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1.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(11): 1565-1576, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants and evidence of waning vaccine efficacy present substantial obstacles towards controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. Booster doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines might address these concerns by amplifying and broadening the immune responses seen with initial vaccination regimens. We aimed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of a homologous booster dose of a SARS-CoV-2 recombinant spike protein vaccine (NVX-CoV2373). METHODS: This secondary analysis of a phase 2, randomised study assessed a single booster dose of a SARS-CoV-2 recombinant spike protein vaccine with Matrix-M adjuvant (NVX-CoV2373) in healthy adults aged 18-84 years, recruited from 17 clinical centres in the USA and Australia. Eligible participants had a BMI of 17-35 kg/m2 and, for women, were heterosexually inactive or using contraception. Participants who had a history of SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2, confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19, serious chronic medical conditions, or were pregnant or breastfeeding were excluded. Approximately 6 months following their primary two-dose vaccination series (administered day 0 and day 21), participants who received placebo for their primary vaccination series received a placebo booster (group A) and participants who received NVX-CoV2373 for their primary vaccination series (group B) were randomly assigned (1:1) again, via centralised interactive response technology system, to receive either placebo (group B1) or a single booster dose of NVX-CoV2373 (5 µg SARS-CoV-2 rS with 50 µg Matrix-M adjuvant; group B2) via intramuscular injection; randomisation was stratified by age and study site. Vaccinations were administered by designated site personnel who were masked to treatment assignment, and participants and other site staff were also masked. Administration personnel also assessed the outcome. The primary endpoints are safety (unsolicited adverse events) and reactogenicity (solicited local and systemic) events and immunogenicity (serum IgG antibody concentrations for the SARS-CoV-2 rS protein antigen) assessed 14 days after the primary vaccination series (day 35) and 28 days following booster (day 217). Safety was analysed in all participants in groups A, B1, and B2, according to the treatment received; immunogenicity was analysed in the per-protocol population (ie, participants in groups A, B1, and B2) who received all assigned doses and who did not test SARS-CoV-2-positive or received an authorised vaccine, analysed according to treatment assignment). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04368988. FINDINGS: 1610 participants were screened from Aug 24, 2020, to Sept 25, 2020. 1282 participants were enrolled, of whom 173 were assigned again to placebo (group A), 106 were re-randomised to NVX-CoV2373-placebo (group B1), and 104 were re-randomised to NVX-CoV2373-NVX-CoV2373 (group B2); after accounting for exclusions and incorrect administration, 172 participants in group A, 102 in group B1, and 105 in group B2 were analysed for safety. Following the active booster, the proportion of participants with available data reporting local (80 [82%] of 97 participants had any adverse event; 13 [13%] had a grade ≥3 event) and systemic (75 [77%] of 98 participants had any adverse event; 15 [15%] had a grade ≥3 event) reactions was higher than after primary vaccination (175 [70%] of 250 participants had any local adverse event, 13 [5%] had a grade ≥3 event; 132 [53%] of 250 had any systemic adverse event, 14 [6%] had a grade ≥3 event). Local and systemic events were transient in nature (median duration 1·0-2·5 days). In the per-protocol immunogenicity population at day 217 (167 participants in group A, 101 participants in group B1, 101 participants in group B2), IgG geometric mean titres (GMT) had increased by 4·7-fold and MN50 GMT by 4·1-fold for the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain compared with the day 35 titres. INTERPRETATION: Administration of a booster dose of NVX-CoV2373 resulted in an incremental increase in reactogenicity. For both the prototype strain and all variants evaluated, immune responses following the booster were similar to or higher than those associated with high levels of efficacy in phase 3 studies of the vaccine. These data support the use of NVX-CoV2373 in booster programmes. FUNDING: Novavax and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Female , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Double-Blind Method , Antibodies, Viral
2.
