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2.
Cureus ; 14(6), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1918749

ABSTRACT

Introduction COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a highly contagious respiratory tract infection. A major concern of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women is vertical maternal-fetal transmission and the ramifications on infant hearing. This retrospective study aims to investigate whether perinatal exposure to SARS-CoV-2 has an impact on the hearing of the offspring. Materials The study population included neonates born to unvaccinated COVID-19 positive mothers in the University Hospital of Patras, Greece from March 2020 to January 2021. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests were performed on the neonates on the first, second,, and seventh day of life. All neonates underwent transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) within the first three months of life and were all examined at the age of nine months. Results Thirty-two neonates (21 male) were born within the study period and all were transferred to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Their mean (SD) gestational age was 36.9 (+2.23) weeks and their birth weight was 2,943 (+537) g. Nine of them were preterm and six of them had a low birth weight. Apgar scores calculated at 1’ and 5’, were in the normal range for 31 (97%) out of 32 neonates. One infant required urgent intubation at birth with an Apgar score of 1’ 3 and 5’ 4. Four neonates required mechanical ventilatory support, two neonates required nasal CPAP and eight neonates required supplementary oxygen. All infants were negative for TORCH infections. PCR tests were performed within the first day of life and repeated at 48 hours and on the seventh day of life. All PCR tests came back negative. Out of 32 neonates, seven failed the TEOAE test and were tested again a month later with a positive outcome. At nine months of follow-up, all 32 infants passed the TEOAE test. Conclusion In conclusion, in our study, there was no evidence of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mothers infected during the third trimester or hearing impairment of the offspring.

3.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861414

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Vaccinating children against COVID-19 is critical to contain the ongoing pandemic. AIMS/OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to assess parents' and caregivers' intention to vaccinate their 5-11 years old children against COVID-19 and to estimate the association between vaccination intention and sociodemographic, clinical and contextual factors. METHOD: We conducted a questionnaire-based survey on a convenience sample of parents in Patras, Western Greece. RESULTS: Out of 366 study participants, around 48% reported their intention to vaccinate their child. The main factors associated with positive attitudes were paediatrician recommendation, parental vaccination, and reliance on the healthcare providers for decision making. Of note, 80% of the 190 parents who did not intend to vaccinate their children would vaccinate them if the paediatrician recommended it. CONCLUSION: Interventions to further train healthcare professionals to establish rapport with parents, and to provide adequate information about vaccinations are crucial to address concerns related to COVID-19 vaccine benefits for children.

4.
Curr Pediatr Rev ; 17(3): 162-171, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581513

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, a local outbreak of pneumonia was presented in Wuhan (China) and quickly identified to be caused by a novel coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 was named COVID-19 and was soon declared a pandemic because of the millions of infections and thousands of deaths worldwide. Children infected with SARS-CoV-2 usually develop the asymptomatic or mild type of disease compared to adults. They are also more likely to have atypical and non-specific clinical manifestations than adults. METHODS: A literature search was performed through PubMed and Scopus to summarize the extrapulmonary manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children since the beginning of the pandemic. Peer-reviewed papers in English were retrieved using the following keywords and combinations: 'pediatric,' 'child,' 'infant,' 'neonate,' 'novel coronavirus,' 'SARS-CoV-2,' 'COVID 19' and 'gastrointestinal,' 'renal,' 'cardiac,' 'dermatologic' or 'ophthalmologic'. We included published case series and case reports providing clinical symptoms and signs in SARS-CoV2 pediatric patients. RESULTS: Although fever and symptoms of upper respiratory infection are the most frequently presented, a variety of other atypical presentations has also been reported. The clinical spectrum includes dermatological, ophthalmological, neurological, cardiovascular, renal, reproductive, and gastrointestinal presentations. In addition, a rare multi-inflammatory syndrome associated with SARS-- CoV-2 infection has been reported in children, often leading to shock and requiring inotropic support and mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSION: Clinicians need to be aware of the wider range of extrapulmonary atypical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children, so that appropriate testing, treatment, and public health measures can be implemented rapidly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Pediatr Res ; 2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493072

