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1.
Ann Saudi Med ; 42(4): 276-287, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presents mainly with mild symptoms and involvement of the respiratory system. Acute pancreatitis has also been reported during the course of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to review and analyze all reported cases of COVID-19 associated acute pancreatitis, reporting the demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory and imaging findings, comorbidities and outcomes. DATA SOURCES: We conducted a systematic search of Pubmed/MEDLINE, SciELO and Google Scholar to identify case reports and case series, reporting COVID-19 associated acute pancreatitis in adults. STUDY SELECTION: There were no ethnicity, gender or language restrictions. The following terms were searched in combination:"COVID-19" OR "SARS-CoV-2" OR "Coronavirus 19" AND "Pancreatic Inflammation" OR "Pancreatitis" OR "Pancreatic Injury" OR "Pancreatic Disease" OR "Pancreatic Damage". Case reports and case series describing COVID-19 associated acute pancreatitis in adults were included. COVID-19 infection was established with testing of nasal and throat swabs using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was confirmed in accordance to the revised criteria of Atlanta classification of the Acute Pancreatitis Classification Working Group. Exclusion of other causes of acute pancreatitis was also required for the selection of the cases. DATA EXTRACTION: The following data were extracted from each report: the first author, year of publication, age of the patient, gender, gastrointestinal symptoms due to acute pancreatitis, respiratory-general symptoms, COVID-19 severity, underlying diseases, laboratory findings, imaging features and outcome. DATA SYNTHESIS: Finally, we identified and analyzed 31 articles (30 case reports and 1 case series of 2 cases), which included 32 cases of COVID-19 induced acute pancreatitis. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 associated acute pancreatitis affected mostly females. The median age of the patients was 53.5 years. Concerning laboratory findings, lipase and amylase were greater than three times the ULN while WBC counts and CRP were elevated in the most of the cases. The most frequent gastrointestinal, respiratory and general symptom was abdominal pain, dyspnea and fever, respectively. The most common imaging feature was acute interstitial edematous pancreatitis and the most frequent comorbidity was arterial hypertension while several patients had no medical history. The outcome was favorable despite the fact that most of the patients experienced severe and critical illness. LIMITATIONS: Our results are limited by the quality and extent of the data in the reports. More specifically, case series and case reports are unchecked, and while they can recommend hypotheses they are not able to confirm robust associations. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pancreatitis , Acute Disease , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pancreatitis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(15)2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969101

ABSTRACT

The BNT162b2 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 has a proven efficacy and a favorable safety profile. In cancer patients under immunotherapy in the form of immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), the efficacy of the vaccine has not been thoroughly studied, while a theoretical concern has also been raised about triggering immune-related adverse events (irAEs) by the vaccine. We conducted a prospective, non-interventional study on the immunogenicity and safety of the BNT162b2 vaccine in patients with advanced or metastatic melanoma treated with ICIs. Blood samples were obtained 0-4 days before the first dose and 12-21 days after the second dose of the vaccine for the quantification of the SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike antibody using an ELISA and immunophenotyping of the T and myeloid cell subpopulations. The active recording of AEs for a two-month period was conducted. Forty patients were included in the study. All but one (97.3%) achieved seroconversion after two doses of the vaccine and no correlations of the antibody titers with any of the studied parameters (age, gender, stage and duration of the disease, type of ICI, previous treatment, etc.) were found. Moreover, no differences in the subpopulations of the T cells (including the T-regulatory cells) or the myeloid cells were found pre- and post-vaccination. All AEs were low-grade, while one case of arthritis exacerbation was noted. The seroconversion rate in the studied population was high and was comparable to that of healthy subjects, while no major safety issues were raised during the safety follow-up. Finally, no derangements in the subpopulations of T cells or myeloid cells were noted. This is the first study focusing on the immunogenicity, safety, and effect of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines on the blood-cell immunophenotype status of patients with melanoma treated with ICIs.

3.
Immunotherapy ; 14(13): 1015-1020, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952098

ABSTRACT

The exact impact of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the course and outcome of COVID-19 in cancer patients is currently unclear. Herein, we present the first description of an elderly melanoma patient who developed COVID-19 pneumonia while under treatment with nivolumab and bempegaldesleukin in combination with an investigational PEGylated interleukin (IL-2). We present the clinical characteristics and the laboratory and imaging findings of our patient during the course of COVID-19 pneumonia. Moreover, we discuss the currently available data regarding the mechanism of action of immune checkpoint inhibitors and IL-2 analogs in the treatment of COVID-19. The administration of these agents did not have a negative effect on the outcome of COVID-19 pneumonia in an elderly melanoma patient.


