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1.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 12(2): 196-205, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821089

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Following the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, a complete analysis of the characteristics of the deceased hospitalized patients was performed, to identify factors related to premature mortality and to compare patient profiles according to the epidemic periods. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 1104 deceased patients in two University Hospitals in South-eastern France, between March 1, 2020 and March 12, 2021 from Hospital's electronic medical records was performed. RESULTS: Mean age was 80 years (± 11.1) and 10% of the deceased were younger than 65 years with specific comorbidities, e.g., genetic conditions, metastatic cancer, or massive obesity. Among the three clusters identified, two clusters (75% of deceased patients) include very elderly patients with numerous comorbidities, and differ by their proportion of dependent institutionalized patients. The third cluster is made up of younger patients with fewer but severe comorbidities. Deceased patients' profiles varied according to the epidemic periods: during the first period (March-June 2020), more patients were institutionalized. The second period (September-December2020) coincided with a higher mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed that most patients hospitalized and dying from COVID-19 were frail, i.e., elderly and/or highly comorbid and that the small proportion of young patients had severe comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Clin Virol ; 150-151: 105163, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We systematically survey respiratory and gastrointestinal infections of viral origin in samples sent to our university hospital institute in Marseille, southern France. Here, we evaluated whether the measures implemented to fight COVID-19 had an effect on the dynamics of viral respiratory or gastrointestinal infections. METHODS: We analysed PCR performed and positive for the diagnoses of viral respiratory and gastrointestinal infections over five years (January 2017-February 2021). Data were collected from our epidemiological surveillance system (MIDaS). Dates and contents of French measures against SARS-CoV-2 were collected from: https://www.gouvernement.fr/info-coronavirus/les-actions-du-gouvernement. RESULTS: Over the 2017-2021 period, 990,364 analyses were carried out for respiratory infections not including SARS-CoV-2, 510,671 for SARS-CoV-2 and 27,719 for gastrointestinal infections. During winter 2020-2021, when the most restrictive lockdown measures were in place in France, a marked decrease of infections with influenza viruses (one case versus 1,839-1,850 cases during 2017-2020 cold seasons) and with the RSV (56 cases versus 988-1,196 cases during 2017-2020 cold seasons) was observed, demonstrating the relative effectiveness of these measures on their occurrence. SARS-CoV-2 incidence seemed far less affected. Rhinoviruses, parainfluenza 3 virus, and the coronavirus NL63 remained at comparable levels. Also, the norovirus winter season positivity rates decreased continuously and significantly over time from 9.3% in 2017-2018 to 2.0% in 2020-2021. CONCLUSION: The measures taken to control COVID-19 were effective against lower respiratory tract infections viruses and gastroenteritis agents, but not on the agents of the common winter cold and SARS-CoV-2. This suggests that more specific measures to prevent COVID-19 and upper respiratory tract infections need to be discovered to limit the spread of this epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Respiratory Tract Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Hygiene , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Frontiers in microbiology ; 12, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1696164

ABSTRACT

After the end of the first epidemic episode of SARS-CoV-2 infections, as cases began to rise again during the summer of 2020, we at IHU Méditerranée Infection in Marseille, France, intensified the genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2, and described the first viral variants. In this study, we compared the incidence curves of SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths in different countries and reported the classification of SARS-CoV-2 variants detected in our institute, as well as the kinetics and sources of the infections. We used mortality collected from a COVID-19 data repository for 221 countries. Viral variants were defined based on ≥5 hallmark mutations along the whole genome shared by ≥30 genomes. SARS-CoV-2 genotype was determined for 24,181 patients using next-generation genome and gene sequencing (in 47 and 11% of cases, respectively) or variant-specific qPCR (in 42% of cases). Sixteen variants were identified by analyzing viral genomes from 9,788 SARS-CoV-2-diagnosed patients. Our data show that since the first SARS-CoV-2 epidemic episode in Marseille, importation through travel from abroad was documented for seven of the new variants. In addition, for the B.1.160 variant of Pangolin classification (a.k.a. Marseille-4), we suspect transmission from farm minks. In conclusion, we observed that the successive epidemic peaks of SARS-CoV-2 infections are not linked to rebounds of viral genotypes that are already present but to newly introduced variants. We thus suggest that border control is the best mean of combating this type of introduction, and that intensive control of mink farms is also necessary to prevent the emergence of new variants generated in this animal reservoir.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311200

