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1.
J Pers Med ; 12(4)2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785791

ABSTRACT

Due to the increasing number of COVID-19-infected and vaccinated individuals, radiologists continue to see patients with COVID-19 pneumonitis and recall pneumonitis, which could result in additional workups and false-positive results. Moreover, cancer patients undergoing immunotherapy may show therapy-related pneumonitis during imaging management. This is otherwise known as immune checkpoint inhibitor-related pneumonitis. Following on from this background, radiologists should seek to know their patients' COVID-19 infection and vaccination history. Knowing the imaging features related to COVID-19 infection and vaccination is critical to avoiding misleading results and alarmism in patients and clinicians.

2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 695195, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441115

ABSTRACT

Objective: To create a prediction model of the risk of severe/critical disease in patients with Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Methods: Clinical, laboratory, and lung computed tomography (CT) severity score were collected from patients admitted for COVID-19 pneumonia and considered as independent variables for the risk of severe/critical disease in a logistic regression analysis. The discriminative properties of the variables were analyzed through the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and included in a prediction model based on Fagan's nomogram to calculate the post-test probability of severe/critical disease. All analyses were conducted using Medcalc (version 19.0, MedCalc Software, Ostend, Belgium). Results: One hundred seventy-one patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, including 37 severe/critical cases (21.6%) and 134 mild/moderate cases were evaluated. Among all the analyzed variables, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was that with the highest relative importance (p = 0.0001), followed by CT severity score (p = 0.0002), and age (p = 0.0009). The optimal cut-off points for the predictive variables resulted: 3 for CCI [sensitivity 83.8%, specificity 69.6%, positive likelihood ratio (+LR) 2.76], 69.9 for age (sensitivity 94.6%, specificity 68.1, +LR 2.97), and 53 for CT severity score (sensitivity 64.9%, specificity 84.4%, +LR 4.17). Conclusion: The nomogram including CCI, age, and CT severity score, may be used to stratify patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.

3.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(4)2021 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241288

ABSTRACT

The prediction and prevention of sudden cardiac death is the philosopher's stone of clinical cardiac electrophysiology. Sports can act as triggers of fatal arrhythmias and therefore it is essential to promptly frame the athlete at risk and to carefully evaluate the suitability for both competitive and recreational sports activity. A history of syncope or palpitations, the presence of premature ventricular complexes or more complex arrhythmias, a reduced left ventricular systolic function, or the presence of known or familiar heart disease should prompt a thorough evaluation with second level examinations. In this regard, cardiac magnetic resonance and electrophysiological study play important roles in the diagnostic work-up. The role of genetics is increasing both in cardiomyopathies and in channelopathies, and a careful evaluation must be focused on genotype positive/phenotype negative subjects. In addition to being a trigger for fatal arrhythmias in certain cardiomyopathies, sports also play a role in the progression of the disease itself, especially in the case arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. In this paper, we review the latest European guidelines on sport cardiology in patients with cardiovascular diseases, focusing on arrhythmic risk stratification and the management of cardiomyopathies and channelopathies.


Subject(s)
Cardiology , Cardiomyopathies , Cardiovascular Diseases , Channelopathies , Sports , Cardiomyopathies/complications , Channelopathies/complications , Channelopathies/genetics , Humans
4.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(3)2021 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215430

ABSTRACT

Myocardial inflammation is an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and sudden cardiac death in athletes. The relationship between sports practice and myocardial inflammation is complex, and recent data from studies concerning cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and endomyocardial biopsy have substantially added to our understanding of the challenges encountered in the comprehensive care of athletes with myocarditis or inflammatory cardiomyopathy (ICM). In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of myocarditis, ICM, and myopericarditis/perimyocarditis in athletes, with a special emphasis on arrhythmias, patient-tailored therapies, and sports eligibility issues.