Immune checkpoint inhibitors represent a major advance in the treatment of several solid malignancies, including melanoma. Bempegaldesleukin is an investigational PEGylated IL-2 that is being evaluated, in combination with nivolumab, in the management of a variety of cancers. The immunomodulation caused by these agents may also modify the immune response in COVID-19. Currently available data regarding the impact of immune checkpoint inhibitors in reducing the severity of COVID-19 in patients with cancer are mixed, whereas no clinical data are available for bempegaldesleukin. Herein, we report the case of an elderly female melanoma patient who developed COVID-19 pneumonia while under treatment with nivolumab and bempegaldesleukin. The administration of these agents did not have a negative effect on the outcome of COVID-19 pneumonia in our patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melanoma , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Interleukin-2/therapeutic use , Melanoma/complications , Melanoma/drug therapy , Nivolumab/therapeutic use
4.
Molecular Medicine Reports ; 26(1):N.PAG-N.PAG, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1918655

ABSTRACT

Immature granulocytes (IGs) include metamyelocytes, myelocytes and promyelocytes, and are the precursors of neutrophils. Increased IG counts found in peripheral blood indicate an enhanced bone marrow activity. In addition, IGs have been evaluated in numerous clinical conditions, such as severe acute pancreatitis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and infectious complications following open-heart surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. Neutrophils are considered to play a crucial role in the host defense during bacterial and fungal infections, and are involved in the antiviral immune response. Numerous studies have reported the role of neutrophils in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, concluding that the percentage of neutrophils may be a predictor of the severity of COVID-19 infection. There has been limited research regarding the role of neutrophil precursors in viral infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. The present thus aimed to evaluate the role of the IG count in patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 infection. The patients were predominantly infected with the alpha variant and were all unvaccinated. The IG count was measured and was found to be associated with disease severity, with patient outcomes, with the duration of hospitalization and with the development of complications. The IG count was a significantly associated with the severity of COVID-19 infection, with greater IG count values being detected in severe and critical cases. In addition, greater IG count values were associated with a longer duration of hospitalization. Furthermore, the IG count was found to be an independent prognostic biomarker of intubation and mortality in patients with COVID-19, according to multivariate logistic regression analysis, including age, the male sex and the presence of comorbidities as confounders. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Molecular Medicine Reports is the property of Spandidos Publications UK Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

5.
Exp Ther Med ; 24(1): 482, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911785

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus has negatively affected patients and healthcare systems globally. Individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) experience a wide range of respiratory symptoms, from mild flu-like symptoms to severe and potentially fatal pneumonia. Some patients report gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain in addition to the respiratory symptoms or as a separate presentation. Even though abdominal pain syndrome indicates acute appendicitis, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection should be considered as a possible diagnosis during this pandemic. However, there have been reports of a few cases of acute abdominal pain revealing acute appendicitis associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Appendectomy is challenging in COVID-19-infected patients with acute appendicitis as it includes high surgical risks for the patients, as well as hazards for healthcare professionals who are exposed to SARS-CoV-2. The present study reports five cases of adult patients with COVID-19 with simultaneous acute appendicitis. In addition, the present study aims to provide the framework for the diagnosis and management of adult patients with COVID-19 with acute appendicitis.

6.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(6)2022 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883974

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study were to investigate the incidence of candidemia, as well as the factors associated with Candida species distribution and fluconazole resistance, among patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) during the COVID-19 pandemic, as compared to two pre-pandemic periods. All patients admitted to the ICU due to COVID-19 from March 2020 to October 2021, as well as during two pre-pandemic periods (2005-2008 and 2012-2015), who developed candidemia, were included. During the COVID-19 study period, the incidence of candidemia was 10.2%, significantly higher compared with 3.2% and 4.2% in the two pre-pandemic periods, respectively. The proportion of non-albicans Candida species increased (from 60.6% to 62.3% and 75.8%, respectively), with a predominance of C. parapsilosis. A marked increase in fluconazole resistance (from 31% to 37.7% and 48.4%, respectively) was also observed. Regarding the total patient population with candidemia (n = 205), fluconazole resistance was independently associated with ICU length of stay (LOS) before candidemia (OR 1.03; CI: 1.01-1.06, p = 0.003), whereas the presence of shock at candidemia onset was associated with C. albicans (OR 6.89; CI: 2.2-25, p = 0.001), and with fluconazole-susceptible species (OR 0.23; CI: 0.07-0.64, p = 0.006). In conclusion, substantial increases in the incidence of candidemia, in non-albicansCandida species, and in fluconazole resistance were found in patients admitted to the ICU due to COVID-19, compared to pre-pandemic periods. At candidemia onset, prolonged ICU LOS was associated with fluconazole-resistant and the presence of shock with fluconazole-susceptible species.

