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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e057985, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583089

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Owing to their inherent vulnerabilities, the burden of COVID-19 and particularly of its control measures on migrants has been magnified. A thorough assessment of the value of the interventions for COVID-19 tailored to migrants is essential for improving their health outcomes as well as promoting an effective control of the pandemic. In this study, based on evidence from primary biomedical research, we aimed to systematically identify health interventions for COVID-19 targeting migrants and to assess and compare their effectiveness. The review will be conducted within a programme aimed at defining and implementing interventions to control the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy, funded by the Italian Ministry of Health and conducted by a consortium of Italian regional health authorities. METHODS AND ANALYSES: Data sources will include the bibliographic databases MEDLINE, Embase, LOVE Platform COVID-19 Evidence, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Eligible studies must evaluate health interventions for COVID-19 in migrants. Two independent reviewers will screen articles for inclusion using predefined eligibility criteria, extract data of retained articles and assess methodological quality by applying the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Disagreements will be resolved through consensus or arbitrated by a third reviewer if necessary. In synthesising the evidence, we will structure results by interventions, outcomes and quality. Where studies are sufficiently homogenous, trial data will be pooled and meta-analyses will be performed. Data will be reported according to methodological guidelines for systematic review provided by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This is a review of existing literature, and ethics approval is not required. We will submit results for peer-review publication and present at relevant conferences. The review findings will be included in future efforts to develop evidence-informed recommendations, policies or programmatic actions at the national and regional levels and address future high-quality research in public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Humans , Pandemics , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572486

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the number of deaths increased in Italy, mainly because of the COVID-19 pandemic; mortality was among the highest in Europe, with a clear heterogeneity among regions and socio-demographic strata. The present work aims to describe trends in mortality and to quantify excess mortality variability over time and in relation to demographics, pre-existent chronic conditions and care setting of the Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy). This is a registry-based cross-sectional study comparing the 2020 observed mortality with figures of the previous five years by age, sex, month, place of death, and chronicity. It includes 300,094 deaths in those 18 years of age and above resident in the Emilia-Romagna region. Excess deaths were higher during the first pandemic wave, particularly among men and in March. Age-adjusted risk was similar among both men and women (Mortality Rate Ratio 1.15; IC95% 1.14-1.16). It was higher among females aged 75+ years and varied between sub-periods. Excluding COVID-19 related deaths, differences in the risk of dying estimates tended to disappear. Metabolic and neuropsychiatric diseases were more prevalent among those that deceased in 2020 compared to the deaths that occurred in 2015-2019 and therefore can be confirmed as elements of increased frailty, such as being in long-term care facilities or private homes as the place of death. Understanding the impact of the pandemic on mortality considering frailties is relevant in a changing scenario.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mortality , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(SI): SI25-SI36, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462486

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To ascertain if the use of hydroxychloroquine(HCQ)/cloroquine(CLQ) and other conventional DMARDs (cDMARDs) and rheumatic diseases per se may be associated with COVID-19-related risk of hospitalization and mortality. METHODS: This case-control study nested within a cohort of cDMARD users was conducted in the Lombardy, Veneto, Tuscany and Lazio regions and Reggio Emilia province. Claims databases were linked to COVID-19 surveillance registries. The risk of COVID-19-related outcomes was estimated using a multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis comparing HCQ/CLQ vs MTX, vs other cDMARDs and vs non-use of these drugs. The presence of rheumatic diseases vs their absence in a non-nested population was investigated. RESULTS: A total of 1275 patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 were matched to 12 734 controls. Compared with recent use of MTX, no association between HCQ/CLQ monotherapy and COVID-19 hospitalization [odds ratio (OR) 0.83 (95% CI 0.69, 1.00)] or mortality [OR 1.19 (95% CI 0.85, 1.67)] was observed. A lower risk was found when comparing HCQ/CLQ use with the concomitant use of other cDMARDs and glucocorticoids. HCQ/CLQ was not associated with COVID-19 hospitalization as compared with non-use. An increased risk for recent use of either MTX monotherapy [OR 1.19 (95% CI 1.05, 1.34)] or other cDMARDs [OR 1.21 (95% CI 1.08, 1.36)] vs non-use was found. Rheumatic diseases were not associated with COVID-19-related outcomes. CONCLUSION: HCQ/CLQ use in rheumatic patients was not associated with a protective effect against COVID-19-related outcomes. The use of other cDMARDs was associated with an increased risk when compared with non-use and, if concomitantly used with glucocorticoids, also vs HCQ/CLQ, probably due to immunosuppressive action.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Population Surveillance , Rheumatic Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(7)2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317265