N Engl J Med ; 386(6): 531-543, 2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: NVX-CoV2373 is an adjuvanted, recombinant spike protein nanoparticle vaccine that was shown to have clinical efficacy for the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) in phase 2b-3 trials in the United Kingdom and South Africa, but its efficacy had not yet been tested in North America. METHODS: We conducted a phase 3, randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in the United States and Mexico during the first half of 2021 to evaluate the efficacy and safety of NVX-CoV2373 in adults (≥18 years of age) who had not had severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Participants were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive two doses of NVX-CoV2373 or placebo 21 days apart. The primary objective was to determine vaccine efficacy against reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction-confirmed Covid-19 occurring at least 7 days after the second dose. Vaccine efficacy against moderate-to-severe disease and against different variants was also assessed. RESULTS: Of the 29,949 participants who underwent randomization between December 27, 2020, and February 18, 2021, a total of 29,582 (median age, 47 years; 12.6% ≥65 years of age) received at least one dose: 19,714 received vaccine and 9868 placebo. Over a period of 3 months, 77 cases of Covid-19 were noted - 14 among vaccine recipients and 63 among placebo recipients (vaccine efficacy, 90.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 82.9 to 94.6; P<0.001). Ten moderate and 4 severe cases occurred, all in placebo recipients, yielding vaccine efficacy against moderate-to-severe disease of 100% (95% CI, 87.0 to 100). Most sequenced viral genomes (48 of 61, 79%) were variants of concern or interest - largely B.1.1.7 (alpha) (31 of the 35 genomes for variants of concern, 89%). Vaccine efficacy against any variant of concern or interest was 92.6% (95% CI, 83.6 to 96.7). Reactogenicity was mostly mild to moderate and transient but was more frequent among NVX-CoV2373 recipients than among placebo recipients and was more frequent after the second dose than after the first dose. CONCLUSIONS: NVX-CoV2373 was safe and effective for the prevention of Covid-19. Most breakthrough cases were caused by contemporary variant strains. (Funded by Novavax and others; PREVENT-19 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04611802.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccine Efficacy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Incidence , Male , Mexico , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Blind Method , United States
3.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(1): 73-84, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Improved seasonal influenza vaccines for older adults that can induce broadly cross-reactive antibodies and enhanced T-cell responses, particularly against A H3N2 viruses, while avoiding egg-adaptive antigenic changes, are needed. We aimed to show that the Matrix-M-adjuvanted quadrivalent nanoparticle influenza vaccine (qNIV) was immunologically non-inferior to a licensed, standard-dose quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4) in older adults. METHODS: This was a phase 3 randomised, observer-blinded, active-comparator controlled trial done across 19 US community-based clinical research sites during the 2019-20 influenza season. Participants were clinically stable and community-dwelling, aged at least 65 years, and were randomised in a 1:1 ratio using an interactive web response system to receive a single intramuscular dose of qNIV or IIV4. The primary objective was to describe safety and show that qNIV was immunologically non-inferior to IIV4. The primary outcomes were adverse events by treatment group and comparative haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody responses (assayed with egg-propagated virus) on day 28, summarised in terms of the ratio of geometric mean titres (GMTRqNIV/IIV4) and seroconversion rate (SCR) difference between participants receiving qNIV or IIV4 for all four vaccine homologous influenza strains. The immunogenicity outcome was measured in the per-protocol population. Non-inferiority was shown if the lower bound of the two-sided 95% CI on the GMTRqNIV/IIV4 was at least 0·67 and the lower bound of the two-sided 95% CI on the SCR difference -was at least -10%. The study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov, NCT04120194, and is active and not recruiting. FINDINGS: 2742 adults were assessed for eligibility and 2654 were enrolled and randomised between Oct 14, 2019, and Oct 25, 2019; 1333 participants were randomised to the qNIV group and 1319 to the IIV4 group (two participants withdrew consent before being assigned to a group). qNIV showed immunological non-inferiority to IIV4: GMTRqNIV/IIV4 for the four vaccine homologous influenza strains was A/Brisbane 1·09 (95% CI 1·03 to 1·15), A/Kansas 1·19 (1·11 to 1·27), B/Maryland 1·03 (0·99 to 1·07), and B/Phuket 1·23 (1·16 to 1·29); and SCR difference was A/Brisbane 5·0 (95% CI 1·9 to 8·1), A/Kansas 7·3 (3·6 to 11·1), B/Maryland 0·5 (-1·9 to 2·9), and B/Phuket 8·5 (5·0 to 11·9). 659 (49·4%) of 1333 of participants in the qNIV group and 551 (41·8%) of 1319 participants in the IIV4 group had at least one treatment-emergent adverse event. More solicited adverse events were reported by participants in the qNIV group (551 [41·3%] of 1333) than in the IIV4 group (420 [31·8%] of 1319), and were comprised primarily of mild to moderate transient injection site pain (341 [25·6%] in the qNIV group vs 212 [16·1%] in the IIV4 group). INTERPRETATION: qNIV was well tolerated and produced qualitatively and quantitatively enhanced humoral and cellular immune response in older adults compared with IIV4. qNIV might enhance the effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccination, and future studies to show clinical efficacy are planned. FUNDING: Novavax.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/standards , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Saponins/administration & dosage , Aged , Female , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/immunology , Male , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Saponins/chemistry , Seasons
4.