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, the IHU Méditerranée Infection set up a screening and treatment center for patients with COVID-19, a system that has been ultimately recommended by French public health authorities. The recent publication of the profiles of patients hospitalized in France published by the Directorate for Research, Studies, Evaluation and Statistics gives us the opportunity to measure the impact of this multidisciplinary early management system coupled with screening on mortality at 90 days. Analysis of the data shows that the system established at IHU-MI was associated with lower mortality, taking age and sex into account. Regarding the age-standardized mortality rate, mortality rates were lower than national data regardless of the period of the epidemic. Early management seems to have significantly decreased the mortality rate in the under-60 age group, suggesting the importance of early management, regardless of age. In addition, these patients had pejorative clinical criteria (high NEWS-2 score, ICU visits, oxygen saturation below 95%) requiring hospitalization, and co-morbidities that are now known to be aggravating factors [7]. This reinforces the need to care for all individuals, regardless of age. Early medical care, as part of a system integrating a screening center and a day hospital, may explain the lower mortality rates.

5.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 796807, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674356

ABSTRACT

From January 18th to August 13th, 2021, 13,804 unvaccinated and 1,156 patients who had received at least one COVID-19 vaccine dose were tested qPCR-positive for SARS-CoV-2 in our center. Among vaccinated patients, 949, 205 and 2 had received a single, two or three vaccine doses, respectively. Most patients (80.3%) had received the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine. The SARS-CoV-2 variants infecting vaccinated patients varied over time, reflecting those circulating in the Marseille area, with a predominance of the Marseille-4/20A.EU2 variant from weeks 3 to 6, of the Alpha/20I variant from weeks 7 to 25, and of the Delta/21A variant from week 26. SARS-CoV-2 infection was significantly more likely to occur in the first 13 days post-vaccine injection in those who received a single dose (48.9%) than two doses (27.4%, p< 10-3). Among 161 patients considered as fully vaccinated, i.e., >14 days after the completion of the vaccinal scheme (one dose for Johnson and Johnson and two doses for Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna and Sputnik vaccines), 10 (6.2%) required hospitalization and four (2.5%) died. Risks of complications increased with age in a nonlinear pattern, with a first breakpoint at 54, 33, and 53 years for death, transfer to ICU, and hospitalization, respectively. Among patients infected by the Delta/21A or Alpha/20I variants, partial or complete vaccination exhibited a protective effect with a risk divided by 3.1 for mortality in patients ≥ 55 years, by 2.8 for ICU transfer in patients ≥ 34 years, and by 1.8 for hospitalization in patients ≥ 54 years. Compared to partial vaccination, complete vaccination provided an even stronger protective effect, confirming effectiveness to prevent severe forms of COVID-19.

6.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e049475, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591339

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Between 1 March and 15 June, France experienced the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, during which 29 549 deaths occurred among COVID-19 patients, 17 250 of whom died in hospital. Our hypothesis is that crude mortality rates are not sufficient to assess the impact of the epidemic on public health. The objective of this paper is to estimate the potential years of life lost (YLL) of patients who died from COVID-19. METHOD: We realised a retrospective analysis of the exhaustive sample of COVID-19 PCR-positive patients who died in public hospitals of Marseille during this first wave. Data on demographic characteristics, comorbidities and care pathways were collected from medical records. The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was used to assess what would have been the probability of dying within 1 year of these patients in the absence of COVID-19 and to estimate total YLL. RESULTS: Among the 1631 patients who were hospitalised for COVID-19, 178 patients died, at an average age of 80 years. According to CCI, 88.8% of the deceased patients had an 85% probability of dying within 1 year before COVID-19. Among the 11.2% who had a lower CCI probability, 18 out of 20 had at least one additional comorbidity known to be a major risk factor of mortality in COVID-19 disease. Cumulative total number of YLL was estimated to be 541 in this deceased population, that is, an average of 3 YLL. CONCLUSION: Although our results should be interpreted with caution, this analysis confirms that mortality due to COVID-19 translates into a limited number of YLL due to both old age and preexisting comorbidities in the most vulnerable patients. This fact should be better considered in public health management of the pandemic both for risk communication and design of the most appropriate protective measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , France/epidemiology , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Pathogens ; 10(8)2021 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477982

