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3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831060

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While diagnostic, therapeutic, and vaccine development in the COVID-19 pandemic has proceeded at unprecedented speed, critical gaps in our understanding of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 remain unaddressed by current diagnostic strategies. METHODS: A statistical classifier for identifying prior SARS-CoV-2 infection was trained using >4000 SARS-CoV-2-associated TCRß sequences identified by comparing 784 cases and 2447 controls from 5 independent cohorts. The T-Detect™ COVID assay applies this classifier to TCR repertoires sequenced from blood samples to yield a binary assessment of past infection. Assay performance was assessed in 2 retrospective (n = 346; n = 69) and 1 prospective cohort (n = 87) to determine positive percent agreement (PPA) and negative percent agreement (NPA). PPA was compared to 2 commercial serology assays, and pathogen cross-reactivity was evaluated. RESULTS: T-Detect COVID demonstrated high PPA in individuals with prior RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (97.1% 15 + days from diagnosis; 94.5% 15 + days from symptom onset), high NPA (∼100%) in presumed or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 negative cases, equivalent or higher PPA than 2 commercial serology tests, and no evidence of pathogen cross-reactivity. CONCLUSION: T-Detect COVID is a novel T-cell immunosequencing assay demonstrating high clinical performance for identification of recent or prior SARS-CoV-2 infection from blood samples, with implications for clinical management, risk stratification, surveillance, and understanding protective immunity and long-term sequelae.

4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 880190, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809409

ABSTRACT

T-cells specifically bind antigens to induce adaptive immune responses using highly specific molecular recognition, and a diverse T-cell repertoire with expansion of antigen-specific clones can indicate robust immune responses after infection or vaccination. For patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a spectrum of chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases usually requiring immunomodulatory treatment, the T-cell response has not been well characterized. Understanding the patient factors that result in strong vaccination responses is critical to guiding vaccination schedules and identifying mechanisms of T-cell responses in IBD and other immune-mediated conditions. Here we used T-cell receptor sequencing to show that T-cell responses in an IBD cohort were influenced by demographic and immune factors, relative to a control cohort of health care workers (HCWs). Subjects were sampled at the time of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, and longitudinally afterwards; TCR Vß gene repertoires were sequenced and analyzed for COVID-19-specific clones. We observed significant differences in the overall strength of the T-cell response by age and vaccine type. We further stratified the T-cell response into Class-I- and Class-II-specific responses, showing that Ad26.COV2.S vector vaccine induced Class-I-biased T-cell responses, whereas mRNA vaccine types led to different responses, with mRNA-1273 vaccine inducing a more Class-I-deficient T-cell response compared to BNT162b2. Finally, we showed that these T-cell patterns were consistent with antibody levels from the same patients. Our results account for the surprising success of vaccination in nominally immuno-compromised IBD patients, while suggesting that a subset of IBD patients prone to deficiencies in T-cell response may warrant enhanced booster protocols.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Ad26COVS1 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
5.
JCI Insight ; 7(10)2022 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794308

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDMeasuring the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 enables assessment of past infection and protective immunity. SARS-CoV-2 infection induces humoral and T cell responses, but these responses vary with disease severity and individual characteristics.METHODSA T cell receptor (TCR) immunosequencing assay was conducted using small-volume blood samples from 302 individuals recovered from COVID-19. Correlations between the magnitude of the T cell response and neutralizing antibody (nAb) titers or indicators of disease severity were evaluated. Sensitivity of T cell testing was assessed and compared with serologic testing.RESULTSSARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses were significantly correlated with nAb titers and clinical indicators of disease severity, including hospitalization, fever, and difficulty breathing. Despite modest declines in depth and breadth of T cell responses during convalescence, high sensitivity was observed until at least 6 months after infection, with overall sensitivity ~5% greater than serology tests for identifying prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Improved performance of T cell testing was most apparent in recovered, nonhospitalized individuals sampled > 150 days after initial illness, suggesting greater sensitivity than serology at later time points and in individuals with less severe disease. T cell testing identified SARS-CoV-2 infection in 68% (55 of 81) of samples with undetectable nAb titers (<1:40) and in 37% (13 of 35) of samples classified as negative by 3 antibody assays.CONCLUSIONThese results support TCR-based testing as a scalable, reliable measure of past SARS-CoV-2 infection with clinical value beyond serology.TRIAL REGISTRATIONSpecimens were accrued under trial NCT04338360 accessible at clinicaltrials.gov.FUNDINGThis work was funded by Adaptive Biotechnologies, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, NIAID, Fred Hutchinson Joel Meyers Endowment, Fast Grants, and American Society for Transplantation and Cell Therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United States
6.
JCI Insight ; 7(10)2022 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794307

