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American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):646-647, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063459


Purpose: To understand the outcomes and changes in disease severity of COVID-19 in Solid Organ Transplant (SOT) recipients over time in the context of therapeutic advances. Method(s): We performed a multicenter, prospective cohort study of all SOT recipients diagnosed with COVID-19, across 9 transplant programs in Canada, from March 2020-November 2021. Baseline characteristics, demographics, treatment and disease severity outcomes were collected. The primary outcome was need for supplemental oxygen. Factors associated with the primary outcome and changes in outcomes over time were analyzed. Pandemic time periods were divided into four time frames coinciding with 4 waves in North America. Result(s): We enrolled 509 SOT recipients with confirmed COVID-19 during the study period. The risk factors associated with oxygen requirement are outlined in Table 1. Severe disease and mortality were greatest in lung transplant recipients compared to other organ types (15/48 (31.3%) lung deaths vs 63/461(13.7%) nonlung organs, (p=0.001). There was no influence of 2-dose vaccination and 3 patients were infected after 3-dose vaccine. Disease with alpha or delta variant was not associated with increased oxygen requirement. In a subgroup analysis of participants requiring oxygen (n=190), remdesivir was associated with less death (p=0.035). Over the pandemic period (Figure 1), there were no significant changes in the proportion of patients requiring oxygen, ICU admission, ventilatory support or death. (Table Presented) Conclusion(s): COVID-19 is especially severe in lung transplant recipients and immunosuppression plays a significant role. The outcomes associated with COVID-19 in SOT have not appreciably changed over time despite the emergence of novel variants and changes in therapeutic regimens.

Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management ; 16(1), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1148415


This article discussed Vietnam’s ongoing efforts to decentralize the health system and its fitness to respond to global health crises as presented through the Covid-19 pandemic. We used a general review and expert’s perspective to explore the topic. We found that the healthcare system in Vietnam continued to decentralize from a pyramid to a wheel model. This system shifts away from a stratified technical hierarchy of higher- and lower-level health units (pyramid model) to a system in which quality healthcare is equally expected among all health units (wheel model). This decentralization has delivered more quality healthcare facilities, greater freedom for patients to choose services at any level, a more competitive environment among hospitals to improve quality, and reductions in excess capacity burden at higher levels. It has also enabled the transformation from a patient-based traditional healthcare model into a patient-centered care system. However, this decentralization takes time and requires long-term political, financial commitment, and a working partnership among key stakeholders. This perspective provides Vietnam’s experience of the decentralization of the healthcare system that may be consider as a useful example for other countries to strategically think of and to shape their future system within their own socio-political context. Copyright © 2020 Via Medica

Public Health ; 187: 157-160, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733655


OBJECTIVES: The Japanese prime minister declared a state of emergency on April 7 2020 to combat the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This declaration was unique in the sense that it was essentially driven by the voluntary restraint of the residents. We examined the change of the infection route by investigating contact experiences with COVID-19-positive cases. STUDY DESIGN: This study is a population-level questionnaire-based study using a social networking service (SNS). METHODS: To assess the impact of the declaration, this study used population-level questionnaire data collected from an SNS with 121,375 respondents (between March 27 and May 5) to assess the change in transmission routes over the study period, which was measured by investigating the association between COVID-19-related symptoms and (self-reported) contact with COVID-19-infected individuals. RESULTS: The results of this study show that the declaration prevented infections in the workplace, but increased domestic infections as people stayed at home. However, after April 24, workplace infections started to increase again, driven by the increase in community-acquired infections. CONCLUSIONS: While careful interpretation is necessary because our data are self-reported from voluntary SNS users, these findings indicate the impact of the declaration on the change in transmission routes of COVID-19 over time in Japan.

Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Self Report , Social Networking , Surveys and Questionnaires , Symptom Assessment , Young Adult