7.
Mol Med Rep ; 26(1)2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847421

ABSTRACT

Immature granulocytes (IGs) include metamyelocytes, myelocytes and promyelocytes, and are the precursors of neutrophils. Increased IG counts found in peripheral blood indicate an enhanced bone marrow activity. In addition, IGs have been evaluated in numerous clinical conditions, such as severe acute pancreatitis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and infectious complications following open­heart surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. Neutrophils are considered to play a crucial role in the host defense during bacterial and fungal infections, and are involved in the antiviral immune response. Numerous studies have reported the role of neutrophils in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) infection, concluding that the percentage of neutrophils may be a predictor of the severity of COVID­19 infection. There has been limited research regarding the role of neutrophil precursors in viral infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. The present thus aimed to evaluate the role of the IG count in patients hospitalized due to COVID­19 infection. The patients were predominantly infected with the alpha variant and were all unvaccinated. The IG count was measured and was found to be associated with disease severity, with patient outcomes, with the duration of hospitalization and with the development of complications. The IG count was a significantly associated with the severity of COVID­19 infection, with greater IG count values being detected in severe and critical cases. In addition, greater IG count values were associated with a longer duration of hospitalization. Furthermore, the IG count was found to be an independent prognostic biomarker of intubation and mortality in patients with COVID­19, according to multivariate logistic regression analysis, including age, the male sex and the presence of comorbidities as confounders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pancreatitis , Acute Disease , Biomarkers , Granulocytes , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , SARS-CoV-2
8.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335482

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The BNT162b2 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 has a proven efficacy and a favorable safety profile. In cancer patients under immunotherapy in the form of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), the efficacy of the vaccine has not been thoroughly studied, while a theoretical concern about the triggering of immune related adverse events (irAEs) by the vaccine has also been raised. Patients and methods. We conducted a prospective, non-interventional study on the immunogenicity and safety of the BNT162b2 vaccine in patients with advanced or metastatic melanoma treated with ICIs. Blood samples were obtained 0-4 days before the first and 12-21 days after the second dose of the vaccine for the quantification of the SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike antibody with an ELISA and immunophenotyping of the T and myeloid cell subpopulations. Active recording of the AEs for a two-month period was conducted. Results. Forty patients were included in the study. All but one (97.3%) achieved seroconversion after two doses of the vaccine and no correlations of the antibody titers with any of the studied parameters (age, gender, stage and duration of the disease, type of ICI, previous treatment, etc.) were found. Moreover, no differences in the subpopulations of the T cells (including the T-regulatory cells) or the myeloid cells were found pre- and post-vaccination. All AEs were low-grade, while one case or arthritis exacerbation was noted.Discussion. The seroconversion rate in the studied population was high, comparable to that of healthy subjects, while no major safety issues were raised during the safety follow-up. Finally, no derangements in the subpopulations of T cells or myeloid cells were noted. This is the first study focusing on the immunogenicity, safety, and effect on the blood cell immunophenotype status of anti-SARS-Cov-2 vaccines in patients with melanoma treated with ICIs.