ABSTRACT

T cells play a prominent role in orchestrating the immune response to viral diseases, but their role in the clinical presentation and subsequent immunity to SARS-CoV-2 infection remains poorly understood. As part of a population-based survey of the municipality of Vo', Italy, conducted after the initial SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, we sampled the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires of the population 2 months after the initial PCR survey and followed up positive cases 9 and 15 months later. At 2 months, we found that 97.0% (98 of 101) of cases had elevated levels of TCRs associated with SARS-CoV-2. T cell frequency (depth) was increased in individuals with more severe disease. Both depth and diversity (breadth) of the TCR repertoire were positively associated with neutralizing antibody titers, driven mostly by CD4+ T cells directed against spike protein. At the later time points, detection of these TCRs remained high, with 90.7% (78 of 96) and 86.2% (25 of 29) of individuals having detectable signal at 9 and 15 months, respectively. Forty-three individuals were vaccinated by month 15 and showed a significant increase in TCRs directed against spike protein. Taken together, these results demonstrate the central role of T cells in mounting an immune defense against SARS-CoV-2 that persists out to 15 months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
7.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 28(7): 1130-1133, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784351

ABSTRACT

T-cell and antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccination in inflammatory bowel disease patients are poorly correlated. T-cell responses are preserved by most biologic therapies, but augmented by anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) treatment. While anti-TNF therapy blunts the antibody response, cellular immunity after vaccination is robust.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Vaccination
8.
Cell ; 185(5): 881-895.e20, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649960

ABSTRACT

Post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) represent an emerging global crisis. However, quantifiable risk factors for PASC and their biological associations are poorly resolved. We executed a deep multi-omic, longitudinal investigation of 309 COVID-19 patients from initial diagnosis to convalescence (2-3 months later), integrated with clinical data and patient-reported symptoms. We resolved four PASC-anticipating risk factors at the time of initial COVID-19 diagnosis: type 2 diabetes, SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia, Epstein-Barr virus viremia, and specific auto-antibodies. In patients with gastrointestinal PASC, SARS-CoV-2-specific and CMV-specific CD8+ T cells exhibited unique dynamics during recovery from COVID-19. Analysis of symptom-associated immunological signatures revealed coordinated immunity polarization into four endotypes, exhibiting divergent acute severity and PASC. We find that immunological associations between PASC factors diminish over time, leading to distinct convalescent immune states. Detectability of most PASC factors at COVID-19 diagnosis emphasizes the importance of early disease measurements for understanding emergent chronic conditions and suggests PASC treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Convalescence , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autoantibodies/blood , Biomarkers/metabolism , Blood Proteins/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Transcriptome , Young Adult
9.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S77-S77, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602523