ABSTRACT

The monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in sewage has been proposed as a simple and unbiased means of assessing epidemic evolution and the efficiency of the COVID-19 control measures. The past year has been marked by the emergence of variants that have led to a succession of epidemic waves. It thus appears that monitoring the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater alone is insufficient, and it may be important in the future to also monitor the evolution of these variants. We used a real-time RT-PCR screening test for variants in the wastewater of our city to assess the effectiveness of direct SARS-CoV-2 sequencing from the same wastewater. We compared the genome sequencing results obtained over the large RS network and the smaller B7 network with the different distributions of the variants observed by RT-PCR screening. The prevalence of the "UK variant" in the RS and B7 networks was estimated to be 70% and 8% using RT-PCR screening compared to 95% and 64% using genome sequencing, respectively. The latter values were close to the epidemiology observed in patients of the corresponding area, which were 91% and 58%, respectively. Genome sequencing in sewage identified SARS-CoV-2 of lineage B.1.525 in B7 at 27% (37% in patients), whereas it was completely missed by RT-PCR. We thus determined that direct sequencing makes it possible to observe, in wastewater, a distribution of the variants comparable to that revealed by genomic monitoring in patients and that this method is more accurate than RT-PCR. It also shows that, rather than a single large sample, it would be preferable to analyse several targeted samples if we want to more appropriately assess the geographical distribution of the different variants. In conclusion, this work supports the wider surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 variants in wastewater by genome sequencing and targeting small areas on the condition of having a sequencing capacity and, when this is not the case, to developing more precise screening tests based on the multiplexed detection of the mutations of interest.

8.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(3): 1063-1072, 2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439023

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the age-specific mortality of unselected adult outpatients infected with SARS-CoV-2 treated early in a dedicated COVID-19 day hospital and we assessed whether the use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) + azithromycin (AZ) was associated with improved survival in this cohort. A retrospective monocentric cohort study was conducted in the day hospital of our center from March to December 2020 in adults with PCR-proven infection who were treated as outpatients with a standardized protocol. The primary endpoint was 6-week mortality, and secondary endpoints were transfer to the intensive care unit and hospitalization rate. Among 10,429 patients (median age, 45 [IQR 32-57] years; 5597 [53.7%] women), 16 died (0.15%). The infection fatality rate was 0.06% among the 8315 patients treated with HCQ+AZ. No deaths occurred among the 8414 patients younger than 60 years. Older age and male sex were associated with a higher risk of death, ICU transfer, and hospitalization. Treatment with HCQ+AZ (0.17 [0.06-0.48]) was associated with a lower risk of death, independently of age, sex and epidemic period. Meta-analysis evidenced consistency with 4 previous outpatient studies (32,124 patients-Odds ratio 0.31 [0.20-0.47], I2 = 0%). Early ambulatory treatment of COVID-19 with HCQ+AZ as a standard of care is associated with very low mortality, and HCQ+AZ improve COVID-19 survival compared to other regimens.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Early Medical Intervention , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , France , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
9.
J Clin Med ; 10(13)2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403797

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: We collected COVID-19 mortality data and the age distribution of the deceased in France and other European countries, as well as specifically in the cities of Paris and Marseille, and compared them. (2) Methods: Data on mortality related to COVID-19 and the associated age distribution were collected from government institutions in various European countries. In France, data were obtained from INSEE and Santé Publique France. All-cause mortality was also examined in order to study potential excess mortality using EuroMOMO. The Marseille data came from the epidemiological surveillance system. (3) Results: France is one of the European countries most impacted by COVID-19. Its proportion of deaths in people under 60 years of age is higher (6.5%) than that of Italy (4.6%) or Spain (4.7%). Excess mortality (5% more deaths) was also observed. Ile-de-France and the Grand-Est are the two French regions with the highest mortality. The proportion of deaths in the under-60 age group was considerable in Ile-de-France (9.9% vs. 4.5% in the Southern region). There are significantly higher numbers of patients hospitalized, in intensive care and deceased in Paris than in Marseille. (4) Conclusions: No patient management, i.e., from screening to diagnosis, including biological assessment and clinical examination, likely explains the high mortality associated with COVID-19.

11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 96: 154-156, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385692

