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Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(1): ofab599, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608608


BACKGROUND: Clinical severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may vary over time; trends in clinical severity at admission during the pandemic among hospitalized patients in the United States have been incompletely described, so a historical record of severity over time is lacking. METHODS: We classified 466677 hospital admissions for COVID-19 from April 2020 to April 2021 into 4 mutually exclusive severity grades based on indicators present on admission (from most to least severe): Grade 4 included intensive care unit (ICU) admission and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV); grade 3 included non-IMV ICU and/or noninvasive positive pressure ventilation; grade 2 included diagnosis of acute respiratory failure; and grade 1 included none of the above indicators. Trends were stratified by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and comorbid conditions. We also examined severity in states with high vs low Alpha (B.1.1.7) variant burden. RESULTS: Severity tended to be lower among women, younger adults, and those with fewer comorbidities compared to their counterparts. The proportion of admissions classified as grade 1 or 2 fluctuated over time, but these less-severe grades comprised a majority (75%-85%) of admissions every month. Grades 3 and 4 consistently made up a minority of admissions (15%-25%), and grade 4 showed consistent decreases in all subgroups, including states with high Alpha variant burden. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical severity among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 has varied over time but has not consistently or markedly worsened over time. The proportion of admissions classified as grade 4 decreased in all subgroups. There was no consistent evidence of worsening severity in states with higher vs lower Alpha prevalence.

Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S5-S16, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364773


BACKGROUND: Late sequelae of COVID-19 have been reported; however, few studies have investigated the time course or incidence of late new COVID-19-related health conditions (post-COVID conditions) after COVID-19 diagnosis. Studies distinguishing post-COVID conditions from late conditions caused by other etiologies are lacking. Using data from a large administrative all-payer database, we assessed type, association, and timing of post-COVID conditions following COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: Using the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release (release date, 20 October 2020) data, during March-June 2020, 27 589 inpatients and 46 857 outpatients diagnosed with COVID-19 (case-patients) were 1:1 matched with patients without COVID-19 through the 4-month follow-up period (control-patients) by using propensity score matching. In this matched-cohort study, adjusted ORs were calculated to assess for late conditions that were more common in case-patients than control-patients. Incidence proportion was calculated for conditions that were more common in case-patients than control-patients during 31-120 days following a COVID-19 encounter. RESULTS: During 31-120 days after an initial COVID-19 inpatient hospitalization, 7.0% of adults experienced ≥1 of 5 post-COVID conditions. Among adult outpatients with COVID-19, 7.7% experienced ≥1 of 10 post-COVID conditions. During 31-60 days after an initial outpatient encounter, adults with COVID-19 were 2.8 times as likely to experience acute pulmonary embolism as outpatient control-patients and also more likely to experience a range of conditions affecting multiple body systems (eg, nonspecific chest pain, fatigue, headache, and respiratory, nervous, circulatory, and gastrointestinal symptoms) than outpatient control-patients. CONCLUSIONS: These findings add to the evidence of late health conditions possibly related to COVID-19 in adults following COVID-19 diagnosis and can inform healthcare practice and resource planning for follow-up COVID-19 care.

COVID-19 , Outpatients , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Humans , Inpatients , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(1): e35-e36, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892110


Idiopathic intussusception is a common cause of bowel obstruction in infants, presenting as refractory abdominal pain or mass, vomiting, lethargy, and currant jelly stool. Coronavirus disease 2019 is not well characterized in children, especially infants, but symptoms in children have included nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. From January to July 2020, intussusception was reported in 5 infants 4-10 months of age who had laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. All 5 infants presented with currant jelly stool and at least 1 other abdominal symptom, and none presented with respiratory symptoms. Four infants recovered but the fifth infant progressed to a critical illness and death. While an association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and intussusception has not been established, infants with symptoms consistent with intussusception may warrant testing for viral pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2, especially if presenting to healthcare with a history of SARS-CoV-2 exposure or with signs and symptoms of COVID-19. More investigation is needed to determine whether intussusception is part of the clinical spectrum of COVID-19 in infants or a coincidental finding among infants with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

COVID-19/complications , Intussusception/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant , Intussusception/pathology , Intussusception/therapy , Intussusception/virology , Male , Treatment Outcome