9.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789847

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although older adults aret ahigh risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission, age is often used as a selection criterion in case of ICU beds scarcity. We sought to compare the proportion, clinical features and mortality between patients ≥70 years old and younger ICU patients with COVID-19. METHODS: All patients, consecutively admitted to our COVID ICU, where age was not used as an admission criterion, from March 2020 through April 2021, were included. Demographics, clinical and laboratory characteristics were recorded. Illness severity and Charlson comorbidity índex (CCI) were calculated. Patients≥70 years old were compared to youngers. RESULTS: Of 458 patients [68 (59-76) years, 70% males], 206 (45%) were≥70 years old. Compared to younger, older patients had higher illness severity scores [APACHE II 18 (14-23) versus 12 (9-16), p<0.001, SOFA 8 (6-10) versus 6 (2-8), p<0.001, CCI 5 (4-6) versus 2 (1-3), p <0.001], increased need for mechanical ventilation (92% vs 72%, p<0.001) and ICU mortality (74% versus. 29%, p<0.001). Age (HR: 1.045, CI: 1.02-1.07, p=0.001), CCI (HR: 1.135, CI: 1.037-1.243, p=0.006) and APACHE I I (HR: 1.070, CI: 1.013-1.130, p=0.015) were independently associated with mortality. Among comorbidities, obesity, chronic pulmonary disease and chronic kidney disease were independent risk factors for death. CONCLUSIONS: When age is not used as criterion for admission to COVID ICU, patients≥70 years old represent a considerable proportion and, compared to younger ones, they have higher mortality. Age, severity of illness and CCI, and certain comorbidities are independent risk factors for mortality.

10.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 850472, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775706

ABSTRACT

Increased expression of interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs) in peripheral blood, has been previously reported in viral infections, as well as in autoimmune disorders, in association with reduced leukocyte and platelet counts. Though cytopenias are common in patients with COVID-19 disease and predict severe outcomes, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In the current study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of hematological abnormalities in the setting of active COVID-19 infection and to explore whether they associate with disease outcomes and activation of type I IFN pathway. One-hundred-twenty-three consecutive SARS-CoV2 infected patients were included in the study. Clinical and laboratory parameters were recorded for all study participants. In 114 patients, total RNA was extracted from whole peripheral blood and subjected to real time PCR. The relative expression of three interferon stimulated genes (ISGs; IFIT1, MX-1, and IFI44) was determined and a type I IFN score reflecting peripheral type I IFN activity was calculated. The rates of anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia were 28.5, 14.6, and 24.4%, respectively. Among leukocytopenias, eosinopenia, and lymphopenia were the most prominent abnormalities being found in 56.9 and 43.1%, respectively. Of interest, patients with either eosinopenia and/or thrombocytopenia but no other hematological abnormalities displayed significantly increased peripheral type I IFN scores compared to their counterparts with normal/high eosinophil and platelet counts. While eosinopenia along with lymphopenia were found to be associated with increased risk for intubation and severe/critical disease, such an association was not detected between other hematological abnormalities or increased type I IFN scores. In conclusion, hematological abnormalities are commonly detected among patients with COVID-19 infection in association with severe disease outcomes and activation of the type I IFN pathway.

11.
Experimental & Therapeutic Medicine ; 22(6):N.PAG-N.PAG, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1527247

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus infection presents with greater severity in individuals with comorbid chronic lung diseases. Bronchiectasis is an illness characterized by permanent enlargement of the airways, presenting with chronic cough and sputum production and vulnerability to lung infections. Bronchiectasis is not a common comorbid disease in patients with COVID-19 disease and bronchiectasis exacerbation rates were decreased during the pandemic. However, COVID-19 disease is associated with worse outcomes in patients with bronchiectasis and patients with bronchiectasis are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection development. Pseudomonas putida is an opportunistic pathogen, causing infections mostly in immunocompromised hosts and is not a frequent bacterial colonizer in patients with bronchiectasis. This present study reports a rare case of exacerbation of bronchiectasis by Pseudomonas putida complicating COVID-19 disease in an immunocompetent 70-year-old woman. Clinicians should be aware that SARS-CoV-2 infection is probably a precipitating factor of bronchiectasis exacerbation while bronchiectasis is a risk factor for greater severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Experimental & Therapeutic Medicine is the property of Spandidos Publications UK Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

12.
Biomed Rep ; 15(6): 107, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515559

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infection caused by the newly detected coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. The majority of individuals will exhibit mild to moderate illness. Older individuals, and those suffering from co-existing diseases have a greater probability of experiencing a serious illness. Moreover, elderly patients have higher mortality rates than younger patients, especially those who are unvaccinated. Asymptomatic infection is mostly observed in individuals who are younger, as younger patients are more likely to exhibit a stronger immune response to the infection; aging is characterized by the decline immune function. In this article, a rare case of an unvaccinated 97-year-old woman is described who was admitted to Laiko General Hospital due to altered levels of consciousness, hypotension and a hematoma of the thoracic region, and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in a nasopharyngeal specimen and positive for IgG antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein without a history of consistent manifestations, indicating a past asymptomatic infection.

