address access challenges and must be integrated with efforts to ensure demand. The current situation underlines the need for access, demand and system strengthening to be addressed along with local priorities for justice to be achieved. Innovations to improve accountability and leverage existing platforms are also needed. Sustained political will and investment is required to ensure ongoing production of non-pandemic vaccines and sustained demand, particularly when perceived threat of disease appears to be waning. Several recommendations are made to govern towards justice including codesigning the path forward with low-income and middle-income countries; establishing stronger accountability measures; establishing dedicated groups to engage with countries and manufacturing hubs to ensure that the affordable supply and predictable demand are in balance; addressing country needs for health system strengthening through leveraging existing health and development platforms and delivering on product presentations informed by country needs. Even if difficult, we must converge on a definition of justice well in advance of the next pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Social Justice
3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 8(6)2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236938

ABSTRACT

Through the experiences gained by accelerating new vaccines for both Ebola virus infection and COVID-19 in a public health emergency, vaccine development has benefited from a 'multiple shots on goal' approach to new vaccine targets. This approach embraces simultaneous development of candidates with differing technologies, including, when feasible, vesicular stomatitis virus or adenovirus vectors, messenger RNA (mRNA), whole inactivated virus, nanoparticle and recombinant protein technologies, which led to multiple effective COVID-19 vaccines. The challenge of COVID-19 vaccine inequity, as COVID-19 spread globally, created a situation where cutting-edge mRNA technologies were preferentially supplied by multinational pharmaceutical companies to high-income countries while low and middle-income countries (LMICs) were pushed to the back of the queue and relied more heavily on adenoviral vector, inactivated virus and recombinant protein vaccines. To prevent this from occurring in future pandemics, it is essential to expand the scale-up capacity for both traditional and new vaccine technologies at individual or simultaneous hubs in LMICs. In parallel, a process of tech transfer of new technologies to LMIC producers needs to be facilitated and funded, while building LMIC national regulatory capacity, with the aim of several reaching 'stringent regulator' status. Access to doses is an essential start but is not sufficient, as healthcare infrastructure for vaccination and combating dangerous antivaccine programmes both require support. Finally, there is urgency to establish an international framework through a United Nations Pandemic Treaty to promote, support and harmonise a more robust, coordinated and effective global response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Neglected Diseases
4.
Cell reports ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2306169

ABSTRACT

Most existing studies characterising SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses are peptide based. This does not allow evaluation of whether tested peptides are processed and presented canonically. In this study, we use recombinant vaccinia virus (rVACV)-mediated expression of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and SARS-CoV-2 infection of ACE-2-transduced B cell lines to evaluate overall T cell responses in a small cohort of recovered COVID-19 patients and uninfected donors vaccinated with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. We show that rVACV expression of SARS-CoV-2 antigen can be used as an alternative to SARS-CoV-2 infection to evaluate T cell responses to naturally processed spike antigens. In addition, rVACV system can be used to evaluate the cross-reactivity of memory T cells to variants of concern (VOCs) and to identify epitope escape mutants. Finally, our data show that both natural infection and vaccination could induce multi-functional T cell responses with overall T cell responses remaining despite the identification of escape mutations. Graphical Yin et al. utilize two informative systems for evaluating overall T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 and variants, enabling greater understanding of T cell responses to the virus, cross-reactivity to viral variants and the differences between vaccine- and infection-induced immunity to SARS-CoV-2, and other emerging viruses in the future.