Subject(s)
Myocarditis , Sports , Athletes , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/epidemiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Humans , Inflammation , Myocarditis/diagnosis
5.
Clin Imaging ; 76: 144-148, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077835

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To understand how COVID-19 pandemic has changed radiology research in Italy. METHODS: A questionnaire (n = 19 questions) was sent to all members of the Italian Society of Radiology two months after the first Italian national lockdown was lifted. RESULTS: A total of 327 Italian radiologists took part in the survey (mean age: 49 ± 12 years). After national lockdown, the working-flow came back to normal in the vast majority of cases (285/327, 87.2%). Participants reported that a total of 462 radiological trials were recruiting patients at their institutions prior to COVID-19 outbreak, of which 332 (71.9%) were stopped during the emergency. On the other hand, 252 radiological trials have been started during the pandemic, of which 156 were non-COVID-19 trials (61.9%) and 96 were focused on COVID-19 patients (38.2%). The majority of radiologists surveyed (61.5%) do not conduct research. Of the radiologists who carried on research activities, participants reported a significant increase of the number of hours per week spent for research purposes during national lockdown (mean 4.5 ± 8.9 h during lockdown vs. 3.3 ± 6.8 h before lockdown; p = .046), followed by a significant drop after the lockdown was lifted (3.2 ± 6.5 h per week, p = .035). During national lockdown, 15.6% of participants started new review articles and completed old papers, 14.1% completed old works, and 8.9% started new review articles. Ninety-six surveyed radiologists (29.3%) declared to have submitted at least one article during COVID-19 emergency. CONCLUSION: This study shows the need to support radiology research in challenging scenarios like COVID-19 emergency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Radiology , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(42): e22433, 2020 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883206

ABSTRACT

The chest computed tomography (CT) characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are important for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. The aim of this study was to investigate chest CT findings in COVID-19 patients in order to determine the optimal cut-off value of a CT severity score that can be considered a potential prognostic indicator of a severe/critical outcome.The CT findings were evaluated by means of a severity score that included the extent (0-4 grading scale) and nature (0-4 grading scale) of CT abnormalities. The images were evaluated at 3 levels bilaterally. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was used to identify the optimal score (Youden's index) predicting severe/critical COVID-19.The study involved 165 COVID-19 patients (131 men [79.4%] and 34 women [20.6%] with a mean age of 61.5 ±â€Š12.5 years), of whom 30 (18.2%) had severe/critical disease and 135 (81.8%) mild/typical disease. The most frequent CT finding was bilateral predominantly subpleural and basilar airspace changes, with more extensive ground-glass opacities than consolidation. CT findings of consolidation, a crazy-paving pattern, linear opacities, air bronchogram, and extrapulmonary lesions correlated with severe/critical COVID-19. The mean CT severity score was 63.95 in the severe/critical group, and 35.62 in the mild/typical group (P < .001). ROC curve analysis showed that a CT severity score of 38 predicted the development of severe/critical symptoms.A CT severity score can help the risk stratification of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/standards , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Pandemics , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Respiratory Rate , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
7.
Radiol Med ; 126(3): 388-398, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-856220

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of third-generation iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE) in dual-source, high-pitch chest CT protocol with spectral shaping at 100 kVp in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Confirmed COVID-19 inpatients undergoing to unenhanced chest CT were scanned with a dual-energy acquisition (DECT, 90/150Sn kV) and a dual-source, high-pitch acquisition with tin-filtered 100 kVp (LDCT). On the DECT with ADMIRE 3 (DECT3) were evaluated the pulmonary findings and their extension (25-point score). Two radiologists in consensus evaluated with 5-point scales the overall image quality, the anatomical structures, and the elementary findings on LDCT reconstructed with filtered backprojection (LDCT0), with ADMIRE 3 (LDCT3) and 5 (LDCT5), and on DECT3. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the body mass index, the exposure times, and the radiation doses were recorded. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients (57 M/18F; median age: 63 y.o.) were included, with median pulmonary extension of 13/25 points. The imaging findings were detected in proportion comparable to the available literature. The ADMIRE significantly improved the SNR in LDCT (p < 0.00001) with almost no significant differences in overweight patients. The LDCT had median effective dose of 0.39 mSv and acquisition time of 0.71 s with significantly less motion artifacts than DECT (p < 0.00001). The DECT3 and LDCT3 provided the best image quality and depiction of pulmonary anatomy and imaging findings, with significant differences among all the series (p < 0.00001). CONCLUSION: The LDCT with spectral shaping and ADMIRE3 provided acceptable image quality in the evaluation of patients with COVID-19, with significantly reduced radiation dose and motion artifacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Radiation Dosage , Retrospective Studies
8.
Acta Biomed ; 91(8-S): 51-59, 2020 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-782628

