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Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 190, 2022 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196297


BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B causes significant disease and death globally, despite the availability of effective vaccination. Migration likewise affects hundreds of millions of people annually, many of whom are women and children, and increases risks for poor vaccine completion and mother to child transmission of hepatitis B. In the neighbouring countries of Thailand and Myanmar, vaccine campaigns have made progress but little is known about the reach of these programs into migrant worker communities from Myanmar living in Thailand. METHODS: A cohort of 253 postpartum women (53 urban migrants in Chiang Mai and 200 rural migrants in Tak Province) were surveyed about their Hepatitis B knowledge and willingness to vaccinate their children between September 10, 2019 and March 30, 2019. They were subsequently followed to determine vaccine completion. When records of vaccination were unavailable at the birth facility, or visits were late, families were contacted and interviewed about vaccination elsewhere, and reasons for late or missed vaccines. RESULTS: Though women in Tak province displayed better knowledge of Hepatitis B and equal intention to vaccinate, they were 14 times less likely to complete Hepatitis B vaccination for their children compared to migrants in Chiang Mai. Tak women were largely undocumented, had private (non-profit) insurance and had more transient residence. In Chiang Mai migrant women were mostly documented and had full access to the Thai national health services. Though minor individual and facility-level differences may have contributed, the major driver of the disparity seems to be the place of migrants within local socio-political-economic systems. The COVID-19 pandemic further disproportionately affected Tak province migrants who faced severe travel restrictions hampering vaccination. Sixty percent of families who were lost to vaccine follow-up in Tak province could not be contacted by phone or home visit. Chiang Mai migrants, with 86.8% vaccine completion, nearly reached the target of 90%. CONCLUSIONS: Achievement of high levels of hepatitis B vaccination in migrant communities is important and feasible, and requires inclusive policies that integrate migrants into national health and social services. This is more urgent than ever during the COVID-19 era.

COVID-19 , Hepatitis B , Transients and Migrants , Vaccines , Child , Humans , Female , Infant , Male , Thailand/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Vaccination , Hepatitis B/prevention & control
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(5): 1676-1686, 2021 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1128113


Non-intubated patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 could benefit from awake proning. Awake proning is an attractive intervention in settings with limited resources, as it comes with no additional costs. However, awake proning remains poorly used probably because of unfamiliarity and uncertainties regarding potential benefits and practical application. To summarize evidence for benefit and to develop a set of pragmatic recommendations for awake proning in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, focusing on settings where resources are limited, international healthcare professionals from high and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with known expertise in awake proning were invited to contribute expert advice. A growing number of observational studies describe the effects of awake proning in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in whom hypoxemia is refractory to simple measures of supplementary oxygen. Awake proning improves oxygenation in most patients, usually within minutes, and reduces dyspnea and work of breathing. The effects are maintained for up to 1 hour after turning back to supine, and mostly disappear after 6-12 hours. In available studies, awake proning was not associated with a reduction in the rate of intubation for invasive ventilation. Awake proning comes with little complications if properly implemented and monitored. Pragmatic recommendations including indications and contraindications were formulated and adjusted for resource-limited settings. Awake proning, an adjunctive treatment for hypoxemia refractory to supplemental oxygen, seems safe in non-intubated patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory failure. We provide pragmatic recommendations including indications and contraindications for the use of awake proning in LMICs.

COVID-19/complications , Hypoxia/therapy , Prone Position/physiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Health Personnel , Humans , Wakefulness