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1.
JMIR Research Protocols ; 11(12), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2198162

ABSTRACT

Background: Although mental health challenges disproportionately affect people in humanitarian contexts, most refugee youth do not receive the mental health support needed. Uganda is the largest refugee-hosting nation in Africa, hosting over 1.58 million refugees in 2022, with more than 111,000 living in the city of Kampala. There is limited information about effective and feasible interventions to improve mental health outcomes and mental health literacy, and to reduce mental health stigma among urban refugee adolescents and youth in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Virtual reality (VR) is a promising approach to reduce stigma and improve mental health and coping, yet such interventions have not yet been tested in LMICs where most forcibly displaced people reside. Group Problem Management Plus (GPM+) is a scalable brief psychological transdiagnostic intervention for people experiencing a range of adversities, but has not been tested with adolescents and youth to date. Further, mobile health (mHealth) strategies have demonstrated promise in promoting mental health literacy. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of two youth-tailored mental health interventions (VR alone and VR combined with GMP+) in comparison with the standard of care in improving mental health outcomes among refugee and displaced youth aged 16-24 years in Kampala, Uganda. Methods: A three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial will be implemented across five informal settlements grouped into three sites, based on proximity, and randomized in a 1:1:1 design. Approximately 330 adolescents (110 per cluster) are enrolled and will be followed for approximately 16 weeks. Data will be collected at three time points: baseline enrollment, 8 weeks following enrollment, and 16 weeks after enrollment. Primary (depression) and secondary outcomes (mental health literacy, attitudes toward mental help–seeking, adaptive coping, mental health stigma, mental well-being, level of functioning) will be evaluated. Results: The study will be conducted in accordance with CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) guidelines. The study has received ethical approval from the University of Toronto (#40965;May 12, 2021), Mildmay Uganda Research Ethics Committee (MUREC-2021-41;June 24, 2021), and Uganda National Council for Science & Technology (SS1021ES;January 1, 2022). A qualitative formative phase was conducted using focus groups and in-depth, semistructured key informant interviews to understand contextual factors influencing mental well-being among urban refugee and displaced youth. Qualitative findings will inform the VR intervention, SMS text check-in messages, and the adaptation of GPM+. Intervention development was conducted in collaboration with refugee youth peer navigators. The trial launched in June 2022 and the final follow-up survey will be conducted in November 2022. Conclusions: This study will contribute to the knowledge of youth-tailored mental health intervention strategies for urban refugee and displaced youth living in informal settlements in LMIC contexts. Findings will be shared in peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations, and with community dissemination. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05187689;https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05187689 International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/42342

2.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-26, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2070008

ABSTRACT

Growing evidence documents the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescents in East and Southern Africa. We present and explore the longitudinal health and development-related priorities and challenges of adolescent advisors in South Africa and Kenya, including prior to, and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings were co-generated with adolescent advisors in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa (n=15, ages 18-22 in 2019) and Kisumu, Kenya (n=16, ages 10-14 in 2020). Prior to COVID-19, adolescent advisors engaged in a participatory exercise to share and explore their health and development-related priorities and challenges in 2019 and 2020. During the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 and 2021, members of the same groups shared their experiences, challenges and coping strategies in semi-structured telephone interviews (Eastern Cape: n=14, aged 19-23; Kisumu n=12, aged 11-16) and group-based remote participatory social media activities (n=27 activities with n=12 advisors, Eastern Cape). We thematically analysed COVID-19 activities, considering them alongside pre-pandemic priorities and challenges. Many of the health and development-related priorities and challenges identified prior to COVID-19 remained issues of concern during COVID-19. These included education; victimization and violence; teenage pregnancy; substance use; household tension, conflict and inadequate family and caregiver support; health and medication concerns (South Africa) and water and food shortages (Kenya). Other issues such as financial insecurity, mental health, and crime were strong themes that emerged during COVID-19, which were not directly reported as priorities prior. Although almost all of adolescent advisors' most pressing pandemic-related challenges were also priorities for them prior to COVID-19, these issues were often discussed as new, and caused by the onset of COVID-19. While demonstrating how COVID-19 has exacerbated pre-existing vulnerabilities, we also suggest that the pandemic may have brought about a new way for adolescents to make sense of, and articulate pre-existing challenges.

3.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-12, 2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004892

ABSTRACT

While substantial research has emerged from the frontlines of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as from studies with adolescent populations, there has been a dearth of research focused in South Africa on the context-specific experiences of healthcare workers (HCWs) and the adolescents and young people (AYP) to whom they provide services. This article documents the experiences of provision and receipt of HIV and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services during the COVID-19 pandemic from the perspective of South African HCWs (n = 13) and AYP (n = 41, ages 17-29). Findings highlight several barriers to accessing comprehensive HIV and SRH services during the pandemic including lockdown-related mobility restrictions (reported by HCWs), prioritisation of COVID-19 above other healthcare needs, longer health facility waiting times, poor treatment by HCWs (reported by AYP), discomfort and perceived stigma from having to queue outside health facilities, and fear of contracting COVID-19 (reported by both groups). While HCWs reported that HIV and SRH services continued to be available during the pandemic, AYP described seeking these services - such as long-acting reversible contraception, check-ups for their babies and medical refills - and being told that because they were not considered emergency cases, they should return on a different date. By capturing diverse experiences and perspectives from both groups, our findings reiterate the growing call for health system investments to strengthen the delivery of adolescent services, including investing in appropriate channels of communication between young people and their healthcare providers (for example, through adolescent peer supporters or community healthcare workers) and differentiated models of service delivery (for example, multi-month ART refills and community pick-ups). Closing the gap between the experiences and needs of adolescents and the healthcare workers who serve them may support young people and HCWs in buffering against changes brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
Glob Public Health ; 16(6): 947-963, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145128

ABSTRACT

Consequences of COVID-19 pandemic responses have included exacerbated poverty, food insecurity and state and domestic violence. Such effects may be particularly pronounced amongst adolescents and young people living in contexts of precarity and constraint, including in South Africa. However, there are evidence gaps on the lived experiences of this group. We conducted telephonic semi-structured interviews with adolescents and young people in two South African provinces (n = 12, ages 18-25) in April 2020 to explore and document their experiences, challenges and coping strategies during strict COVID-19 lockdown. Participants described indirect effects of COVID-19 including food insecurity, lost livelihoods and changes to social service provisions such as municipal electricity services and sanitation. Psychosocial stressors related to uncertainty over education and work futures were also discussed. The aforementioned challenges were particularly present with young parents, 'working poor' participants, and those with pre-existing mental health challenges. Participants demonstrated excellent COVID-19 transmission and prevention knowledge, showing that they had received and correctly interpreted public health messaging. Despite this, many simultaneously held non-scientific COVID-19 beliefs. Engaging a socio ecological framework, findings demonstrate how the indirect effects of COVID-19 may exacerbate underlying multi-layered vulnerabilities for adolescents and young people living in contexts of precarity and constraint.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Life Change Events , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety , Depression , Female , Frustration , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa , Young Adult
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