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The number of paediatric emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admissions was recorded in a tertiary referral centre during the first year of the COVID-19, March 2020-February 2021, and compared with those of the preceding year. METHODS: The number of visits and admissions and the reason of visit and admission were prospectively recorded from 15,087 patients' files. RESULTS: A substantial decline in the total number of visits and increase in the admission rate were documented during the COVID-19 year compared to the preceding year (10691 vs 4396 patients, 22.59% vs 18.15% (OR: 1.316, CI 95%: 1.208-2.242, p < 0.0001), respectively). Fever and/or respiratory symptoms were the commonest reported symptoms in both periods. Possible explanations include: (i) restricted overall infection transmission due to confinement and self-protective measures, (ii) avoidance of unnecessary hospital visits in the absence of severe symptoms and (iii) reduced or delayed access to medical care due to parental fear of children's exposure to COVID-19. CONCLUSION: This study is the first worldwide to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on ED visits and admissions throughout the whole year of the pandemic, and to highlight the need for re-evaluation of future protective strategies to infections, adjustment of health-care systems and parental education so that medical care in a health-care setting is sought in a more appropriate manner. IMPACT: A significant decline in paediatric ED visits and increase in the admission rate was observed during the first year of COVID-19 in a tertiary referral centre, possibly due to reduced overall infection transmission, limited ED overuse, but also ED underuse due to parental fear of children's exposure to SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 may serve as an opportunity for societies to re-evaluate future strategies to infections, adjust health-care systems accordingly, and reinforce parents to seek medical care more appropriately. Although the incidence of critical illness in children due to COVID-19 and in general is low, special attention should be devoted to identifying children at risk early.

6.
Clin Hematol Int ; 3(2): 69-71, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448689

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic with a high rate of hospitalization, admission to intensive care units, and mortality. Identifying patients at the highest risk for severe disease is important to facilitate early, aggressive intervention. High red blood cell distribution width (RDW) values are associated with increased mortality in the general population in patients suffering from several conditions, including cardiovascular disease, sepsis, acute kidney injury, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and hepatitis B. Our study aimed to determine whether RDW levels in all COVID-19 confirmed cases admitted to the Patras University Hospital, Greece, was an independent prognostic factor of hospitalization and disease outcome.

7.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 58(3): 468-473, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438040

ABSTRACT

AIM: We aimed to investigate the influenza immunisation status of caregivers and household contacts of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) and potential barriers to vaccine uptake. METHODS: Prospective questionnaire-based survey over two influenza seasons (2019-2020 and 2020-2021) on 161 children with CHD attending a tertiary paediatric cardiology clinic and their families. Logistic regression and factor analysis were performed to identify factors associated with influenza vaccine uptake. RESULTS: Influenza vaccination coverage of children was 65%, whereas that of their fathers and mothers was 34% and 26%, respectively. Children with unvaccinated siblings represented 43% and those with unvaccinated adults in the household 79% of our study population. No statistically significant differences were found before and during COVID-19 pandemic on vaccine uptake. Logistic regression analysis showed that higher education level, understanding the risk of contracting the disease and vaccination status of the child determined the vaccination status of parents, regardless of their age, age of their child, severity of CHD, beliefs about vaccine safety and efficacy and risk of transmission if not vaccinated. Factor analysis revealed distinct groups among unvaccinated parents (76.3% of the variation in the responses). CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination coverage of caregivers and household contacts of children with CHD is suboptimal. Influenza vaccination campaigns should take into consideration the specific characteristics of parental groups and target interventions accordingly to increase their vaccine uptake and indirectly protect children with CHD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Defects, Congenital , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Caregivers , Child , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151(31-32)2021 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362691