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viruses are a major cause of mortality worldwide and in France, where they cause several thousands of deaths every year. University Hospital Institute-Méditerranée Infection performs real-time surveillance of all diagnoses of infections and associated deaths in public hospitals in Marseille, Southeastern France. This study compared mortality associated with diagnoses of respiratory viruses during the colder months of 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 (week 47-week 14). In 2018-2019, 73 patients (0.17% of 42,851 hospitalized patients) died after being diagnosed with a respiratory virus; 40 and 13 deaths occurred in patients diagnosed with influenza A virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), respectively. In 2019-2020, 50 patients (0.10% of 49,043 patients hospitalized) died after being diagnosed with a common respiratory virus; seven and seven deaths occurred in patients diagnosed with influenza A virus and RSV, respectively. Additionally, 55 patients died after being diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2. The proportion of respiratory virus-associated deaths among hospitalized patients was thus significantly lower for common respiratory viruses in 2019-2020 than in 2018-2019 (102 versus 170 per 100,000 hospitalized patients; p = 0.003), primarily as a consequence of a decrease in influenza A virus (-83%) and RSV (-46%)-associated deaths. Overall, the proportion of respiratory virus-associated deaths among hospitalized patients was higher, but not significantly, in 2019-2020 than in 2018-2019 (214 versus 170 per 100,000 hospitalized patients; p = 0.08, Yates-corrected Chi-square test). These findings put into perspective the death burden of SARS-CoV-2 infections in this geographical area.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Child, Preschool , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
13.
J Clin Med ; 10(15)2021 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325710

ABSTRACT

The objective of this paper is to describe the surveillance system MIDaS and to show how this system has been used for evaluating the consequences of the French COVID-19 lockdown on the bacterial mix of AP-HM and the antibiotic resistance. MIDas is a kind of surveillance activity hub, allowing the automatic construction of surveillance control boards. We investigated the diversity and resistance of bacterial agents from respiratory, blood, and urine samples during the lockdown period (from week 12 to 35 of 2020), using the same period of years from 2017 to 2019 as control. Taking into account the drop in patient recruitment, several species have exhibited significant changes in their relative abundance (either increasing or decreasing) with changes up to 9%. The changes were more important for respiratory and urine samples than for blood samples. The relative abundance in respiratory samples for the whole studied period was higher during the lockdown. A significant increase in the percentage of wild phenotypes during the lockdown was observed for several species. The use of the MIDaS syndromic collection and surveillance system made it possible to efficiently detect, analyze, and follow changes of the microbiological population as during the lockdown period.

14.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 664477, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256387

ABSTRACT

In recent years, and more specifically at the beginning of the COVID-19 crisis, wastewater surveillance has been proposed as a tool to monitor the epidemiology of human viral infections. In the present work, from July to December 2020, the number of copies of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in Marseille's wastewater was correlated with the number of new positive cases diagnosed in our Institute of Infectious Disease, which tested about 20% of the city's population. Number of positive cases and number of copies of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater were significantly correlated (p = 0.013). During the great epidemic peak, from October to December 2020, the curves of virus in the sewers and the curves of positive diagnoses were perfectly superposed. During the summer period, the superposition of curves was less evident as subject to many confounding factors that were discussed. We also tried to correlate the effect of viral circulation in wastewater with containment measures, probably the most unbiased correlation on their potential inflection effect of epidemic curves. Not only is this correlation not obvious, but it also clearly appears that the drop in cases as well as the drop in the viral load in the sewers occur before the containment measures. In fact, this suggests that there are factors that initiate the end of the epidemic peak independently of the containment measure. These factors will therefore need to be explored more deeply in the future.

15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 17-19, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060100

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of COVID-19 patients seen in March-April and June-August 2020 in Marseille, France with the aim to investigate possible changes in the disease between these two time periods. METHODS: Demographics, hospitalization rate, transfer to intensive care unit (ICU), lethality, clinical and biological parameters were investigated. RESULTS: Compared to those seen in March-April, COVID-19 patients seen in June-August were significantly younger (39.2 vs. 45.3 years), more likely to be male (52.9% vs. 45.6%), and less likely to be hospitalized (10.7 vs. 18.0%), to be transferred to ICU (0.9% vs. 1.8%) and to die (0.1% vs. 1.1%). Their mean fibrinogen and D-dimer blood levels were lower (1.0 vs. 1.5 g/L and 0.6 vs. 1.1 µg/mL, respectively). By contrast, their viral load was higher (cycle threshold ≤16 = 5.1% vs. 3.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Patients in the two periods did not present marked age and sex differences, but markers of severity were undoubtedly less prevalent in the summer period, associating with a 10 times decrease in the lethality rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Time Factors
18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 101: 121-125, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-797460