ABSTRACT

To investigate the association of the 2019-2020 influenza vaccine with prognosis of patients positive for SARS-CoV-2A, a large multi-database cohort study was conducted in four Italian regions (i.e., Lazio, Lombardy, Veneto, and Tuscany) and the Reggio Emilia province (Emilia-Romagna). More than 21 million adults were residing in the study area (42% of the population). We included 115,945 COVID-19 cases diagnosed during the first wave of the pandemic (February-May, 2020); 34.6% of these had been vaccinated against influenza. Three outcomes were considered: hospitalization, death, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission/death. The adjusted relative risk (RR) of being hospitalized in the vaccinated group when compared with the non-vaccinated group was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.86-0.88). This reduction in risk was not confirmed for death (RR = 1.04; 95% CI: 1.01-1.06), or for the combined outcome of ICU admission or death. In conclusion, our study, conducted on the vast majority of the population during the first wave of the pandemic in Italy, showed a 13% statistically significant reduction in the risk of hospitalization in some geographical areas and in the younger population. No impact of seasonal influenza vaccination on COVID-19 prognosis in terms of death and death or ICU admission was estimated.

5.
Vox Sang ; 2021 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280387

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The first wave of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) dramatically affected the Transfusion Medicine Unit of the Azienda Unità Sanitari Locale - Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (AUSL-IRCCS) di Reggio Emilia, which faced a total rearrangement of the procedures for donors and patients. This study aims to assess the major implications of COVID-19 on our department, focusing on the blood transfusion chain and therapies, in order to support transfusion specialists in seeking efficient ways to face similar future emergencies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study compares our Transfusion Medicine Unit data collected between February and May 2020 with the same period in 2017-2019. Data on red blood cells and platelets donations, transfusions and clinical procedures were collected as aggregates from our internal electronic database. RESULTS: During the lockdown, donor centres were re-organized to reduce the risk of contagion and avoid unnecessary blood collection. Blood donations were re-scheduled to meet the decrease in elective surgery; consequently, plateletapheresis was implemented to supply the reduction of buffycoat-derived platelets. Transfusions significantly decreased together with orthopaedic and vascular surgery, while they were only marginally diminished for both cancer and onco-haematological patients. Reduced procedures for inpatients and outpatients were matched by remote medicine, addressing the need of a constant healthcare support for patients with chronic diseases. CONCLUSIONS: The described measures were adopted to avoid excessive blood collection and expiration, guarantee the safety of our ward (for both patients and staff) and supply the necessary transfusion therapies. These measures may support the development of appropriate risk management plans and safety procedures for other hospitals and transfusion services that have to face similar events.

6.
Eur Radiol ; 31(12): 9164-9175, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224990

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to develop a multiparametric prognostic model for death in COVID-19 patients and to assess the incremental value of CT disease extension over clinical parameters. METHODS: Consecutive patients who presented to all five of the emergency rooms of the Reggio Emilia province between February 27 and March 23, 2020, for suspected COVID-19, underwent chest CT, and had a positive swab within 10 days were included in this retrospective study. Age, sex, comorbidities, days from symptom onset, and laboratory data were retrieved from institutional information systems. CT disease extension was visually graded as < 20%, 20-39%, 40-59%, or ≥ 60%. The association between clinical and CT variables with death was estimated with univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models; model performance was assessed using k-fold cross-validation for the area under the ROC curve (cvAUC). RESULTS: Of the 866 included patients (median age 59.8, women 39.2%), 93 (10.74%) died. Clinical variables significantly associated with death in multivariable model were age, male sex, HDL cholesterol, dementia, heart failure, vascular diseases, time from symptom onset, neutrophils, LDH, and oxygen saturation level. CT disease extension was also independently associated with death (HR = 7.56, 95% CI = 3.49; 16.38 for ≥ 60% extension). cvAUCs were 0.927 (bootstrap bias-corrected 95% CI = 0.899-0.947) for the clinical model and 0.936 (bootstrap bias-corrected 95% CI = 0.912-0.953) when adding CT extension. CONCLUSIONS: A prognostic model based on clinical variables is highly accurate in predicting death in COVID-19 patients. Adding CT disease extension to the model scarcely improves its accuracy. KEY POINTS: • Early identification of COVID-19 patients at higher risk of disease progression and death is crucial; the role of CT scan in defining prognosis is unclear. • A clinical model based on age, sex, comorbidities, days from symptom onset, and laboratory results was highly accurate in predicting death in COVID-19 patients presenting to the emergency room. • Disease extension assessed with CT was independently associated with death when added to the model but did not produce a valuable increase in accuracy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224084

