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Microorganisms ; 11(3)2023 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271168


Patients with heart transplantation (HT) have an increased risk of COVID-19 disease and the efficacy of vaccines on antibody induction is lower, even after three or four doses. The aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of four doses on infections and their interplay with immunosuppression. We included in this retrospective study all adult HT patients (12/21-11/22) without prior infection receiving a third or fourth dose of mRNA vaccine. The endpoints were infections and the combined incidence of ICU hospitalizations/death after the last dose (6-month survival rate). Among 268 patients, 62 had an infection, and 27.3% received four doses. Following multivariate analysis, three vs. four doses, mycophenolate (MMF) therapy, and HT < 5 years were associated with an increased risk of infection. MMF ≥ 2000 mg/day independently predicted infection, together with the other variables, and was associated with ICU hospitalization/death. Patients on MMF had lower levels of anti-RBD antibodies, and a positive antibody response after the third dose was associated with a lower probability of infection. In HT patients, a fourth dose of vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 reduces the risk of infection at six months. Mycophenolate, particularly at high doses, reduces the clinical effectiveness of the fourth dose and the antibody response to the vaccine.