5.
Vaccine ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2298051

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccine efficacy (VE) has been observed to vary against antigenically distinct SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoC). Here we report the final analysis of VE and safety from COV005: a phase 1b/2, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of primary series AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) vaccination in South African adults aged 18–65 years. South Africa's first, second, and third waves of SARS-CoV-2 infections were respectively driven by the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 virus (wild type, WT), and SARS-CoV-2 Beta and Delta VoCs. VE against asymptomatic and symptomatic infection was 90.6% for WT, 6.7% for Beta and 77.1% for Delta. No cases of severe COVID-19 were documented ahead of unblinding. Safety was consistent with the interim analysis, with no new safety concerns identified. Notably, South Africa's Delta wave occurred ≥ 9 months after primary series vaccination, suggesting that primary series AZD1222 vaccination offers a good durability of protection, potentially due to an anamnestic response. Clinical trial identifier: CT.gov NCT04444674

6.
Wellcome Open Res ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2296089

ABSTRACT

Background: There are limited data on the immunogenicity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in African populations. Here we report the immunogenicity and safety of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine from a phase 1/2 single-blind, randomised, controlled trial among adults in Kenya conducted as part of the early studies assessing vaccine performance in different geographical settings to inform Emergency Use Authorisation. Methods: : We recruited and randomly assigned (1:1) 400 healthy adults aged ≥18 years in Kenya to receive ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or control rabies vaccine, each as a two-dose schedule with a 3-month interval. The co-primary outcomes were safety, and immunogenicity assessed using total IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein 28 days after the second vaccination. Results: : Between 28 th October 2020 and 19 th August 2021, 400 participants were enrolled and assigned to receive ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (n=200) or rabies vaccine (n=200). Local and systemic adverse events were self-limiting and mild or moderate in nature. Three serious adverse events were reported but these were deemed unrelated to vaccination. The geometric mean anti-spike IgG titres 28 days after second dose vaccination were higher in the ChAdOx1 group (2773 ELISA units [EU], 95% CI 2447, 3142) than in the rabies vaccine group (61 EU, 95% CI 45, 81) and persisted over the 12 months follow-up. We did not identify any symptomatic infections or hospital admissions with respiratory illness and so vaccine efficacy against clinically apparent infection could not be measured. Vaccine efficacy against asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection was 38.4% (95% CI -26.8%, 70.1%;p=0.188). Conclusions: : The safety, immunogenicity and efficacy against asymptomatic infection of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 among Kenyan adults was similar to that observed elsewhere in the world, but efficacy against symptomatic infection or severe disease could not be measured in this cohort. Pan-African Clinical Trials Registration: PACTR202005681895696 (11/05/2020)

7.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2023 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever is a viral epidemic illness prevalent in Africa that can be fatal or result in debilitating sequelae in humans. No vaccines are available for human use. We aimed to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a non-replicating simian adenovirus-vectored Rift Valley fever (ChAdOx1 RVF) vaccine in humans. METHODS: We conducted a phase 1, first-in-human, open-label, dose-escalation trial in healthy adults aged 18-50 years at the Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, Oxford, UK. Participants were required to have no serious comorbidities or previous history of receiving an adenovirus-based vaccine before enrolment. Participants were non-randomly allocated to receive a single ChAdOx1 RVF dose of either 5 × 109 virus particles (vp), 2·5 × 1010 vp, or 5 × 1010 vp administered intramuscularly into the deltoid of their non-dominant arm; enrolment was sequential and administration was staggered to allow for safety to be assessed before progression to the next dose. Primary outcome measures were assessment of adverse events and secondary outcome measures were Rift Valley fever neutralising antibody titres, Rift Valley fever GnGc-binding antibody titres (ELISA), and cellular response (ELISpot), analysed in all participants who received a vaccine. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04754776). FINDINGS: Between June 11, 2021, and Jan 13, 2022, 15 volunteers received a single dose of either 5 × 109 vp (n=3), 2·5 × 1010 vp (n=6), or 5 × 1010 vp (n=6) ChAdOx1 RVF. Nine participants were female and six were male. 14 (93%) of 15 participants reported solicited local adverse reactions; injection-site pain was the most frequent (13 [87%] of 15). Ten (67%) of 15 participants (from the 2·5 × 1010 vp and 5 × 1010 vp groups only) reported systemic symptoms, which were mostly mild in intensity, the most common being headache (nine [60%] of 15) and fatigue (seven [47%]). All unsolicited adverse events reported within 28 days were either mild or moderate in severity; gastrointestinal symptoms were the most common reaction (at least possibly related to vaccination), occurring in four (27%) of 15 participants. Transient decreases in total white cell, lymphocyte, or neutrophil counts occurred at day 2 in some participants in the intermediate-dose and high-dose groups. Lymphopenia graded as severe occurred in two participants in the 5 × 1010 vp group at a single timepoint, but resolved at the subsequent follow-up visit. No serious adverse events occurred. Rift Valley fever neutralising antibodies were detectable across all dose groups, with all participants in the 5 × 1010 vp dose group having high neutralising antibody titres that peaked at day 28 after vaccination and persisted through the 3-month follow-up. High titres of binding IgG targeting Gc glycoprotein were detected whereas those targeting Gn were comparatively low. IFNγ cellular responses against Rift Valley fever Gn and Gc glycoproteins were observed in all participants except one in the 5 × 1010 vp dose group. These IFNγ responses peaked at 2 weeks after vaccination, were highest in the 5 × 1010 vp dose group, and tended to be more frequent against the Gn glycoprotein. INTERPRETATION: ChAdOx1 RVF was safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic when administered as a single dose in this study population. The data support further clinical development of ChAdOx1 RVF for human use. FUNDING: UK Department of Health and Social Care through the UK Vaccines Network, Oak Foundation, and the Wellcome Trust. TRANSLATION: For the Swahili translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

