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1.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 63, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690946

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV2 develop acute kidney injury (AKI) frequently, yet gaps remain in understanding why adults seem to have higher rates compared to children. Our objectives were to evaluate the epidemiology of SARS-CoV2-related AKI across the age spectrum and determine if known risk factors such as illness severity contribute to its pattern. METHODS: Secondary analysis of ongoing prospective international cohort registry. AKI was defined by KDIGO-creatinine only criteria. Log-linear, logistic and generalized estimating equations assessed odds ratios (OR), risk differences (RD), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for AKI and mortality adjusting for sex, pre-existing comorbidities, race/ethnicity, illness severity, and clustering within centers. Sensitivity analyses assessed different baseline creatinine estimators. RESULTS: Overall, among 6874 hospitalized patients, 39.6% (n = 2719) developed AKI. There was a bimodal distribution of AKI by age with peaks in older age (≥60 years) and middle childhood (5-15 years), which persisted despite controlling for illness severity, pre-existing comorbidities, or different baseline creatinine estimators. For example, the adjusted OR of developing AKI among hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV2 was 2.74 (95% CI 1.66-4.56) for 10-15-year-olds compared to 30-35-year-olds and similarly was 2.31 (95% CI 1.71-3.12) for 70-75-year-olds, while adjusted OR dropped to 1.39 (95% CI 0.97-2.00) for 40-45-year-olds compared to 30-35-year-olds. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV2-related AKI is common with a bimodal age distribution that is not fully explained by known risk factors or confounders. As the pandemic turns to disproportionately impacting younger individuals, this deserves further investigation as the presence of AKI and SARS-CoV2 infection increases hospital mortality risk.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Confidence Intervals , Creatinine/blood , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index
2.
Crit Care Med ; 50(1): e40-e51, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1584019

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Multicenter data on the characteristics and outcomes of children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 are limited. Our objective was to describe the characteristics, ICU admissions, and outcomes among children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 using Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study: Coronavirus Disease 2019 registry. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Society of Critical Care Medicine Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (Coronavirus Disease 2019) registry. PATIENTS: Children (< 18 yr) hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 at participating hospitals from February 2020 to January 2021. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was ICU admission. Secondary outcomes included hospital and ICU duration of stay and ICU, hospital, and 28-day mortality. A total of 874 children with coronavirus disease 2019 were reported to Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry from 51 participating centers, majority in the United States. Median age was 8 years (interquartile range, 1.25-14 yr) with a male:female ratio of 1:2. A majority were non-Hispanic (492/874; 62.9%). Median body mass index (n = 817) was 19.4 kg/m2 (16-25.8 kg/m2), with 110 (13.4%) overweight and 300 (36.6%) obese. A majority (67%) presented with fever, and 43.2% had comorbidities. A total of 238 of 838 (28.2%) met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and 404 of 874 (46.2%) were admitted to the ICU. In multivariate logistic regression, age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and pre-existing seizure disorder were independently associated with a greater odds of ICU admission. Hospital mortality was 16 of 874 (1.8%). Median (interquartile range) duration of ICU (n = 379) and hospital (n = 857) stay were 3.9 days (2-7.7 d) and 4 days (1.9-7.5 d), respectively. For patients with 28-day data, survival was 679 of 787, 86.3% with 13.4% lost to follow-up, and 0.3% deceased. CONCLUSIONS: In this observational, multicenter registry of children with coronavirus disease 2019, ICU admission was common. Older age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and seizure disorder were independently associated with ICU admission, and mortality was lower among children than mortality reported in adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
3.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(8): e0514, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393343