ABSTRACT

Background T cells are central to the early identification and clearance of viral infections and support antibody generation by B cells, making them desirable for assessing the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccines. We combined 2 high-throughput immune profiling methods to create a quantitative picture of the SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response that is highly sensitive, durable, diagnostic, and discriminatory between natural infection and vaccination. Methods We deeply characterized 116 convalescent COVID-19 subjects by experimentally mapping CD8 and CD4 T-cell responses via antigen stimulation to 545 Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class I and 284 class II viral peptides. We also performed T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire sequencing on 1815 samples from 1521 PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases and 3500 controls to identify shared public TCRs from SARS-CoV-2-associated CD8 and CD4 T cells. Combining these approaches with additional samples from vaccinated individuals, we characterized the response to natural infection as well as vaccination by separating responses to spike protein from other viral targets. Results We find that T-cell responses are often driven by a few immunodominant, HLA-restricted epitopes. As expected, the SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response peaks about 1-2 weeks after infection and is detectable at least several months after recovery. Applying these data, we trained a classifier to diagnose past SARS-CoV-2 infection based solely on TCR sequencing from blood samples and observed, at 99.8% specificity, high sensitivity soon after diagnosis (Day 3–7 = 85.1%;Day 8–14 = 94.8%) that persists after recovery (Day 29+/convalescent = 95.4%). Finally, by evaluating TCRs binding epitopes targeting all non-spike SARS-CoV-2 proteins, we were able to separate natural infection from vaccination with > 99% specificity. Conclusion TCR repertoire sequencing from whole blood reliably measures the adaptive immune response to SARS-CoV-2 soon after viral antigenic exposure (before antibodies are typically detectable) as well as at later time points, and distinguishes post-infection vs. vaccine immune responses with high specificity. This approach to characterizing the cellular immune response has applications in clinical diagnostics as well as vaccine development and monitoring. Disclosures Thomas M. Snyder, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Rachel M. Gittelman, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Mark Klinger, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Damon H. May, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Edward J. Osborne, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Ruth Taniguchi, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) H. Jabran Zahid, PhD, Microsoft Research (Employee, Shareholder) Rebecca Elyanow, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Sudeb C. Dalai, MD, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Ian M. Kaplan, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Jennifer N. Dines, MD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Matthew T. Noakes, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Ravi Pandya, PhD, Microsoft Research (Employee, Shareholder) Lance Baldo, MD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder, Leadership Interest) James R. Heath, PhD, Merck (Research Grant or Support, Funding (from BARDA) for the ISB INCOV project, but had no role in planning the research or in writing the paper.) Joaquin Martinez-Lopez, MD, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Consultant) Jonathan M. Carlson, PhD, Microsoft Research (Employee, Shareholder) Harlan S. Robins, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Board Member, Employee, Shareholder)

11.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):87-87, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564033

ABSTRACT

Background Our understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 immune response has critical gaps that are inadequately addressed with available tools. We report the clinical performance of T-Detect COVID, the first T-cell assay to identify prior SARS-CoV-2 infection using T-cell receptor (TCR) sequencing and repertoire profiling from whole blood samples. Methods The T-Detect COVID assay combines high-throughput immunosequencing of the TCRß gene from blood samples with a statistical classifier demonstrating 99.8% specificity for identifying prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. The assay was employed in several retrospective and prospective cohorts to assess primary and secondary Positive Percent Agreement (PPA) with SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR (N=205;N=77);primary and secondary Negative Percent Agreement (NPA;N=87;N=79);PPA compared to SARS-CoV-2 serology (N=55);and pathogen cross-reactivity (N=38). The real-world performance of the test was also evaluated in a retrospective review of test ordering (N=69) at a single primary care clinic in Park City, Utah. Results In validation studies, T-Detect COVID demonstrated high PPA (97.1% ≥15 days from diagnosis) in subjects with prior PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection;high NPA (~100%) in SARS-CoV-2 negative cases;equivalent or higher PPA with RT-PCR compared to two commercial EUA antibody tests;and no evidence of pathogen cross-reactivity. Review of assay use in a single clinic showed 100% PPA with RT-PCR in individuals with past confirmed SARS-CoV-2 vs. 85.7% for antibody testing, 100% agreement with positive antibody results, and positive results in 2/4 convalescent subjects with seroreversion to a negative antibody. In addition, 12/69 (17.3%) individuals with absent or negative RT-PCR tested positive by T-Detect COVID, nearly all of whom had compatible symptoms and/or exposure. TCR positivity was observed up to 12+ months (median 118 days) from the date of positive RT-PCR. Conclusion A T-cell immunosequencing assay shows high clinical performance for identifying past SARS-CoV-2 infection from whole blood samples. This assay can provide additional insights on the SARS-CoV-2 immune response, with practical implications for clinical management, risk stratification, surveillance, assessing vaccine immunity, and understanding long-term sequelae. Disclosures Sudeb C. Dalai, MD, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Jennifer N. Dines, MD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Thomas M. Snyder, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Rachel M. Gittelman, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Tera Eerkes, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Pashmi Vaney, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Sally Howard, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Kipp Akers, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Lynell Skewis, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Anthony Monteforte, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Pamela R. Witte, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Cristina Wolf, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Hans Nesse, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Jia Qadeer, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Sarah Duffy, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Emily Svejnoha, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Caroline Taromino, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Ian M. Kaplan, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) John Alsobrook, MD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Thomas Manley, MD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Lance Baldo, MD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder, Leadership Interest)