8.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270243

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccine rollout is lagging in Africa, where there has been a high rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aimed to evaluate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection before vaccination with the ChAdOx-nCoV19 (AZD1222) vaccine on antibody responses through to 180 days. METHODS: We did an unmasked post-hoc immunogenicity analysis after the first and second doses of AZD1222 in a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 1b-2a study done in seven locations in South Africa. AZD1222 recipients who were HIV-uninfected, were stratified into baseline seropositive or seronegative groups using the serum anti-nucleocapsid (anti-N) immunoglobulin G (IgG) electroluminescence immunoassay to establish SARS-CoV-2 infection before the first dose of AZD1222. Binding IgG to spike (anti-S) and receptor binding domain (anti-RBD) were measured before the first dose (day 0), second dose (day 28), day 42, and day 180. Neutralising antibody (NAb) against SARS-CoV-2 variants D614G, beta, delta, gamma, and A.VOI.V2, and omicron BA1 and BA.4 variants, were measured by pseudovirus assay (day 28, day 42, and day 180). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04444674, and the Pan African Clinicals Trials Registry, PACTR202006922165132. FINDINGS: Of 185 individuals who were randomly assigned to AZD1222, we included 91 individuals who were baseline seropositive and 58 who were baseline seronegative, in the final analysis. In the seropositive group, there was little change of anti-S IgG (and anti-RBD IgG) or neutralising antibody (NAb) titres at day 42 compared with at day 28. Anti-S (and anti-RBD) IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were higher throughout in the seropositive compared with the seronegative group, including at day 180 (GMCs 517·8 [95% CI 411·3-651·9] vs 82·1 [55·2-122·3] BAU/mL). Also D614G NAb geometric mean titres (GMTs) were higher in the seropositive group than the seronegative group, as was the percentage with titres of at least 185 (80% putative risk reduction threshold [PRRT] against wild-type-alpha COVID-19), including at day 180 (92·0% [74·0-99·0] vs 18·2% [2·3-51·8). Similar findings were observed for beta, A.VOI.V2, and gamma. For delta, BA.1, and BA.4, NAb GMTs and the proportion with titres above the PRRT were substantially higher in the seropositive compared with seronegative group at day 28 and day 42, but no longer differed between the groups by day 180. INTERPRETATION: A single dose of AZD1222 in the general African population, where COVID-19 vaccine coverage is low and SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity is 90%, could enhance the magnitude and quality of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2. FUNDING: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the South African Medical Research Council, the UK Research and Innovation, the UK National Institute for Health Research, and the South African Medical Research Council. TRANSLATION: For the Zulu translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