ABSTRACT

Lockdowns to contain the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 have disrupted routines and behaviors, which could lead to a worsening of lifestyle and an increase in the burden of non-communicable diseases. This study aimed to describe the changes in physical activity, diet, alcohol drinking, and cigarette smoking during lockdown. A self-administered online survey addressing adults living in a province in northern Italy was advertised through websites and social media. Citizens could access the survey in anonymity from 4 May until 15 June 2020. A total of 1826 adults completed the survey, with a worsening of physical activity (35.1%), diet (17.6%), alcohol drinking (12.5%), and cigarette smoking (7.7%) reported. In contrast, 33.5% reported an improvement in diet, 12.6% in alcohol drinking, 5.3% in physical activity and 4.1% in cigarette smoking. Female sex, young adult age, suspension of work activity, and symptoms of psychological distress were the factors associated with a greater likelihood of change, which was frequently for the worse. Lockdown had an impact on lifestyle, with some net beneficial effects on diet and mostly negative effects on physical activity. Public health measures should be implemented to avoid long-term negative effects of the lockdown, supporting individuals more prone to change for the worse.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Pandemics , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health , Sex Factors
8.
Eur Addict Res ; 27(4): 263-267, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216839

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: This study assesses whether individuals with substance use disorder are at greater risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection than people in the general population. METHODS: A population-based study was conducted including 3,780 individuals, diagnosed with alcohol or other drug dependence and cared for by the addiction service (AS) in the province of Reggio Emilia. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and relative 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of being tested and of being SARS-CoV-2 positive in the population of interest compared with those in the general population of Reggio Emilia were calculated. RESULTS: Both individuals with alcohol and those with other drug use disorders had a lower risk of being SARS-CoV-2 positive (SIR = 0.69; 95% CI 0.32-1.30, SIR = 0.56; 95% CI 0.24-1.10, respectively), despite higher rates of being tested than the general population (SIR = 1.48; 95% CI 1.14-1.89, SIR = 1.51; 95% CI 1.20-1.86, respectively). Among HIV-negative persons, 12.5% were positive to SARS-CoV-2, while none was positive among HIV-positive persons. HCV-infected AS clients had a higher risk of both being tested for SARS-CoV-2 (SIR = 1.99; 95% CI 1.26-2.98) and of resulting positive (SIR = 1.53; 95% CI 0.50-3.58). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with alcohol and/or other drug use disorders are at higher risk of being tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection but at lower risk of resulting positive than the general population. Further research is warranted in order to support our findings and to address plausible factors underpinning such associations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Registries , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
9.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187993