12.
[Unspecified Source]; 2020.
Preprint in English | [Unspecified Source] | ID: ppcovidwho-292804

ABSTRACT

T cells are involved in the early identification and clearance of viral infections and also support the development of antibodies by B cells. This central role for T cells makes them a desirable target for assessing the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we combined two high-throughput immune profiling methods to create a quantitative picture of the T-cell response to SARS-CoV-2. First, at the individual level, we deeply characterized 3 acutely infected and 58 recovered COVID-19 subjects by experimentally mapping their CD8 T-cell response through antigen stimulation to 545 Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class I presented viral peptides (class II data in a forthcoming study). Then, at the population level, we performed T-cell repertoire sequencing on 1,015 samples (from 827 COVID-19 subjects) as well as 3,500 controls to identify shared "public" T-cell receptors (TCRs) associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection from both CD8 and CD4 T cells. Collectively, our data reveal that CD8 T-cell responses are often driven by a few immunodominant, HLA-restricted epitopes. As expected, the T-cell response to SARS-CoV-2 peaks about one to two weeks after infection and is detectable for several months after recovery. As an application of these data, we trained a classifier to diagnose SARS-CoV-2 infection based solely on TCR sequencing from blood samples, and observed, at 99.8% specificity, high early sensitivity soon after diagnosis (Day 3-7 = 83.8% [95% CI = 77.6-89.4];Day 8-14 = 92.4% [87.6-96.6]) as well as lasting sensitivity after recovery (Day 29+/convalescent = 96.7% [93.0-99.2]). These results demonstrate an approach to reliably assess the adaptive immune response both soon after viral antigenic exposure (before antibodies are typically detectable) as well as at later time points. This blood-based molecular approach to characterizing the cellular immune response has applications in vaccine development as well as clinical diagnostics and monitoring.

13.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0249484, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379827

ABSTRACT

The human adaptive immune system must generate extraordinary diversity to be able to respond to all possible pathogens. The T-cell repertoire derives this high diversity through somatic recombination of the T-cell receptor (TCR) locus, a random process that results in repertoires that are largely private to each individual. However, factors such as thymic selection and T-cell proliferation upon antigen exposure can affect TCR sharing among individuals. By immunosequencing the TCRß variable region of 426 healthy individuals, we find that, on average, fewer than 1% of TCRß clones are shared between individuals, consistent with largely private TCRß repertoires. However, we detect a significant correlation between increased HLA allele sharing and increased number of shared TCRß clones, with each additional shared HLA allele contributing to an increase in ~0.01% of the total shared TCRß clones, supporting a key role for HLA type in shaping the immune repertoire. Surprisingly, we find that shared antigen exposure to CMV leads to fewer shared TCRß clones, even after controlling for HLA, indicative of a largely private response to major viral antigenic exposure. Consistent with this hypothesis, we find that increased age is correlated with decreased overall TCRß clone sharing, indicating that the pattern of private TCRß clonal expansion is a general feature of the T-cell response to other infectious antigens as well. However, increased age also correlates with increased sharing among the lowest frequency clones, consistent with decreased repertoire diversity in older individuals. Together, all of these factors contribute to shaping the TCRß repertoire, and understanding their interplay has important implications for the use of T cells for therapeutics and diagnostics.


Subject(s)
HLA Antigens/immunology , Histocompatibility Testing , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Adult , Age Factors , Chronic Disease , Cytomegalovirus Infections/immunology , Histocompatibility Testing/methods , Humans
14.
Res Sq ; 2020 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725210

ABSTRACT

We describe the establishment and current content of the ImmuneCODE™ database, which includes hundreds of millions of T-cell Receptor (TCR) sequences from over 1,400 subjects exposed to or infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, as well as over 135,000 high-confidence SARS-CoV-2-specific TCRs. This database is made freely available, and the data contained in it can be downloaded and analyzed online or offline to assist with the global efforts to understand the immune response to the SARS-CoV-2 virus and develop new interventions.

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