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1.
JACS Au ; 2(9): 2187-2202, 2022 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050266

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 presents a global health emergency. Therapeutic options against SARS-CoV-2 are still very limited but urgently required. Molecular tweezers are supramolecular agents that destabilize the envelope of viruses resulting in a loss of viral infectivity. Here, we show that first-generation tweezers, CLR01 and CLR05, disrupt the SARS-CoV-2 envelope and abrogate viral infectivity. To increase the antiviral activity, a series of 34 advanced molecular tweezers were synthesized by insertion of aliphatic or aromatic ester groups on the phosphate moieties of the parent molecule CLR01. A structure-activity relationship study enabled the identification of tweezers with a markedly enhanced ability to destroy lipid bilayers and to suppress SARS-CoV-2 infection. Selected tweezer derivatives retain activity in airway mucus and inactivate the SARS-CoV-2 wildtype and variants of concern as well as respiratory syncytial, influenza, and measles viruses. Moreover, inhibitory activity of advanced tweezers against respiratory syncytial virus and SARS-CoV-2 was confirmed in mice. Thus, potentiated tweezers are broad-spectrum antiviral agents with great prospects for clinical development to combat highly pathogenic viruses.

2.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(20): e2201378, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838136

ABSTRACT

Inhibitors of viral cell entry based on poly(styrene sulfonate) and its core-shell nanoformulations based on gold nanoparticles are investigated against a panel of viruses, including clinical isolates of SARS-CoV-2. Macromolecular inhibitors are shown to exhibit the highly sought-after broad-spectrum antiviral activity, which covers most analyzed enveloped viruses and all of the variants of concern for SARS-CoV-2 tested. The inhibitory activity is quantified in vitro in appropriate cell culture models and for respiratory viral pathogens (respiratory syncytial virus and SARS-CoV-2) in mice. Results of this study comprise a significant step along the translational path of macromolecular inhibitors of virus cell entry, specifically against enveloped respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Gold , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Internalization
3.
J Clin Virol ; 147: 105062, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670705

ABSTRACT

Since diagnostic sampling material must be considered as infectious, we evaluated whether extraction buffers of SARS-CoV-2 rapid antigen test kits may inactivate SARS-CoV-2. Of concern, seven of nine tested buffers lacked potent virucidal activity. To reduce risk of infection during assay performance, virucidal antigen extraction buffers that efficiently inactivate virus should replace the extraction buffers in these commercially available point-of-care devices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Immunologic Tests , Point-of-Care Systems
4.
EBioMedicine ; 75: 103761, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heterologous COVID-19 vaccination regimens combining vector- and mRNA-based vaccines are already administered, but data on solicited adverse reactions, immunological responses and elicited protection are limited. METHODS: To evaluate the reactogenicity and humoral as well as cellular immune responses towards most prevalent SARS-CoV-2 variants after a heterologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 BNT162b2 prime-boost vaccination, we analysed a cohort of 26 clinic employees aged 25-46 (median 30.5) years who received a ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 prime followed by a BNT162b2 boost after an 8-week interval. Serological data were compared to a cohort which received homologous BNT162b2 vaccination with a 3-week interval (14 individuals aged 25-65, median 42). FINDINGS: Self-reported solicited symptoms after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 prime were in line with previous reports and more severe than after the BNT162b2 boost. Antibody titres increased significantly over time resulting in strong neutralization titres two weeks after the BNT162b2 boost and subsequently slightly decreased over the course of 17 weeks. At the latest time point measured, all analysed sera retained neutralizing activity against the currently dominant Delta (B.1.617.2) variant. Two weeks post boost, neutralizing activity against the Alpha (B.1.1.7) and immune-evading Beta (B.1.351) variant was ∼4-fold higher than in individuals receiving homologous BNT162b2 vaccination. No difference was observed in neutralization of Kappa (B.1.617.1). In addition, heterologous vaccination induced CD4+ and CD8+ T cells reactive to SARS-CoV-2 spike peptides of all analysed variants; Wuhan-Hu-1, Alpha, Beta, Gamma (P.1), and Delta. INTERPRETATION: In conclusion, heterologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 / BNT162b2 prime-boost vaccination is not associated with serious adverse events and induces potent humoral and cellular immune responses. The Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Kappa variants of spike are potently neutralized by sera from all participants and reactive T cells recognize spike peptides of all tested variants. These results suggest that this heterologous vaccination regimen is at least as immunogenic and protective as homologous vaccinations and also offers protection against current variants of concern. FUNDING: This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, the German Research Foundation, the BMBF, the Robert Koch Institute (RKI), the Baden-Württemberg Stiftung, the county of Lower Saxony, the Ministry for Science, Research and the Arts of Baden-Württemberg, Germany, and the National Institutes of Health.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence
5.
Antiviral Res ; 181: 104882, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684270

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a novel pandemic coronavirus that caused a global health and economic crisis. The development of efficient drugs and vaccines against COVID-19 requires detailed knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 biology. Several techniques to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection have been established, mainly based on counting infected cells by staining plaques or foci, or by quantifying the viral genome by PCR. These methods are laborious, time-consuming and expensive and therefore not suitable for a high sample throughput or rapid diagnostics. We here report a novel enzyme-based immunodetection assay that directly quantifies the amount of de novo synthesized viral spike protein within fixed and permeabilized cells. This in-cell ELISA enables a rapid and quantitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection in microtiter format, regardless of the virus isolate or target cell culture. It follows the established method of performing ELISA assays and does not require expensive instrumentation. Utilization of the in-cell ELISA allows to e.g. determine TCID50 of virus stocks, antiviral efficiencies (IC50 values) of drugs or neutralizing activity of sera. Thus, the in-cell spike ELISA represents a promising alternative to study SARS-CoV-2 infection and inhibition and may facilitate future research.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Plaque Assay
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