9.
AIDS ; 37(1): 105-112, 2023 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243263

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific T-cell responses 14 days after single-dose ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccination in black Africans with and without HIV in South Africa, as well as determine the effect of AZD1222 vaccination on cell-mediated immune responses in people with HIV (PWH) with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: A total of 70 HIV-uninfected people and 104 PWH were prospectively enrolled in the multicentre, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, phase Ib/IIa trial (COV005). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from trial participants 14 days after receipt of first dose of study treatment (placebo or AZD1222 vaccine). T-cell responses against the full-length spike (FLS) glycoprotein of wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and mutated S-protein regions found in the Alpha, Beta and Delta variants were assessed using an ex-vivo ELISpot assay. RESULTS: Among AZD1222 recipients without preceding SARS-CoV-2 infection, T-cell responses to FLS of wild-type SARS-CoV-2 were similarly common in PWH and HIV-uninfected people (30/33, 90.9% vs. 16/21, 76.2%; P = 0.138); and magnitude of response was similar among responders (78 vs. 56 SFCs/106 PBMCs; P = 0.255). Among PWH, AZD1222 vaccinees with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, displayed a heightened T-cell response magnitude compared with those without prior infection (186 vs. 78 SFCs/106 PBMCs; P = 0.001); and similar response rate (14/14, 100% vs. 30/33, 90.9%; P = 0.244). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate comparable T-cell responses following AZD1222 vaccination in HIV-uninfected people and PWH on stable antiretroviral therapy. Our results additionally show that hybrid immunity acquired through SARS-CoV-2 infection and AZD1222 vaccination, induce a heightened T-cell response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , T-Lymphocytes , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with HIV on antiretroviral therapy with good CD4 T cell counts make effective immune responses following vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. There are few data on longer term responses and the impact of a booster dose. METHODS: Adults with HIV were enrolled into a single arm open label study. Two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 were followed twelve months later by a third heterologous vaccine dose. Participants had undetectable viraemia on ART and CD4 counts >350 cells/µl. Immune responses to the ancestral strain and variants of concern were measured by anti-spike IgG ELISA, MesoScale Discovery (MSD) anti-spike platform, ACE-2 inhibition, Activation Induced Marker (AIM) assay and T cell proliferation. FINDINGS: 54 participants received two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. 43 received a third dose (42 with BNT162b2; 1 with mRNA-1273) one year after the first dose. After the third dose, total anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG titres (MSD), ACE-2 inhibition and IgG ELISA results were significantly higher compared to Day 182 titres (P < 0.0001 for all three). SARS-CoV-2 specific CD4+ T cell responses measured by AIM against SARS-CoV-2 S1 and S2 peptide pools were significantly increased after a third vaccine compared to 6 months after a first dose, with significant increases in proliferative CD4 + and CD8+ T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 S1 and S2 after boosting. Responses to Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta variants were boosted, although to a lesser extent for Omicron. CONCLUSIONS: In PWH receiving a third vaccine dose, there were significant increases in B and T cell immunity, including to known VOCs.

11.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 211(3): 280-287, 2023 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2222599

ABSTRACT

The trajectory of immune responses following the primary dose series determines the decline in vaccine effectiveness over time. Here we report on maintenance of immune responses during the year following a two-dose schedule of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222, in the absence of infection, and also explore the decay of antibody after infection. Total spike-specific IgG antibody titres were lower with two low doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines (two low doses) (P = 0.0006) than with 2 standard doses (the approved dose) or low dose followed by standard dose vaccines regimens. Longer intervals between first and second doses resulted in higher antibody titres (P < 0.0001); however, there was no evidence that the trajectory of antibody decay differed by interval or by vaccine dose, and the decay of IgG antibody titres followed a similar trajectory after a third dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Trends in post-infection samples were similar with an initial rapid decay in responses but good persistence of measurable responses thereafter. Extrapolation of antibody data, following two doses of ChAdOx1 nCov-19, demonstrates a slow rate of antibody decay with modelling, suggesting that antibody titres are well maintained for at least 2 years. These data suggest a persistent immune response after two doses of ChAdOx1 nCov-19 which will likely have a positive impact against serious disease and hospitalization.