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The SARS-CoV-2 epidemic presents a poorly understood epidemiological cycle. We aimed to compare the age and weekly distributions of the five human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, that circulated in southeastern France. METHODS: We analyzed all available diagnoses of respiratory viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, performed between 09/2013 and 05/2020 at the University Hospital Institute Méditerranée Infection in Marseille, southeastern France. RESULTS: For SARS-CoV-2, positive children <15 years of age represented 3.4% (228/6,735) of all positive cases, which is significantly less than for endemic coronaviruses (46.1%; 533/1,156; p < 0.001). Among 10,026 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 and endemic coronaviruses in 2020, children <15 years represented a significantly lower proportion of all positive cases for SARS-CoV-2 than for endemic coronaviruses [2.2% (24/1,067) vs. 33.5% (149/445), respectively; p < 0.001]. Epidemic curves for endemic coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2 in 91,722 patients showed comparable bell-shaped distributions with a slight time lag. In contrast, the age distribution of endemic coronaviruses and 14 other respiratory viruses differed significantly compared to that of SARS-CoV-2, which was the only virus to relatively spare children. CONCLUSIONS: We observed for SARS-CoV-2 a temporal distribution resembling that of endemic coronaviruses but an age distribution that relatively spares the youngest subjects, who are those the most exposed to endemic coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , France , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Young Adult
19.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 36: 101791, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In our institute in Marseille, France, we initiated early and massive screening for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Hospitalization and early treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin (HCQ-AZ) was proposed for the positive cases. METHODS: We retrospectively report the clinical management of 3,737 screened patients, including 3,119 (83.5%) treated with HCQ-AZ (200 mg of oral HCQ, three times daily for ten days and 500 mg of oral AZ on day 1 followed by 250 mg daily for the next four days, respectively) for at least three days and 618 (16.5%) patients treated with other regimen ("others"). Outcomes were death, transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU), ≥10 days of hospitalization and viral shedding. RESULTS: The patients' mean age was 45 (sd 17) years, 45% were male, and the case fatality rate was 0.9%. We performed 2,065 low-dose computed tomography (CT) scans highlighting lung lesions in 592 of the 991 (59.7%) patients with minimal clinical symptoms (NEWS score = 0). A discrepancy between spontaneous dyspnoea, hypoxemia and lung lesions was observed. Clinical factors (age, comorbidities, NEWS-2 score), biological factors (lymphocytopenia; eosinopenia; decrease in blood zinc; and increase in D-dimers, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine phosphokinase, troponin and C-reactive protein) and moderate and severe lesions detected in low-dose CT scans were associated with poor clinical outcome. Treatment with HCQ-AZ was associated with a decreased risk of transfer to ICU or death (Hazard ratio (HR) 0.18 0.11-0.27), decreased risk of hospitalization ≥10 days (odds ratios 95% CI 0.38 0.27-0.54) and shorter duration of viral shedding (time to negative PCR: HR 1.29 1.17-1.42). QTc prolongation (>60 ms) was observed in 25 patients (0.67%) leading to the cessation of treatment in 12 cases including 3 cases with QTc> 500 ms. No cases of torsade de pointe or sudden death were observed. CONCLUSION: Although this is a retrospective analysis, results suggest that early diagnosis, early isolation and early treatment of COVID-19 patients, with at least 3 days of HCQ-AZ lead to a significantly better clinical outcome and a faster viral load reduction than other treatments.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
20.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 35: 101738, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-398900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In France, the combination hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZ) is used in the treatment of COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively report on 1061 SARS-CoV-2 positive tested patients treated for at least three days with the following regimen: HCQ (200 mg three times daily for ten days) + AZ (500 mg on day 1 followed by 250 mg daily for the next four days). Outcomes were death, clinical worsening (transfer to ICU, and >10 day hospitalization) and viral shedding persistence (>10 days). RESULTS: A total of 1061 patients were included in this analysis (46.4% male, mean age 43.6 years - range 14-95 years). Good clinical outcome and virological cure were obtained in 973 patients within 10 days (91.7%). Prolonged viral carriage was observed in 47 patients (4.4%) and was associated to a higher viral load at diagnosis (p < .001) but viral culture was negative at day 10. All but one, were PCR-cleared at day 15. A poor clinical outcome (PClinO) was observed for 46 patients (4.3%) and 8 died (0.75%) (74-95 years old). All deaths resulted from respiratory failure and not from cardiac toxicity. Five patients are still hospitalized (98.7% of patients cured so far). PClinO was associated with older age (OR 1.11), severity of illness at admission (OR 10.05) and low HCQ serum concentration. PClinO was independently associated with the use of selective beta-blocking agents and angiotensin II receptor blockers (p < .05). A total of 2.3% of patients reported mild adverse events (gastrointestinal or skin symptoms, headache, insomnia and transient blurred vision). CONCLUSION: Administration of the HCQ+AZ combination before COVID-19 complications occur is safe and associated with a very low fatality rate in patients.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Follow-Up Studies , France , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load , Young Adult
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