ABSTRACT

Novel beta-coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is the cause of Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), and on March 12th 2020, the World Health Organization defined COVID-19 as a controllable pandemic. Currently, the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) can be identified by virus isolation or viral nucleic acid detection; however, false negatives associated with the nucleic acid detection provide a clinical challenge. Imaging examination has become the indispensable means not only in the early detection and diagnosis but also in monitoring the clinical course, evaluating the disease severity, and may be presented as an important warning signal preceding the negative RT-PCR test results. Different radiological modalities can be used in different disease settings. Radiology Departments must be nimble in implementing operational changes to ensure continued radiology services and protect patients and staff health.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging/standards , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Radiography/standards , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Radiol Med ; 125(7): 636-646, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526875

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an emerging infection caused by a novel coronavirus that is moving so rapidly that on 30 January 2020 the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern and on 11 March 2020 as a pandemic. An early diagnosis of COVID-19 is crucial for disease treatment and control of the disease spread. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrated a low sensibility; therefore chest computed tomography (CT) plays a pivotal role not only in the early detection and diagnosis, especially for false negative RT-PCR tests, but also in monitoring the clinical course and in evaluating the disease severity. This paper reports the CT findings with some hints on the temporal changes over the course of the disease: the CT hallmarks of COVID-19 are bilateral distribution of ground glass opacities with or without consolidation in the posterior and peripheral lung, but the predominant findings in later phases include consolidations, linear opacities, "crazy-paving" pattern, "reversed halo" sign and vascular enlargement. The CT findings of COVID-19 overlap with the CT findings of other diseases, in particular the viral pneumonia including influenza viruses, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, etc. There are differences as well as similarities in the CT features of COVID-19 compared with those of the severe acute respiratory syndrome. The aim of this article is to review the typical and atypical CT findings in COVID-19 patients in order to help radiologists and clinicians to become more familiar with the disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Disease Progression , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS Virus
11.
Radiol Med ; 125(4): 365-373, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-23696

ABSTRACT

AIM: To subjectively and objectively evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic reliability of a low-dose, long-pitch dual-source chest CT protocol on third-generation dual-source CT (DSCT) with spectral shaping at 100Sn kVp for COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 and positive swab-test undergoing to a chest CT on third-generation DSCT were included. The imaging protocol included a dual-energy acquisition (HD-DECT, 90/150Sn kVp) and fast, low-dose, long-pitch CT, dual-source scan at 100Sn kVp (LDCT). Subjective (Likert Scales) and objective (signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios, SNR and CNR) analyses were performed; radiation dose and acquisition times were recorded. Nonparametric tests were used. RESULTS: The median radiation dose was lower for LDCT than HD-DECT (Effective dose, ED: 0.28 mSv vs. 3.28 mSv, p = 0.016). LDCT had median acquisition time of 0.62 s (vs 2.02 s, p = 0.016). SNR and CNR were significantly different in several thoracic structures between HD-DECT and LDCT, with exception of lung parenchyma. Qualitative analysis demonstrated significant reduction in motion artifacts (p = 0.031) with comparable diagnostic reliability between HD-DECT and LDCT. CONCLUSIONS: Ultra-low-dose, dual-source, fast CT protocol provides highly diagnostic images for COVID-19 with potential for reduction in dose and motion artifacts.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , COVID-19 , Clinical Protocols , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Radiation Dosage , SARS-CoV-2
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