ABSTRACT

AIMS OF THE STUDY: It is well known that parenting stress is an important but often underestimated psychosocial variable. Data regarding the impact of the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak on parental psychology are currently lacking. The aim of the present study was to assess parenting stress during the COVID-19 pandemic in Greece. METHODS: An Internet e-survey was conducted adhering to CHERRIES guidelines of the EQUATOR network and released from 16 March to 22 March 2020, using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Revised Impact of Event Scale (IES-R). A convenience sample of 1105 Greek parents of children with or without chronic or severe underlying disorders was enrolled, identified by a network of collaborating paediatricians across the country, and invited via personal emails. RESULTS: The participation rate was 91.6% and the completion rate was 100%. A total of 178 (16.1%) of the participants had children with underlying disorders (198 affected children in total). Parents of children with underlying disorders had significantly higher stress levels than those of healthy children (PSS 21.22 ± 5.06 vs 19.02 ± 6.85, p <0.001; IES-R 40.71 ± 11.58 v. 35.86 ± 12.69, p <0.001), particularly those caring for children with cardiovascular or respiratory disorders, or immunodeficiencies. The presence of children with underlying disorders was a strong predictor of PSS and IES-R scores, independently of parental sex, age, education and place of residence. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of COVID-19 outbreak on parental stress is substantial, and those caring for children with underlying disorders are more profoundly affected. Pending the global socioeconomic rebooting after the pandemic, the possible short- and long-term consequences of parental stress should not be ignored. As for other vulnerable groups, accurate health information and resources for psychological support should be provided to parents, especially those caring for children with underlying disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Caregivers , Child , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Parents , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
9.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 647880, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332132

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate if the number of admitted extremely preterm (EP) infants (born before 28 weeks of gestational age) differed in the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of the SafeBoosC-III consortium during the global lockdown when compared to the corresponding time period in 2019. Design: This is a retrospective, observational study. Forty-six out of 79 NICUs (58%) from 17 countries participated. Principal investigators were asked to report the following information: (1) Total number of EP infant admissions to their NICU in the 3 months where the lockdown restrictions were most rigorous during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, (2) Similar EP infant admissions in the corresponding 3 months of 2019, (3) the level of local restrictions during the lockdown period, and (4) the local impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on the everyday life of a pregnant woman. Results: The number of EP infant admissions during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic was 428 compared to 457 in the corresponding 3 months in 2019 (-6.6%, 95% CI -18.2 to +7.1%, p = 0.33). There were no statistically significant differences within individual geographic regions and no significant association between the level of lockdown restrictions and difference in the number of EP infant admissions. A post-hoc analysis based on data from the 46 NICUs found a decrease of 10.3%in the total number of NICU admissions (n = 7,499 in 2020 vs. n = 8,362 in 2019). Conclusion: This ad hoc study did not confirm previous reports of a major reduction in the number of extremely pretermbirths during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrial.gov, identifier: NCT04527601 (registered August 26, 2020), https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04527601.

10.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 2021 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323039

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in late December 2019, scientists have been racing against time to effectively develop a vaccine. As the techniques of personalized medicine are becoming more understood and approachable for mankind, vaccinations using such technologies could advance the treatment of all patients taking into consideration their genetic and biochemical background. As such, we anticipate that patients will be treated more effectively and potentially have less symptoms and side effects. This perspective is aiming to raise awareness of the oncoming novel treatment of diseases especially during the coronavirus pandemic.

11.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(10): 3401-3407, 2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303868

ABSTRACT

Our study aims to assess the attitudes, knowledge, and influenza vaccine uptake of school teachers, the intention to uptake influenza vaccine as well as the COVID-19 vaccine and to identify factors associated with vaccine acceptance during the COVID-19 pandemic in Greece. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among elementary and kindergarten school teachers in the area of Western Greece from June 2020 to August 2020. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed via an internet-based link along with an invitation e-mail. Responses from 399 participants were retrieved. 139 (34.8%) had received the annual influenza vaccine in the season 2019-2020, whereas 215 (53.9%) stated that they would get it in the forthcoming season 2020-2021 (p < .001). 152 (38.1%) intent to get the COVID-19 vaccine when available. For COVID-19 vaccine factors that were independently associated with the intention to uptake included more than 15 years at work (p = .001), prior influenza vaccine uptake (p = .003), believing that COVID-19 vaccine should be mandatory (p = .04) and that school teachers are a high-risk group for COVID-19 (p = .001). In conclusion, COVID-19 pandemic appeared to have an impact on the intention of school teachers to get vaccinated for influenza. The low level of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance intention among the teachers in our cohort warrants further attention. Public health interventions should aim to increase knowledge on both influenza and COVID-19 and prevention of them via immunization in this particular at-risk population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Attitude , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , School Teachers , Vaccination
12.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(7)2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295742

