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1.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294802

ABSTRACT

Introduction: As vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 progresses rapidly around the world, reliable detection of SARS-CoV-2 specific neutralizing antibodies (NAb) has become an indispensable component of serological diagnostics. We evaluated the performance of four commercially available tests, i.e. two lateral flow assays (Coris BioConcept COVID-19 Sero NP/RBD and Concile InfectCheck COVID-19 NAb) and two surrogate ELISA (sELISA) tests (EUROIMMUN SARS-CoV-2 NeutraLISA and AdipoGen SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibodies Detection Kit) in comparison with an in-house SARS-CoV-2 micro neutralization test as reference. <br><br>Methods: A total of 334 sera were tested, including 30 samples collected prior to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, 128 sera from convalescent patients as well as 176 sera from partially or fully vaccinated individuals.<br><br>Results: The overall sensitivity of LFAs differed and was 71.6% for the Coris and 98.4% for the Concile. In contrast, overall sensitivity of the NeutraLISA was 86% and 98% for the AdipoGen. All test showed the highest sensitivity when testing samples from fully vaccinated individuals with both sELISA achieving 100% sensitivity. Overall specificity was 89.3% for the Coris and only 58.3% for the Concile. Similarly significant differences were observed for both sELISA, with an overall specificity of 82.1% for the NeutraLISA and only 54.8% for the AdipoGen. All tests showed a 100% specificity when testing negative control samples while specificities were lowest when testing samples from only partially vaccinated individuals. <br><br>Conclusion: Our findings support the potential use of the Concile LFA and both sELISA for the detection of NAbs against SARS-CoV-2, especially to determine NAb levels after complete vaccination. <br>

2.
J Gen Virol ; 102(10)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488154

ABSTRACT

A number of seroassays are available for SARS-CoV-2 testing; yet, head-to-head evaluations of different testing principles are limited, especially using raw values rather than categorical data. In addition, identifying correlates of protection is of utmost importance, and comparisons of available testing systems with functional assays, such as direct viral neutralisation, are needed.We analysed 6658 samples consisting of true-positives (n=193), true-negatives (n=1091), and specimens of unknown status (n=5374). For primary testing, we used Euroimmun-Anti-SARS-CoV-2-ELISA-IgA/IgG and Roche-Elecsys-Anti-SARS-CoV-2. Subsequently virus-neutralisation, GeneScriptcPass, VIRAMED-SARS-CoV-2-ViraChip, and Mikrogen-recomLine-SARS-CoV-2-IgG were applied for confirmatory testing. Statistical modelling generated optimised assay cut-off thresholds. Sensitivity of Euroimmun-anti-S1-IgA was 64.8%, specificity 93.3% (manufacturer's cut-off); for Euroimmun-anti-S1-IgG, sensitivity was 77.2/79.8% (manufacturer's/optimised cut-offs), specificity 98.0/97.8%; Roche-anti-N sensitivity was 85.5/88.6%, specificity 99.8/99.7%. In true-positives, mean and median Euroimmun-anti-S1-IgA and -IgG titres decreased 30/90 days after RT-PCR-positivity, Roche-anti-N titres decreased significantly later. Virus-neutralisation was 80.6% sensitive, 100.0% specific (≥1:5 dilution). Neutralisation surrogate tests (GeneScriptcPass, Mikrogen-recomLine-RBD) were >94.9% sensitive and >98.1% specific. Optimised cut-offs improved test performances of several tests. Confirmatory testing with virus-neutralisation might be complemented with GeneScriptcPassTM or recomLine-RBD for certain applications. Head-to-head comparisons given here aim to contribute to the refinement of testing strategies for individual and public health use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Neutralization Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cohort Studies , Humans
3.
Virus Genes ; 57(6): 502-509, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449987

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infections elicit a humoral immune response capable of neutralising the virus. However, multiple variants have emerged with mutations in the spike protein amongst others, the key target of neutralising antibodies. We evaluated the neutralising efficacy of 89 serum samples from patients, infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the beginning of 2020, against two virus variants isolated from acutely infected patients and harbouring spike protein mutations. One isolate was assigned to lineage B.1.351 (MUC-IMB-B.1.351) whilst the other (MUC-484) was isolated from an immunocompromised patient, sharing some but not all mutations with B.1.351 and representing a transitional variant. Both variants showed a significant reduction in neutralisation sensitivity compared to wild-type SARS-CoV-2 with MUC-IMB-B.1.351 being almost completely resistant to neutralisation. The observed reduction in neutralising activity of wild-type-specific antibodies against both variants suggests that individual mutations in the spike protein are sufficient to confer a potent escape from the humoral immune response. In addition, the effect of escape mutations seems to accumulate, so that more heavily mutated variants show a greater loss of sensitivity to neutralisation up to complete insensitivity as observed for MUC-IMB-B.1.351. From a clinical point of view, this might affect the efficacy of (monoclonal) antibody treatment of patients with prolonged infections as well as patients infected with variants other than the donor. At the same, this could also negatively influence the efficacy of current vaccines (as they are based on wild-type spike protein) emphasising the need to thoroughly surveil the emergence and distribution of variants and adapt vaccines and therapeutics accordingly.