ABSTRACT

The aim of this population-based study was to evaluate the impact of being a cancer survivor (CS) on COVID-19 risk and prognosis during the first wave of the pandemic (27 February 2020 to 13 May 2020) in Reggio Emilia Province. Prevalent cancer cases diagnosed between 1996 and 2019 were linked with the provincial COVID-19 surveillance system. We compared CS' cumulative incidence of being tested, testing positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), being hospitalized and dying of COVID-19 with that of the general population; we compared COVID-19 prognosis in CS and in patients without cancer. During the study period, 15 391 people (1527 CS) underwent real-time polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2, of whom 4541 (447 CS) tested positive; 541 (113 CS) died of COVID-19. CS had higher age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) of testing (1.28 [95% confidence interval, CI = 1.21-1.35]), of positive test (IRR 1.06 [95% CI = 0.96-1.18]) and of hospitalization and death (IRR 1.27 [95% CI = 1.09-1.48] and 1.39 [95%CI = 1.12-1.71], respectively). CS had worse prognosis when diagnosed with COVID-19, particularly those below age 70 (adjusted odds ratio [OR] of death 5.03; [95% CI = 2.59-9.75]), while the OR decreased after age 70. The OR of death was higher for CS with a recent diagnosis, that is, <2 years (OR = 2.92; 95% CI = 1.64-5.21), or metastases (OR = 2.09; 95% CI = 0.88-4.93). CS showed the same probability of being infected, despite a slightly higher probability of being tested than the general population. Nevertheless, CS were at higher risk of death once infected.

10.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(SI): SI25-SI36, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1185985

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To ascertain if the use of hydroxychloroquine(HCQ)/cloroquine(CLQ) and other conventional DMARDs (cDMARDs) and rheumatic diseases per se may be associated with COVID-19-related risk of hospitalization and mortality. METHODS: This case-control study nested within a cohort of cDMARD users was conducted in the Lombardy, Veneto, Tuscany and Lazio regions and Reggio Emilia province. Claims databases were linked to COVID-19 surveillance registries. The risk of COVID-19-related outcomes was estimated using a multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis comparing HCQ/CLQ vs MTX, vs other cDMARDs and vs non-use of these drugs. The presence of rheumatic diseases vs their absence in a non-nested population was investigated. RESULTS: A total of 1275 patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 were matched to 12 734 controls. Compared with recent use of MTX, no association between HCQ/CLQ monotherapy and COVID-19 hospitalization [odds ratio (OR) 0.83 (95% CI 0.69, 1.00)] or mortality [OR 1.19 (95% CI 0.85, 1.67)] was observed. A lower risk was found when comparing HCQ/CLQ use with the concomitant use of other cDMARDs and glucocorticoids. HCQ/CLQ was not associated with COVID-19 hospitalization as compared with non-use. An increased risk for recent use of either MTX monotherapy [OR 1.19 (95% CI 1.05, 1.34)] or other cDMARDs [OR 1.21 (95% CI 1.08, 1.36)] vs non-use was found. Rheumatic diseases were not associated with COVID-19-related outcomes. CONCLUSION: HCQ/CLQ use in rheumatic patients was not associated with a protective effect against COVID-19-related outcomes. The use of other cDMARDs was associated with an increased risk when compared with non-use and, if concomitantly used with glucocorticoids, also vs HCQ/CLQ, probably due to immunosuppressive action.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Population Surveillance , Rheumatic Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
11.
Drug Saf ; 43(12): 1297-1308, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092868