PLoS Med ; 18(10): e1003769, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: NVX-CoV2373 is a recombinant severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (rSARS-CoV-2) nanoparticle vaccine composed of trimeric full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoproteins and Matrix-M1 adjuvant. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The phase 2 component of our randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 1 to 2 trial was designed to identify which dosing regimen of NVX-CoV2373 should move forward into late-phase studies and was based on immunogenicity and safety data through Day 35 (14 days after the second dose). The trial was conducted at 9 sites in Australia and 8 sites in the United States. Participants in 2 age groups (aged 18 to 59 and 60 to 84 years) were randomly assigned to receive either 1 or 2 intramuscular doses of 5-µg or 25-µg NVX-CoV2373 or placebo, 21 days apart. Primary endpoints were immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-spike protein response, 7-day solicited reactogenicity, and unsolicited adverse events. A key secondary endpoint was wild-type virus neutralizing antibody response. After enrollment, 1,288 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 vaccine groups or placebo, with 1,283 participants administered at least 1 study treatment. Of these, 45% were older participants 60 to 84 years. Reactogenicity was predominantly mild to moderate in severity and of short duration (median <3 days) after first and second vaccination with NVX-CoV2373, with higher frequencies and intensity after second vaccination and with the higher dose. Reactogenicity occurred less frequently and was of lower intensity in older participants. Both 2-dose regimens of 5-µg and 25-µg NVX-CoV2373 induced robust immune responses in younger and older participants. For the 2-dose regimen of 5 µg, geometric mean titers (GMTs) for IgG anti-spike protein were 65,019 (95% confidence interval (CI) 55,485 to 76,192) and 28,137 (95% CI 21,617 to 36,623) EU/mL and for wild-type virus neutralizing antibody (with an inhibitory concentration of 50%-MN50%) were 2,201 (95% CI 1,343 to 3,608) and 981 (95% CI 560 to 1,717) titers for younger and older participants, respectively, with seroconversion rates of 100% in both age groups. Neutralizing antibody responses exceeded those seen in a panel of convalescent sera for both age groups. Study limitations include the relatively short duration of safety follow-up to date and current lack of immune persistence data beyond the primary vaccination regimen time point assessments, but these data will accumulate over time. CONCLUSIONS: The study confirmed the phase 1 findings that the 2-dose regimen of 5-µg NVX-CoV2373 is highly immunogenic and well tolerated in younger adults. In addition, in older adults, the 2-dose regimen of 5 µg was also well tolerated and showed sufficient immunogenicity to support its use in late-phase efficacy studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04368988.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
5.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(4): 529-539.e3, 2021 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309188

ABSTRACT

All current vaccines for COVID-19 utilize ancestral SARS-CoV-2 spike with the goal of generating protective neutralizing antibodies. The recent emergence and rapid spread of several SARS-CoV-2 variants carrying multiple spike mutations raise concerns about possible immune escape. One variant, first identified in the United Kingdom (B.1.1.7, also called 20I/501Y.V1), contains eight spike mutations with potential to impact antibody therapy, vaccine efficacy, and risk of reinfection. Here, we show that B.1.1.7 remains sensitive to neutralization, albeit at moderately reduced levels (∼sim;2-fold), by serum samples from convalescent individuals and recipients of an mRNA vaccine (mRNA-1273, Moderna) and a protein nanoparticle vaccine (NVX-CoV2373, Novavax). A subset of monoclonal antibodies to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike are less effective against the variant, while others are largely unaffected. These findings indicate that variant B.1.1.7 is unlikely to be a major concern for current vaccines or for an increased risk of reinfection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
7.
N Engl J Med ; 383(24): 2320-2332, 2020 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: NVX-CoV2373 is a recombinant severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (rSARS-CoV-2) nanoparticle vaccine composed of trimeric full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoproteins and Matrix-M1 adjuvant. METHODS: We initiated a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 1-2 trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the rSARS-CoV-2 vaccine (in 5-µg and 25-µg doses, with or without Matrix-M1 adjuvant, and with observers unaware of trial-group assignments) in 131 healthy adults. In phase 1, vaccination comprised two intramuscular injections, 21 days apart. The primary outcomes were reactogenicity; laboratory values (serum chemistry and hematology), according to Food and Drug Administration toxicity scoring, to assess safety; and IgG anti-spike protein response (in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] units). Secondary outcomes included unsolicited adverse events, wild-type virus neutralization (microneutralization assay), and T-cell responses (cytokine staining). IgG and microneutralization assay results were compared with 32 (IgG) and 29 (neutralization) convalescent serum samples from patients with Covid-19, most of whom were symptomatic. We performed a primary analysis at day 35. RESULTS: After randomization, 83 participants were assigned to receive the vaccine with adjuvant and 25 without adjuvant, and 23 participants were assigned to receive placebo. No serious adverse events were noted. Reactogenicity was absent or mild in the majority of participants, more common with adjuvant, and of short duration (mean, ≤2 days). One participant had mild fever that lasted 1 day. Unsolicited adverse events were mild in most participants; there were no severe adverse events. The addition of adjuvant resulted in enhanced immune responses, was antigen dose-sparing, and induced a T helper 1 (Th1) response. The two-dose 5-µg adjuvanted regimen induced geometric mean anti-spike IgG (63,160 ELISA units) and neutralization (3906) responses that exceeded geometric mean responses in convalescent serum from mostly symptomatic Covid-19 patients (8344 and 983, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: At 35 days, NVX-CoV2373 appeared to be safe, and it elicited immune responses that exceeded levels in Covid-19 convalescent serum. The Matrix-M1 adjuvant induced CD4+ T-cell responses that were biased toward a Th1 phenotype. (Funded by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04368988).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Nanoparticles , Pandemics , Saponins , Th1 Cells/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Young Adult
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