4.
J Clin Med ; 10(15)2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335119

ABSTRACT

After COVID-19, some patients develop long-term symptoms. Whether such symptoms correlate with immune responses, and how long immunity persists, is not yet clear. This study focused on mild COVID-19 and investigated correlations of immunity with persistent symptoms and immune longevity. Persistent complications, including headache, concentration difficulties and loss of smell/taste, were reported by 51 of 83 (61%) participants and decreased over time to 28% one year after COVID-19. Specific IgA and IgG antibodies were detectable in 78% and 66% of participants, respectively, at a 12-month follow-up. Median antibody levels decreased by approximately 50% within the first 6 months but remained stable up to 12 months. Neutralizing antibodies could be found in 50% of participants; specific INFgamma-producing T-cells were present in two thirds one year after COVID-19. Activation-induced marker assays identified specific T-helper cells and central memory T-cells in 80% of participants at a 12-month follow-up. In correlative analyses, older age and a longer duration of the acute phase of COVID-19 were associated with higher humoral and T-cell responses. A weak correlation between long-term loss of taste/smell and low IgA levels was found at early time points. These data indicate a long-lasting immunological memory against SARS-CoV-2 after mild COVID-19.

5.
Euro Surveill ; 26(30)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334902

ABSTRACT

A breakthrough infection occurred in a fully Comirnaty (BNT162b2) vaccinated healthcare worker with high levels of neutralising antibodies with the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.351 (Beta) variant in February 2021. The infection was subsequently transmitted to their unvaccinated spouse. Sequencing revealed an identical virus in both spouses, with a match of all nine single nucleotide polymorphisms typical for B.1.351. To the best of our knowledge, no transmission of any variant of SARS-CoV-2 from a fully vaccinated person has been described before.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Clin Virol ; 142: 104912, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313212

ABSTRACT

Spike-specific antibodies contribute significantly to the neutralising activity against SARS-CoV-2 and are important for the therapeutic effect of convalescent plasma. B.1.1.7 is a recently emerged variant of SARS-CoV-2 that has several mutations in the gene encoding for the spike-protein. To assess the potential effect these mutations could have on the neutralising efficacy of antibodies, we evaluated 96 serum samples from convalescent plasma donors collected before the first occurrence of B.1.1.7 and tested their neutralising effect on wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and B.1.1.7. We found that B.1.1.7 is more resistant to neutralisation by convalescent plasma from patients infected with wild-type SARS-CoV-2 with an overall decrease in neutralising activity of 47.7%. Thus, the neutralising effect of convalescent plasma should be determined against the major circulating virus clades whenever possible to ensure the best possible therapeutic effect.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
7.
Hemasphere ; 5(7): e603, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301392

ABSTRACT

The clinical and immunological impact of B-cell depletion in the context of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unclear. We conducted a prospectively planned analysis of COVID-19 in patients who received B-cell depleting anti-CD20 antibodies and chemotherapy for B-cell lymphomas. The control cohort consisted of age- and sex-matched patients without lymphoma who were hospitalized because of COVID-19. We performed detailed clinical analyses, in-depth cellular and molecular immune profiling, and comprehensive virological studies in 12 patients with available biospecimens. B-cell depleted lymphoma patients had more severe and protracted clinical course (median hospitalization 88 versus 17 d). All patients actively receiving immunochemotherapy (n = 5) required ICU support including long-term mechanical ventilation. Neutrophil recovery following granulocyte colony stimulating factor stimulation coincided with hyperinflammation and clinical deterioration in 4 of the 5 patients. Immune cell profiling and gene expression analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed early activation of monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, and the complement system in B-cell depleted lymphoma patients, with subsequent exacerbation of the inflammatory response and dysfunctional interferon signaling at the time of clinical deterioration of COVID-19. Longitudinal immune cell profiling and functional in vitro assays showed SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T-effector cell responses. Finally, we observed long-term detection of SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory specimens (median 84 versus 12 d) and an inability to mount lasting SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses in B-cell depleted lymphoma patients. In summary, we identified clinically relevant particularities of COVID-19 in lymphoma patients receiving B-cell depleting immunochemotherapies.