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The epidemic due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been spreading globally, raising increasing concerns. There are several controversial hypotheses on the potentially harmful or beneficial effects of antihypertensive drugs acting on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Furthermore, there is accumulating evidence, based on several observational studies, that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) do not increase the risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 infection. On the other hand, conflicting findings regarding the role of ACEIs/ARBs as prognosis modifiers in COVID-19 hospitalised patients have been reported. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this large-scale, retrospective cohort study was to investigate whether prior exposure to ACEIs and/or ARBs was associated with all-cause mortality among over 40,000 hospitalised COVID-19 patients compared with calcium channel blockers (CCBs), a potential therapeutic alternative. METHODS: This study was conducted using COVID-19 registries linked to claims databases from Lombardy, Veneto and Reggio Emilia (overall, 25% of Italian population). Overall, 42,926 patients hospitalised between 21 February and 21 April 2020 with a diagnosis of COVID-19 confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction tests were included in this study. All-cause mortality occurring in or out of hospital, as reported in the COVID-19 registry, was estimated. Using Cox models, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause mortality (along with 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were estimated separately for ACEIs/ARBs and other antihypertensives versus CCBs and non-use. RESULTS: Overall, 11,205 in- and out-of-hospital deaths occurred over a median of 24 days of follow-up after hospital admission due to COVID-19. Compared with CCBs, adjusted analyses showed no difference in the risk of death among ACEI (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.89-1.06) or ARB (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.89-1.06) users. When non-use of antihypertensives was considered as a comparator, a modest statistically significant increase in mortality risk was observed for any antihypertensive use. However, when restricting to drugs with antihypertensive indications only, these marginal increases disappeared. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses confirmed our main findings. CONCLUSIONS: ACEI/ARB use is not associated with either an increased or decreased risk of all-cause mortality, compared with CCB use, in the largest cohort of hospitalised COVID-19 patients exposed to these drugs studied to date. The use of these drugs therefore does not affect the prognosis of COVID-19. This finding strengthens recommendations of international regulatory agencies about not withdrawing/switching ACEI/ARB treatments to modify COVID-19 prognosis.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization , Renin-Angiotensin System , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 157, 2021 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Laboratory data and computed tomography (CT) have been used during the COVID-19 pandemic, mainly to determine patient prognosis and guide clinical management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between CT findings and laboratory data in a cohort of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This was an observational cross-sectional study including consecutive patients presenting to the Reggio Emilia (Italy) province emergency rooms for suspected COVID-19 for one month during the outbreak peak, who underwent chest CT scan and laboratory testing at presentation and resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Included were 866 patients. Total leukocytes, neutrophils, C-reactive protein (CRP), creatinine, AST, ALT and LDH increase with worsening parenchymal involvement; an increase in platelets was appreciable with the highest burden of lung involvement. A decrease in lymphocyte counts paralleled worsening parenchymal extension, along with reduced arterial oxygen partial pressure and saturation. After correcting for parenchymal extension, ground-glass opacities were associated with reduced platelets and increased procalcitonin, consolidation with increased CRP and reduced oxygen saturation. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary lesions induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection were associated with raised inflammatory response, impaired gas exchange and end-organ damage. These data suggest that lung lesions probably exert a central role in COVID-19 pathogenesis and clinical presentation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Adult , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Italy , Lung/pathology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Procalcitonin/blood , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(1)2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011541

ABSTRACT

The restrictions enacted during lockdown to limit the spread of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) have led to changes in people's lifestyle habits. In Italy, these restrictions have dramatically changed the way people work and spend their leisure time, also with repercussions on diet and physical activity. An anonymous survey was disseminated via websites and social media to a convenience sample of the Italian population during and immediately after the first lockdown (10 March-18 May 2020). Data collected on 1826 individuals show that lockdown might have worsened the quality of sleep of almost half of the participants in this cross-sectional study. This worsening was associated with a deterioration in crucial determinants of health, such as physical activity and diet (OR 1.68; 95% CI 1.18-2.40 and OR 4.19; 95% CI 2.51-6.96, respectively), with symptoms of psychological distress, such as tension (OR 3.88; 95% CI 2.74-5.52) and loneliness (OR 3.27; 95% CI 2.23-4.79), and with the presence of financial problems (some OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.27-2.72; many OR 7.27; 95% CI 3.59-14.73). The multivariate regression analysis models confirmed these associations. This impact on sleep quality was seen especially among females, those with low education level, and those who experienced financial problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Sleep , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Exercise , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Loneliness , Male , Quarantine , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Clin Epidemiol ; 12: 1337-1346, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992953

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 case fatality rate in hospitalized patients varies across countries and studies. Reliable estimates, specific for age, sex, and comorbidities, are needed to monitor the epidemic, to compare the outcome in different settings, and to correctly design trials for COVID-19 interventions. The aim of this study was to provide population-based survival curves of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Materials and Methods: A cohort study was conducted in three areas of Northern Italy, heavily affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection (Lombardy and Veneto Regions, and Reggio Emilia province), using a loco-regional COVID-19 surveillance system, linked to hospital discharge databases. We included all patients testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal/throat swab samples who were hospitalized from 21 February to 21 April 2020. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were calculated at 14 and 30 days for death in any setting, stratifying by age, sex, and the Charlson Index. Results: Overall, 42,926 hospitalized COVID-19 patients were identified. Patients' median age was 69 years (IQR: 57-79), 62.6% were males, and 6.0% had a Charlson Index ≥3. Survival curves showed that 22.0% (95% CI 21.6-22.4) of patients died within 14 days and 27.6% (95% CI 27.2-28.1) within 30 days from hospitalization. Survival was higher in younger patients and in females. The negative impact of comorbidities on survival was more pronounced in younger age groups. Conclusion: The high fatality rate observed in the study (28% at 30 days) suggests that studies should focus on death as primary endpoint during a follow-up of at least one month.