Subject(s)
ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Immunoglobulin G , Humans , Follow-Up Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Immunity , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccination
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18694, 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106469

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 exhibits a diverse host species range with variable outcomes, enabling differential host susceptibility studies to assess suitability for pre-clinical countermeasure and pathogenesis studies. Baseline virological, molecular and pathological outcomes were determined among multiple species-one Old World non-human primate (NHP) species (cynomolgus macaques), two New World NHP species (red-bellied tamarins; common marmosets) and Syrian hamsters-following single-dose, atraumatic intranasal administration of SARS-CoV-2/Victoria-01. After serial sacrifice 2, 10 and 28-days post-infection (dpi), hamsters and cynomolgus macaques displayed differential virus biodistribution across respiratory, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Uniquely, New World tamarins, unlike marmosets, exhibited high levels of acute upper airway infection, infectious virus recovery associated with mild lung pathology representing a host previously unrecognized as susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. Across all species, lung pathology was identified post-clearance of virus shedding (antigen/RNA), with an association of virus particles within replication organelles in lung sections analysed by electron microscopy. Disrupted cell ultrastructure and lung architecture, including abnormal morphology of mitochondria 10-28 dpi, represented on-going pathophysiological consequences of SARS-CoV-2 in predominantly asymptomatic hosts. Infection kinetics and host pathology comparators using standardized methodologies enables model selection to bridge differential outcomes within upper and lower respiratory tracts and elucidate longer-term consequences of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cricetinae , Animals , Tissue Distribution , Administration, Intranasal , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/pathology , Mesocricetus , Macaca fascicularis
13.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052884

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caught the world largely unprepared, including scientific and policy communities. On April 10-13, 2022, researchers across academia, industry, government, and nonprofit organizations met at the Keystone symposium "Lessons from the Pandemic: Responding to Emerging Zoonotic Viral Diseases" to discuss the successes and challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic and what lessons can be applied moving forward. Speakers focused on experiences not only from the COVID-19 pandemic but also from outbreaks of other pathogens, including the Ebola virus, Lassa virus, and Nipah virus. A general consensus was that investments made during the COVID-19 pandemic in infrastructure, collaborations, laboratory and manufacturing capacity, diagnostics, clinical trial networks, and regulatory enhancements-notably, in low-to-middle income countries-must be maintained and strengthened to enable quick, concerted responses to future threats, especially to zoonotic pathogens.

14.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 43(11): 1610-1617, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991416

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterize and compare severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific immune responses in plasma and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) from nursing home residents during and after natural infection. DESIGN: Prospective cohort. SETTING: Nursing home. PARTICIPANTS: SARS-CoV-2-infected nursing home residents. METHODS: A convenience sample of 14 SARS-CoV-2-infected nursing home residents, enrolled 4-13 days after real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction diagnosis, were followed for 42 days. After diagnosis, plasma SARS-CoV-2-specific pan-Immunoglobulin (Ig), IgG, IgA, IgM, and neutralizing antibodies were measured at 5 time points, and GCF SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and IgA were measured at 4 time points. RESULTS: All participants demonstrated immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among 12 phlebotomized participants, plasma was positive for pan-Ig and IgG in all 12 participants. Neutralizing antibodies were positive in 11 participants; IgM was positive in 10 participants, and IgA was positive in 9 participants. Among 14 participants with GCF specimens, GCF was positive for IgG in 13 participants and for IgA in 12 participants. Immunoglobulin responses in plasma and GCF had similar kinetics; median times to peak antibody response were similar across specimen types (4 weeks for IgG; 3 weeks for IgA). Participants with pan-Ig, IgG, and IgA detected in plasma and GCF IgG remained positive throughout this evaluation, 46-55 days after diagnosis. All participants were viral-culture negative by the first detection of antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Nursing home residents had detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in plasma and GCF after infection. Kinetics of antibodies detected in GCF mirrored those from plasma. Noninvasive GCF may be useful for detecting and monitoring immunologic responses in populations unable or unwilling to be phlebotomized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibody Formation , Gingival Crevicular Fluid/chemistry , Immunoglobulin M , Antibodies, Viral , Arkansas , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Nursing Homes
15.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988069