9.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(3): 1505-1518, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274999

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quantitative serological assays detecting response to SARS-CoV-2 are needed to quantify immunity. This study analyzed the performance and correlation of two quantitative anti-S1 assays in oligo-/asymptomatic individuals from a population-based cohort. METHODS: In total, 362 plasma samples (108 with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR]-positive pharyngeal swabs, 111 negative controls, and 143 with positive serology without confirmation by RT-PCR) were tested with quantitative assays (Euroimmun Anti-SARS-CoV-2 QuantiVac enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [EI-S1-IgG-quant]) and Roche Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S [Ro-RBD-Ig-quant]), which were compared with each other and confirmatory tests, including wild-type virus micro-neutralization (NT) and GenScript®cPass™. Square roots R of coefficients of determination were calculated for continuous variables and non-parametric tests were used for paired comparisons. RESULTS: Quantitative anti-S1 serology correlated well with each other (true positives, 96%; true negatives, 97%). Antibody titers decreased over time (< 30 to > 240 days after initial positive RT-PCR). Agreement with GenScript-cPass was 96%/99% for true positives and true negatives, respectively, for Ro-RBD-Ig-quant and 93%/97% for EI-S1-IgG-quant. Ro-RBD-Ig-quant allowed distinct separation between positives and negatives, and less non-specific reactivity versus EI-S1-IgG-quant. Raw values (95% CI) ≥ 28.7 U/mL (22.6-36.4) for Ro-RBD-Ig-quant and ≥ 49.8 U/mL (43.4-57.1) for EI-S1-IgG-quant predicted NT > 1:5 in 95% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest both quantitative anti-S1 assays (EI-S1-IgG-quant and Ro-RBD-Ig-quant) may replace direct neutralization assays in quantitative measurement of immune protection against SARS-CoV-2 in certain circumstances. However, although the mean antibody titers for both assays tended to decrease over time, a higher proportion of Ro-RBD-Ig-quant values remained positive after 240 days.

10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(8)2021 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178245

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with a potentially severe clinical manifestation, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and currently poses a worldwide challenge. Health care workers (HCWs) are at the forefront of any health care system and thus especially at risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection due to their potentially frequent and close contact with patients suffering from COVID-19. Serum samples from 198 HCWs with direct patient contact of a regional medical center and several outpatient facilities were collected during the early phase of the pandemic (April 2020) and tested for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. Commercially available IgA- and IgG-specific ELISAs were used as screening technique, followed by an in-house neutralization assay for confirmation. Neutralizing SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies were detected in seven of 198 (3.5%) tested HCWs. There was no significant difference in seroprevalence between the regional medical center (3.4%) and the outpatient institution (5%). The overall seroprevalence of neutralizing SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in HCWs in both a large regional medical center and a small outpatient institution was low (3.5%) at the beginning of April 2020. The findings may indicate that the timely implemented preventive measures (strict hygiene protocols, personal protective equipment) were effective to protect from transmission of an airborne virus when only limited information on the pathogen was available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Germany/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies
11.
J Virol Methods ; 292: 114122, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120398

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Reliable methods for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibodies (NAbs) are essential for the evaluation of vaccine candidates and for the selection of convalescent plasma donors. Virus neutralisation tests (NTs) are the gold standard for the detection and quantification of NAbs, but they are complex and require BSL3 facilities. In contrast, surrogate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (sELISA) offer the possibility of high-throughput testing under standard laboratory safety conditions. In this study, we investigated two commercial sELISA kits (GenScript, AdipoGen) designed for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 NAbs. METHODS: 276 plasma samples were screened using commercial IgG-ELISA and NAbs titres were determined by micro-neutralisation test (micro-NT). In addition, all samples were tested in both sELISA. Sensitivity and specificity for both sELISA were determined in comparison to the micro-NT results. RESULTS: 57 % of the samples were SARS-CoV-2 NAb positive in micro-NT, while 43 % tested negative. Comparison with micro-NT results showed a sensitivity of 98.2 % and a specificity of 69.5 % for the GenScript ELISA. The AdipoGen ELISA had a sensitivity of 83.5 % and a specificity of 97.8 %. False negative results were obtained mainly on samples with low NAbs titres. CONCLUSION: Both sELISA were able to qualitatively detect NAbs in plasma samples. Sensitivity and specificity differed between sELISA with GenScript superior in sensitivity and AdipoGen superior in specificity. Both sELISA were unable to quantify NAbs, thus neither of them can completely replace conventional NTs. However, in a two-step diagnostic algorithm, AdipoGen could potentially replace NT as a subsequent confirmatory test due to its high specificity but only in settings where no exact NAbs quantification is needed.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Neutralization Tests
12.
Am J Transplant ; 21(4): 1629-1632, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-852163

ABSTRACT

To date, little is known about the duration and effectiveness of immunity as well as possible adverse late effects after an infection with SARS-CoV-2. Thus it is unclear, when and if liver transplantation can be safely offered to patients who suffered from COVID-19. Here, we report on a successful liver transplantation shortly after convalescence from COVID-19 with subsequent partial seroreversion as well as recurrence and prolonged shedding of viral RNA.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/complications , End Stage Liver Disease/surgery , Liver Transplantation , Virus Shedding , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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