15.
Euro Surveill ; 25(49)2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-970966

ABSTRACT

We report epidemiological investigations of transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 41 classes of 36 schools in Reggio Emilia province, northern Italy, from their reopening on 1 September to 15 October 2020. The overall secondary case attack rate was 3.2%, reaching 6.6% in middle and high schools. More timely isolation and testing of classmates could be effective in reducing virus transmission in this setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Masks , Physical Distancing , School Teachers/statistics & numerical data , Schools, Nursery , Schools , Students/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mortality , Organizational Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
16.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38(6): 1215-1222, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-958715

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To identify predictors of clinical improvement and intubation/death in tocilizumab-treated severe COVID19, focusing on IL6 and CRP longitudinal monitoring. METHODS: 173 consecutive patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia receiving tocilizumab in Reggio Emilia province Hospitals between 11 March and 3 June 2020 were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Clinical improvement was defined as status improvement on a six-category ordinal scale or discharge from the hospital, whichever came first. A composite outcome of intubation/death was also evaluated. CRP and IL-6 levels were determined before TCZ administration (T0) and after 3 (T3), and 7 (T7) days. RESULTS: At multivariate analysis T0 and T3 CRP levels were negatively associated with clinical improvement (OR 0.13, CI 0.03-0.55 and OR 0.11, CI 0.0-0.46) (p=0.006 and p=0.003) and positively associated with intubation/death (OR 17.66, CI 2.47-126.14 and OR 5.34, CI: 1.49-19.12) (p=0.01 and p=0.004). No significant associations with IL-6 values were observed. General linear model analyses for repeated measures showed significantly different trends for CRP from day 3 to day 7 between patients who improved and those who did not, and between patients who were intubated or died and those who were not (p<0.0001 for both). ROC analysis identified a baseline CRP level of 15.8 mg/dl as the best cut-off to predict intubation/death (AUC = 0.711, sensitivity = 0.67, specificity = 0.71). CONCLUSIONS: CRP serial measurements in the first week of TCZ therapy are useful in identifying patients developing poor outcomes.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Acute-Phase Proteins , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Brain Behav ; 11(1): e01939, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-911627

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence and clinical features of individuals presenting in emergency rooms (ER) with facial palsy during the Italian COVID-19 outbreak and in the same period of 2019. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records for all accesses to the six ER in the province of Reggio Emilia, Italy, during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic (27 February-3 May 2020) to identify all cases of diagnosed facial palsy. Clinical information was retrieved for each patient and compared with that of facial palsy cases presenting in 2019. RESULT: Between 27 February and 3 May 2020, 38 patients presented to provincial ERs for facial palsy; in 2019, there were 22 cases, for an incidence rate ratio of 1.73 (95% CI 1.02-2.92) for the 2020 cohort. Of the 2020 cohort, eight patients (21%) presented with active or recent symptoms consistent with COVID-19 infection, compared with 2 (9%) in 2019 (p = .299); one was tested and resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, patients were younger (-11 years, p = .037) than those of the previous year and manifested a longer lag (+1.1 days, p = .001) between symptoms onset and ER presentation. CONCLUSION: We observed a higher occurrence of facial palsy during the COVID-19 outbreak compared to the same period of the previous year; 21% of patients presenting with facial palsy had active or recent symptoms consistent with SARS-CoV-2 infection, suggesting an excess risk of facial palsy during or after COVID-19. These patients searched for medical attention later, probably because of the fear of contracting COVID-19 during assistance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Facial Paralysis/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238281, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732997