ABSTRACT

The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a zoonotic pathogen that can transmit from dromedary camels to humans, causing severe pneumonia, with a 35% mortality rate. Vaccine candidates have been developed and tested in mice, camels, and humans. Previously, we developed a vaccine based on the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) viral vector, encoding a full-length spike protein of MERS-CoV, MVA-MERS. Here, we report the immunogenicity of high-dose MVA-MERS in prime-boost vaccinations in mice and camels. METHODS: Three groups of mice were immunised with MVA wild-type (MVA-wt) and MVA-MERS (MVA-wt/MVA-MERS), MVA-MERS/MVA-wt, or MVA-MERS/MVA-MERS. Camels were immunised with two doses of PBS, MVA-wt, or MVA-MERS. Antibody (Ab) responses were evaluated using ELISA and MERS pseudovirus neutralisation assays. RESULTS: Two high doses of MVA-MERS induced strong Ab responses in both mice and camels, including neutralising antibodies. Anti-MVA Ab responses did not affect the immune responses to the vaccine antigen (MERS-CoV spike). CONCLUSIONS: MVA-MERS vaccine, administered in a homologous prime-boost regimen, induced high levels of neutralising anti-MERS-CoV antibodies in mice and camels. This could be considered for further development and evaluation as a dromedary vaccine to reduce MERS-CoV transmission to humans.

16.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4610, 2022 08 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977995

ABSTRACT

ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) is a replication-deficient simian adenovirus-vectored vaccine encoding the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2, based on the first published full-length sequence (Wuhan-1). AZD1222 has been shown to have 74% vaccine efficacy against symptomatic disease in clinical trials. However, variants of concern (VoCs) have been detected, with substitutions that are associated with a reduction in virus neutralizing antibody titer. Updating vaccines to include S proteins of VoCs may be beneficial, even though current real-world data is suggesting good efficacy following boosting with vaccines encoding the ancestral S protein. Using the Syrian hamster model, we evaluate the effect of a single dose of AZD2816, encoding the S protein of the Beta VoC, and efficacy of AZD1222/AZD2816 as a heterologous primary series against challenge with the Beta or Delta variant. Minimal to no viral sgRNA could be detected in lungs of vaccinated animals obtained at 3- or 5- days post inoculation, in contrast to lungs of control animals. In Omicron-challenged hamsters, a single dose of AZD2816 or AZD1222 reduced virus shedding. Thus, these vaccination regimens are protective against the Beta, Delta, and Omicron VoCs in the hamster model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Cricetinae , Humans , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Lancet Microbe ; 3(1): e11-e20, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915215