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Even with its proclivity for older age, coronavirus disease 2019 has been shown to affect all age groups. However, there remains a lack of research focused primarily on the young adult population. OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology and outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 and identify the risk factors associated with critical illness and mortality in hospitalized young adults. DESIGN SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective cohort study of the Society of Critical Care Medicine's Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry. Patients 18-40 years old, hospitalized from coronavirus disease 2019 from March 2020 to April 2021, were included in the analysis. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Critical illness was defined as a composite of mortality and 21 predefined interventions and complications. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations with critical illness and mortality. RESULTS: Data from 4,005 patients (152 centers, 19 countries, 18.6% non-U.S. patients) were analyzed. The median age was 32 years (interquartile range, 27-37 yr); 51% were female, 29.4% Hispanic, and 42.9% had obesity. Most patients (63.2%) had comorbidities, the most common being hypertension (14.5%) and diabetes (13.7%). Hospital and ICU mortality were 3.2% (129/4,005) and 8.3% (109/1,313), respectively. Critical illness occurred in 25% (n = 996), and 34.3% (n = 1,376) were admitted to the ICU. Older age (p = 0.03), male sex (adjusted odds ratio, 1.83 [95% CI, 1.2-2.6]), and obesity (adjusted odds ratio, 1.6 [95% CI, 1.1-2.4]) were associated with hospital mortality. In addition to the above factors, the presence of any comorbidity was associated with critical illness from coronavirus disease 2019. Multiple sensitivity analyses, including analysis with U.S. patients only and patients admitted to high-volume sites, showed similar risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized young adults, obese males with comorbidities are at higher risk of developing critical illness or dying from coronavirus disease 2019.

4.
Crit Care Med ; 50(1): e40-e51, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356720

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Multicenter data on the characteristics and outcomes of children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 are limited. Our objective was to describe the characteristics, ICU admissions, and outcomes among children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 using Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study: Coronavirus Disease 2019 registry. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Society of Critical Care Medicine Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (Coronavirus Disease 2019) registry. PATIENTS: Children (< 18 yr) hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 at participating hospitals from February 2020 to January 2021. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was ICU admission. Secondary outcomes included hospital and ICU duration of stay and ICU, hospital, and 28-day mortality. A total of 874 children with coronavirus disease 2019 were reported to Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry from 51 participating centers, majority in the United States. Median age was 8 years (interquartile range, 1.25-14 yr) with a male:female ratio of 1:2. A majority were non-Hispanic (492/874; 62.9%). Median body mass index (n = 817) was 19.4 kg/m2 (16-25.8 kg/m2), with 110 (13.4%) overweight and 300 (36.6%) obese. A majority (67%) presented with fever, and 43.2% had comorbidities. A total of 238 of 838 (28.2%) met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and 404 of 874 (46.2%) were admitted to the ICU. In multivariate logistic regression, age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and pre-existing seizure disorder were independently associated with a greater odds of ICU admission. Hospital mortality was 16 of 874 (1.8%). Median (interquartile range) duration of ICU (n = 379) and hospital (n = 857) stay were 3.9 days (2-7.7 d) and 4 days (1.9-7.5 d), respectively. For patients with 28-day data, survival was 679 of 787, 86.3% with 13.4% lost to follow-up, and 0.3% deceased. CONCLUSIONS: In this observational, multicenter registry of children with coronavirus disease 2019, ICU admission was common. Older age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and seizure disorder were independently associated with ICU admission, and mortality was lower among children than mortality reported in adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
5.
Pediatr Res ; 91(7): 1787-1796, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to study the association of suspected versus confirmed infection with the novel SARS-CoV2 virus with the prevalence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill children. METHODS: Sequential point-prevalence study of children and young adults aged 7 days to 25 years admitted to intensive care units under investigation for SARS-CoV2 infection. AKI was staged in the first 14 days of enrollment using KDIGO creatinine-based staging. SARS-CoV2 positive (CONFIRMED) were compared to SUSPECTED (negative or unknown). Outcome data was censored at 28-days. RESULTS: In 331 patients of both sexes, 179 (54.1%) were CONFIRMED, 4.2% (14) died. AKI occurred in 124 (37.5%) and severe AKI occurred in 63 (19.0%). Incidence of AKI in CONFIRMED was 74/179 (41.3%) versus 50/152 (32.9%) for SUSPECTED; severe AKI occurred in 35 (19.6%) of CONFIRMED and 28 (18.4%) of SUSPECTED. Mortality was 6.2% (n = 11) in CONFIRMED, but 9.5% (n = 7) in those CONFIRMED with AKI. On multivariable analysis, only Hispanic ethnicity (relative risk 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9) was associated with less AKI development among those CONFIRMED. CONCLUSIONS: AKI and severe AKI occur commonly in critically ill children with SARS-CoV2 infection, more than double the historical standard. Further investigation is needed during this continuing pandemic to describe and refine the understanding of pediatric AKI epidemiology and outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01987921. IMPACT: What is the key message of the article? AKI occurs in children exposed to the novel SARS-CoV2 virus at high prevalence (~40% with some form of AKI and 20% with severe AKI). What does it add to the existing literature? Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs commonly in adult patients with SARS-CoV2 (COVID), very little data describes the epidemiology of AKI in children exposed to the virus. What is the impact? A pediatric vaccine is not available; thus, the pandemic is not over for children. Pediatricians will need to manage significant end-organ ramifications of the novel SARS-CoV2 virus including AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Child , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
6.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 22(7): 603-615, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291942