ABSTRACT

This is a population-based prospective cohort study on archive data describing the age- and sex-specific prevalence of COVID-19 and its prognostic factors. All 2653 symptomatic patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 from February 27 to April 2, 2020 in the Reggio Emilia province, Italy, were included. COVID-19 cumulative incidence, hospitalization and death rates, and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated according to sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Females had higher prevalence of infection than males below age 50 (2.61 vs. 1.84 ‰), but lower in older ages (16.49 vs. 20.86 ‰ over age 80). Case fatality rate reached 20.7% in cases with more than 4 weeks follow up. After adjusting for age and comorbidities, men had a higher risk of hospitalization (HR 1.4 95% CI 1.2 to 1.6) and of death (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.1). Patients over age 80 compared to age < 50 had HR 7.1 (95% CI 5.4 to 9.3) and HR 27.8 (95% CI 12.5 to 61.7) for hospitalization and death, respectively. Immigrants had a higher risk of hospitalization (HR 1.3, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.81) than Italians and a similar risk of death. Risk of hospitalization and of death were higher in patients with heart failure, arrhythmia, dementia, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and hypertension, while COPD increased the risk of hospitalization (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 2.5) but not of death (HR 1.1, 95% CI 0.7 to 1.7). Previous use of ACE inhibitors had no effect on risk of death (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.34). Identified susceptible populations and fragile patients should be considered when setting priorities in public health planning and clinical decision making.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Emigrants and Immigrants/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution
19.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 73(1): 48-52, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696616

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with autoimmune conditions treated with antimalarials in a population-based study. METHODS: All residents treated with chloroquine (CQ)/hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) from July through December 2019 and living in 3 provinces of Regione Emilia-Romagna were identified by drug prescription registries and matched with the registry containing all residents living in the same areas who have had swabs and tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 4,408 patients were identified. The prevalence of patients receiving antimalarials was 0.85 per 1,000 men and 3.3 per 1,000 women. The cumulative incidence of testing during the study period was 2.7% in the general population and 3.8% among those receiving CQ or HCQ, while the cumulative incidence of testing positive was 0.55% in the general population and 0.70% among those receiving CQ/HCQ. Multivariate models showed that those receiving CQ/HCQ had a slightly higher probability of being tested compared to the general population (OR 1.09 [95% CI 0.94-1.28]), the same probability of being diagnosed as having COVID-19 (OR 0.94 [95% CI 0.66-1.34]), and a slightly lower probability of being positive once tested (OR 0.83 [95% CI 0.56-1.23]). None of the differences were significant. CONCLUSION: Our findings do not support the use of antimalarials as a prophylactic treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Juvenile/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Lupus Erythematosus, Discoid/drug therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Biology (Basel) ; 9(8)2020 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-671340

ABSTRACT

In the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, cancer patients could be a high-risk group due to their immunosuppressed status; therefore, data on cancer patients must be available in order to consider the most adequate strategy of care. We carried out a cohort study on the risk of hospitalization for COVID-19, oncological history, and outcomes on COVID-19 infected cancer patients admitted to the Hospital of Reggio Emilia. Between 1 February and 3 April 2020, a total of 1226 COVID-19 infected patients were hospitalized. The number of cancer patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection was 138 (11.3%). The median age was slightly higher in patients with cancers than in those without (76.5 vs. 73.0). The risk of intensive care unit (ICU) admission (10.1% vs. 6.7%; RR 1.23, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.63-2.41) and risk of death (34.1% vs. 26.0%; RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.61-1.71) were similar in cancer and non-cancer patients. In the cancer patients group, 89/138 (64.5%) patients had a time interval >5 years between the diagnosis of the tumor and hospitalization. Male gender, age > 74 years, metastatic disease, bladder cancer, and cardiovascular disease were associated with mortality risk in cancer patients. In the Reggio Emilia Study, the incidence of hospitalization for COVID-19 in people with previous diagnosis of cancer is similar to that in the general population (standardized incidence ratio 98; 95% CI 73-131), and it does not appear to have a more severe course or a higher mortality rate than patients without cancer. The phase II of the COVID-19 epidemic in cancer patients needs a strategy to reduce the likelihood of infection and identify the vulnerable population, both in patients with active antineoplastic treatment and in survivors with frequently different coexisting medical conditions.

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