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: ChAdOx1-vectored vaccine candidates against several pathogens have been developed and tested in clinical trials and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 has now been licensed for emergency use for COVID-19. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of the ChAdOx1 MERS vaccine in a phase 1b trial in healthy Middle Eastern adults. METHOD: MERS002 is an open-label, non-randomised, dose-escalation, phase 1b trial. Healthy Middle Eastern adults aged 18-50 years were included in the study. ChAdOx1 MERS was administered as a single intramuscular injection into the deltoid muscle of the non-dominant arm at three different dose groups: 5·0 × 109 viral particles in a low-dose group, 2·5 × 1010 viral particles in an intermediate-dose group, and 5·0 × 1010 viral particles in a high-dose group. The primary objective was to assess the safety and tolerability of ChAdOx1 MERS, measured by the occurrence of solicited and unsolicited adverse events after vaccination for up to 28 days and occurrence of serious adverse events up to 6 months. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04170829. FINDINGS: Between Dec 17, 2019, and June 1, 2020, 24 participants were enrolled (six to the low-dose, nine to the intermediate-dose, and nine to the high-dose group) and received a dose; 23 were available for follow-up at 6 months. The one dose of ChAdOx1 MERS vaccine was well tolerated with no serious adverse event reported during the 6 months of follow-up. Most adverse events were mild (67, 74%) and moderate (17, 19%). Six (7%) severe adverse events were reported by two participants in the intermediate-dose group (two feverish, two headache, one joint pain, and one muscle pain). Pain at the injection site was the most common local and overall adverse event, reported by 15 (63%) of the 24 participants. The most common systemic adverse event was headache, reported by 14 (58%), followed by muscle pain reported by 13 (54%). The vaccine induced both antibody and T cell immune responses in all volunteers; antibodies peaked at day 28 and T cell responses peaked at day 14; and continued until the end of follow-up at 6 months. INTERPRETATION: The acceptable safety and immunogenicity data from this phase 1b trial of ChAdOx1 MERS vaccine candidate in Healthy Middle Eastern adults, combined with previous safety and immunogenicity data from a trial in the UK, support selecting the ChAdOx1 MERS vaccine for advancement into phase 2 clinical evaluation. FUNDING: UK Department of Health and Social Care, using UK Aid funding, managed by the UK National Institute for Health Research; and King Abdullah International Medical Research Center.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Headache , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Myalgia , Vaccines, DNA , Viral Vaccines
18.
EBioMedicine ; 81: 104128, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are known differences in vaccine reactogenicity and immunogenicity by sex. Females have been shown to report greater reactogenicity and generate higher humoral and cellular immune responses than males following vaccination with several different vaccines. Whether this is also the case for COVID-19 vaccines is currently unknown, as COVID-19 vaccine study data disaggregated by sex are not routinely reported. Therefore, we have assessed the influence of sex on reactogenicity, immunogenicity and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. METHODS: Vaccine efficacy was assessed in 15169 volunteers enrolled into single-blind randomised controlled trials of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in Brazil and the UK, with the primary endpoint defined as nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)-positive symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. All participants were electronically randomised to receive two standard doses of vaccine or the control product. Logistic regression models were fitted to explore the effect of age and sex on reactogenicity, and linear models fitted to log-transformed values for immunogenicity data. Reactogenicity data were taken from self-reported diaries of 788 trial participants. Pseudovirus neutralisation assay data were available from 748 participants and anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG assay data from 1543 participants. FINDINGS: 7619 participants received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and 7550 received the control. Vaccine efficacy in participants after two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (4243 females and 3376 males) was 66.1% (95% CI 55.9-73.9%) in males and 59.9% (95% CI 49.8-67.9%) in females; with no evidence of a difference in efficacy between the sexes (vaccine by sex interaction term P=0.3359). A small, statistically significant difference in anti-spike IgG was observed (adjusted GMR 1.14; 95% CI 1.04-1.26), with higher titres in females than males, but there were no statistically significant differences in other immunological endpoints. Whilst the majority of individuals reported at least one systemic reaction following a first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, females were twice as likely as males to report any systemic reaction after a first dose (OR 1.95; 95% CI 1.37-2.77). Measured fever of 38°C or above was reported in 5% of females and 1% of males following first doses. Headache and fatigue were the most commonly reported reactions in both sexes. INTERPRETATION: Our results show that there is no evidence of difference in efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in males and females. Greater reactogenicity in females was not associated with any difference in vaccine efficacy. FUNDING: Studies were registered with ISRCTN 90906759 (COV002) and ISRCTN 89951424 (COV003) and follow-up is ongoing. Funding was received from the UK Research and Innovation, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, National Institute for Health Research, Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Science, Thames Valley and South Midlands NIHR Clinical Research Network, the Lemann Foundation, Rede D'Or, the Brava and Telles Foundation, the Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior, Brazil, and AstraZeneca.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Blind Method
19.
Vaccine ; 40(35): 5248-5262, 2022 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886120