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare clinical characteristics and outcomes of children admitted to the PICU for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-related illness with or without multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. The secondary objective was to identify explanatory factors associated with outcome of critical illness defined by a composite index of in-hospital mortality and organ system support requirement. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Thirty-eight PICUs within the Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry from March 2020 to January 2021. PATIENTS: Children less than 18 years with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-related illness with or without multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 394 patients, 171 (43.4%) had multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children were more likely younger (2-12 yr vs adolescents; p < 0.01), Black (35.6% vs 21.9%; p < 0.01), present with fever/abdominal pain than cough/dyspnea (p < 0.01), and less likely to have comorbidities (33.3% vs 61.9%; p < 0.01) compared with those without multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Inflammatory marker levels, use of inotropes/vasopressors, corticosteroids, and anticoagulants were higher in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children patients (p < 0.01). Overall mortality was 3.8% (15/394), with no difference in the two groups. Diagnosis of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children was associated with longer duration of hospitalization as compared to nonmultisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (7.5 d[interquartile range, 5-11] vs 5.3 d [interquartile range, 3-11 d]; p < 0.01). Critical illness occurred in 164 patients (41.6%) and was more common in patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children compared with those without (55.6% vs 30.9%; p < 0.01). Multivariable analysis failed to show an association between critical illness and age, race, sex, greater than or equal to three signs and symptoms, or greater than or equal to two comorbidities among the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children cohort. Among nonmultisystem inflammatory syndrome in children patients, the presence of greater than or equal to two comorbidities was associated with greater odds of critical illness (odds ratio 2.95 [95% CI, 1.61-5.40]; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study delineates significant clinically relevant differences in presentation, explanatory factors, and outcomes among children admitted to PICU with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-related illness stratified by multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Child , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
7.
Hosp Pediatr ; 11(11): e297-e316, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282336

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of obesity on disease severity and outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among hospitalized children. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study from the Society of Critical Care Medicine Viral Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry included all children hospitalized with COVID-19 from March 2020 to January 2021. Obesity was defined by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention BMI or World Health Organization weight for length criteria. Critical illness definition was adapted from National Institutes of Health criteria of critical COVID. Multivariate mixed logistic and linear regression was performed to calculate the adjusted odds ratio of critical illness and the adjusted impact of obesity on hospital length of stay. RESULTS: Data from 795 patients (96.4% United States) from 45 sites were analyzed, including 251 (31.5%) with obesity and 544 (68.5%) without. A higher proportion of patients with obesity were adolescents, of Hispanic ethnicity, and had other comorbidities. Those with obesity were also more likely to be diagnosed with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (35.7% vs 28.1%, P = .04) and had higher ICU admission rates (57% vs 44%, P < .01) with more critical illness (30.3% vs 18.3%, P < .01). Obesity had more impact on acute COVID-19 severity than on multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children presentation. The adjusted odds ratio for critical illness with obesity was 3.11 (95% confidence interval: 1.8-5.3). Patients with obesity had longer adjusted length of stay (exponentiated parameter estimate 1.3; 95% confidence interval: 1.1-1.5) compared with patients without obesity but did not have increased mortality risk due to COVID-19 (2.4% vs 1.5%, P = .38). CONCLUSION: In a large, multicenter cohort, a high proportion of hospitalized children from COVID-19 had obesity as comorbidity. Furthermore, obesity had a significant independent association with critical illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity/complications , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Comorbidity , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , United States/epidemiology
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