13.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(6): 1452, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478161

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus infection presents with greater severity in individuals with comorbid chronic lung diseases. Bronchiectasis is an illness characterized by permanent enlargement of the airways, presenting with chronic cough and sputum production and vulnerability to lung infections. Bronchiectasis is not a common comorbid disease in patients with COVID-19 disease and bronchiectasis exacerbation rates were decreased during the pandemic. However, COVID-19 disease is associated with worse outcomes in patients with bronchiectasis and patients with bronchiectasis are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection development. Pseudomonas putida is an opportunistic pathogen, causing infections mostly in immunocompromised hosts and is not a frequent bacterial colonizer in patients with bronchiectasis. This present study reports a rare case of exacerbation of bronchiectasis by Pseudomonas putida complicating COVID-19 disease in an immunocompetent 70-year-old woman. Clinicians should be aware that SARS-CoV-2 infection is probably a precipitating factor of bronchiectasis exacerbation while bronchiectasis is a risk factor for greater severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

14.
World J Crit Care Med ; 10(5): 278-289, 2021 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the context of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, it has been reported that elderly patients are particularly at risk of developing severe illness and exhibiting increased mortality. While many studies on hospitalized elderly patients with COVID-19 have been published, limited information is available on the characteristics and clinical outcomes of those elderly patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU). AIM: To review the available evidence of the clinical data of elderly patients admitted to the ICU due to COVID-19. METHODS: We searched for published articles available in English literature to identify those studies conducted in critically ill patients admitted to the ICU due to COVID-19, either exclusively designed for the elderly or for the whole ICU population with COVID-19, provided that analyses according to the patients' age had been conducted. RESULTS: Only one study exclusively focusing on critically ill elderly patients admitted to the ICU due to COVID-19 was found. Eighteen additional studies involving 17011 ICU patients and providing information for elderly patients as a subset of the whole study population have also been included in the present review article. Among the whole patient population, included in these studies, 8310 patients were older than 65 years of age and 2630 patients were older than 70 years. Clinical manifestations were similar for all patients; however, compared to younger ones, they suffered from more comorbidities and showed a varied, albeit high mortality. CONCLUSION: In summary, at present, although elderly patients constitute a considerable proportion of critically ill patients admitted to the ICU due to severe COVID-19, studies providing specific information are limited. The evidence so far suggests that advanced age and comorbidities are associated with worse clinical outcome. Future studies exclusively designed for this vulnerable group are needed.

15.
Acta Med Litu ; 28(1): 121-126, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358032

ABSTRACT

Human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1) is a RNA virus which gets in the human cells by binding to the receptor of N-acetyl-9-O-acetylneuraminic acid. Human Coronaviruses (HCoVs), including HCoV-HKU1, are globally found. HCoV-HKU1 is responsible for upper and lower respiratory tract infections, usually with mild symptoms. In severe cases, HCoV-HKU1 can cause life-threatening respiratory illness especially in vulnerable hosts such as elderly, children and immunocompromised patients. In Greece, Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) and influenza are the most common viruses causing respiratory tract infections. Traditionally, HCoVs are responsible for less than 3% of respiratory infections in Greek population. HCoVs 229E and OC43 have been shown to circulate in Greece. We report the first case of lung infection in an immunocompromised woman due to HCoV-HKU1, that has never been before detected in Greece. HCoV-HKU1 is related to severe disease even in healthy individuals and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of severe respiratory infections.

16.
Acta Med Litu ; 28(1): 121-126, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263030

ABSTRACT

Human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1) is a RNA virus which gets in the human cells by binding to the receptor of N-acetyl-9-O-acetylneuraminic acid. Human Coronaviruses (HCoVs), including HCoV-HKU1, are globally found. HCoV-HKU1 is responsible for upper and lower respiratory tract infections, usually with mild symptoms. In severe cases, HCoV-HKU1 can cause life-threatening respiratory illness especially in vulnerable hosts such as elderly, children and immunocompromised patients. In Greece, Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) and influenza are the most common viruses causing respiratory tract infections. Traditionally, HCoVs are responsible for less than 3% of respiratory infections in Greek population. HCoVs 229E and OC43 have been shown to circulate in Greece. We report the first case of lung infection in an immunocompromised woman due to HCoV-HKU1, that has never been before detected in Greece. HCoV-HKU1 is related to severe disease even in healthy individuals and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of severe respiratory infections.

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