ABSTRACT

Replication-deficient adenoviral vectors have been under investigation as a platform technology for vaccine development for several years and have recently been successfully deployed as an effective COVID-19 counter measure. A replication-deficient adenoviral vector based on the simian adenovirus type Y25 and named ChAdOx1 has been evaluated in several clinical trials since 2012. The Brighton Collaboration Benefit-Risk Assessment of VAccines by TechnolOgy (BRAVATO) was formed to evaluate the safety and other key features of new platform technology vaccines. This manuscript reviews key features of the ChAdOx1-vectored vaccines. The simian adenovirus Y25 was chosen as a strategy to circumvent pre-existing immunity to common human adenovirus serotypes which could impair immune responses induced by adenoviral vectored vaccines. Deletion of the E1 gene renders the ChAdOx1 vector replication incompetent and further genetic engineering of the E3 and E4 genes allows for increased insertional capability and optimizes vaccine manufacturing processes. ChAdOx1 vectored vaccines can be manufactured in E1 complementing cell lines at scale and are thermostable. The first ChAdOx1 vectored vaccines approved for human use, against SARS-CoV-2, received emergency use authorization in the UK on 30th December 2020, and is now approved in more than 180 countries. Safety data were compiled from phase I-III clinical trials of ChAdOx1 vectored vaccines expressing different antigens (influenza, tuberculosis, malaria, meningococcal B, prostate cancer, MERS-CoV, Chikungunya, Zika and SARS-CoV-2), conducted by the University of Oxford, as well as post marketing surveillance data for the COVID-19 Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine. Overall, ChAdOx1 vectored vaccines have been well tolerated. Very rarely, thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS), capillary leak syndrome (CLS), immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), and Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) have been reported following mass administration of the COVID-19 Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine. The benefits of this COVID-19 vaccination have outweighed the risks of serious adverse events in most settings, especially with mitigation of risks when possible. Extensive immunogenicity clinical evaluation of ChAdOx1 vectored vaccines reveal strong, durable humoral and cellular immune responses to date; studies to refine the COVID-19 protection (e.g., via homologous/heterologous booster, fractional dose) are also underway. New prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines based on the ChAdOx1 vector are currently undergoing pre-clinical and clinical assessment, including vaccines against viral hemorrhagic fevers, Nipah virus, HIV, Hepatitis B, amongst others.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Simian , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Adenoviruses, Simian/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
20.
JCI Insight ; 7(6)2022 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770087

ABSTRACT

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a globally ubiquitous pathogen with a seroprevalence of approximately 50% in the United Kingdom. CMV infection induces expansion of immunosenescent T cell and NK cell populations, with these cells demonstrating lower responsiveness to activation and reduced functionality upon infection and vaccination. In this study, we found that CMV+ participants had normal T cell responses after a single-dose or homologous vaccination with the viral vector chimpanzee adenovirus developed by the University of Oxford (ChAdOx1). CMV seropositivity was associated with reduced induction of IFN-γ-secreting T cells in a ChAd-Modified Vaccinia Ankara (ChAd-MVA) viral vector vaccination trial. Analysis of participants receiving a single dose of ChAdOx1 demonstrated that T cells from CMV+ donors had a more terminally differentiated profile of CD57+PD1+CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells expressing less IL-2Rα (CD25) and fewer polyfunctional CD4+ T cells 14 days after vaccination. NK cells from CMV-seropositive individuals also had a reduced activation profile. Overall, our data suggest that although CMV infection enhances immunosenescence of T and NK populations, it does not affect antigen-specific T cell IFN-γ secretion or antibody IgG production after vaccination with the current ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination regimen, which has important implications given the widespread use of this vaccine, particularly in low- and middle-income countries with high CMV seroprevalence.


Subject(s)
Cytomegalovirus Infections , Cytomegalovirus , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Vaccination
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