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study aims to assess parents' knowledge, attitude, and practices on antibiotic use for children with URTIs symptoms in Greece in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic. We distributed a questionnaire to a random sample of parents who visited primary health care centers in Patras, Greece. Out of 412 participants, 86% believed that most infections with common cold or flu symptoms were caused by viruses, although 26.9% believed that antibiotics may prevent complications. Earache was the most common symptom for which antibiotics were needed. Most of them (69%) declare being considerably anxious about their children's health during the COVID-19 pandemic. The majority (85%) knew that COVID-19 was of viral origin, yet half of them declared uncertain whether antibiotics were needed. All demographic characteristics, except for gender, were found to have a significant effect on parents' knowledge, attitude, and practices on antibiotic use for URTIs and COVID-19. Factor analysis revealed six groups of parents with common characteristics associated with misuse of antibiotics. Our findings highlight the need to decrease misconceptions regarding antibiotic use by providing relevant education for parents targeting particular characteristics, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Continuous education of healthcare providers in the field is also of paramount importance.

13.
Infect Chemother ; 53(2): 364-367, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256740

ABSTRACT

Few studies have assessed attitudes and beliefs of school teachers on vaccination. Our cross-sectional questionnaire-based prospective survey aims to explore vaccination coverage and relevant knowledge of school teachers in Greece. Out of the 217 respondents, 93% believe that vaccines offer protection but only 69.7% were completely vaccinated as per adults' National Immunization Schedule. In multivariate analysis, female gender, being a parent, beliefs that vaccination should be mandatory and imposing penalties to vaccine refusals are the main factors that account for teachers' "behavioral" variability towards vaccination. Strengthening the training of school teachers in health promotion should become a priority in the era of the highly anticipated vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2).

14.
Curr Pediatr Rev ; 17(3): 162-171, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, a local outbreak of pneumonia was presented in Wuhan (China) and quickly identified to be caused by a novel coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 was named COVID-19 and was soon declared a pandemic because of the millions of infections and thousands of deaths worldwide. Children infected with SARS-CoV-2 usually develop the asymptomatic or mild type of disease compared to adults. They are also more likely to have atypical and non-specific clinical manifestations than adults. METHODS: A literature search was performed through PubMed and Scopus to summarize the extrapulmonary manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children since the beginning of the pandemic. Peer-reviewed papers in English were retrieved using the following keywords and combinations: 'pediatric,' 'child,' 'infant,' 'neonate,' 'novel coronavirus,' 'SARS-CoV-2,' 'COVID 19' and 'gastrointestinal,' 'renal,' 'cardiac,' 'dermatologic' or 'ophthalmologic'. We included published case series and case reports providing clinical symptoms and signs in SARS-CoV2 pediatric patients. RESULTS: Although fever and symptoms of upper respiratory infection are the most frequently presented, a variety of other atypical presentations has also been reported. The clinical spectrum includes dermatological, ophthalmological, neurological, cardiovascular, renal, reproductive, and gastrointestinal presentations. In addition, a rare multi-inflammatory syndrome associated with SARS-- CoV-2 infection has been reported in children, often leading to shock and requiring inotropic support and mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSION: Clinicians need to be aware of the wider range of extrapulmonary atypical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children, so that appropriate testing, treatment, and public health measures can be implemented rapidly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Eur J Pediatr ; 180(4): 1299-1305, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-866209

ABSTRACT

Between February and May 2020, during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, paediatric emergency departments in 12 European countries were prospectively surveyed on their implementation of SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19) testing and infection control strategies. All participating departments (23) implemented standardised case definitions, testing guidelines, early triage and infection control strategies early in the outbreak. Patient testing criteria initially focused on suspect cases and later began to include screening, mainly for hospital admissions. Long turnaround times for test results likely put additional strain on healthcare resources.Conclusion: Shortening turnaround times for SARS-CoV-2 tests should be a priority. Specific paediatric testing criteria are needed. What is Known: • WHO and public health authorities issued case definitions, testing and infection control recommendations for COVID-19 in January. • SARS-CoV-2 testing was made available across Europe in February. What is New: • Paediatric emergency departments implemented COVID-19-specific procedures rapidly, including case definitions, testing guidelines and early triage. • A third of surveyed departments waited more than 24 h for SARS-CoV-2 test to be reported, resulting in additional strain on resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Adolescent , COVID-19 Testing/standards , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Protocols , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infection Control/standards , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Male , Pediatrics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Prospective Studies , Triage/methods , Triage/standards , Triage/statistics & numerical data
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