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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 79(21): 2144-2152, 2022 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859823

ABSTRACT

A 60-year-old woman with a past medical history of asthma presented with fulminant myocarditis 9 days after testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 16 days after developing symptoms consistent with COVID-19. Her hospital course was complicated by the need for veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ventricular arrhythmias, and pseudomonas bacteremia. She ultimately recovered and was discharged to home with normal left ventricular systolic function. Thereafter, she developed symptomatic ventricular tachycardia, for which she received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and antiarrhythmic drug therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Myocarditis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , COVID-19/complications , Critical Pathways , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773037

ABSTRACT

As COVID-19 cases begin to decrease in the USA, learning from the pandemic experience will provide insights regarding disparities of care delivery. We sought to determine if specific populations hospitalized with COVID-19 are equally likely to be enrolled in clinical trials. We examined patients hospitalized with COVID-19 at centers participating in the American Heart Association's COVID-19 CVD Registry. The primary outcome was odds of enrollment in a clinical trial, according to sex, race, and ethnicity. Among 14,397 adults hospitalized with COVID-19, 9.5% (n = 1,377) were enrolled in a clinical trial. The proportion of enrolled patients was the lowest for Black patients (8%); in multivariable analysis, female and Black patients were less likely to be enrolled in a clinical trial related to COVID-19 compared to men and other racial groups, respectively. Determination of specific reasons for the disparities in trial participation related to COVID-19 in these populations should be further investigated.

3.
JACC Case Rep ; 4(10): 567-575, 2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763790

ABSTRACT

A 60-year-old woman with a past medical history of asthma presented with fulminant myocarditis 9 days after testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 16 days after developing symptoms consistent with COVID-19. Her hospital course was complicated by the need for veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ventricular arrhythmias, and pseudomonas bacteremia. She ultimately recovered and was discharged to home with normal left ventricular systolic function. Thereafter, she developed symptomatic ventricular tachycardia, for which she received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and antiarrhythmic drug therapy.

5.
J Hosp Med ; 16(10): 596-602, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic has affected outcomes for patients with unplanned hospitalizations is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in in-hospital mortality for patients without COVID-19 during the first 10 months of the pandemic (March 4, 2020 to December 31, 2020). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Observational study of adults with unplanned hospitalizations at 51 hospitals across 6 Western states. EXPOSURES: Unplanned hospitalizations occurring during the spring COVID-19 surge (March 4 to May 13, 2020; Period 1), an intervening period (May 14 to October 19, 2020; Period 2), and the fall COVID-19 surge (October 20 to December 31, 2020; Period 3) were compared with a pre-COVID-19 baseline period from January 1, 2019, to March 3, 2020. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: We examined daily hospital admissions and in-hospital mortality overall and in 30 conditions. RESULTS: Unplanned hospitalizations declined steeply during Periods 1 and 3 (by 47.5% and 25% compared with baseline, respectively). Although volumes declined, adjusted in-hospital mortality rose from 2.9% in the pre-pandemic period to 3.5% in Period 1 (20.7% relative increase), returning to baseline in Period 2, and rose again to 3.4% in Period 3. Elevated mortality was seen for nearly all conditions studied during the pandemic surge periods. CONCLUSION: Pandemic COVID-19 surges were associated with higher rates of in-hospital mortality among patients without COVID-19, suggesting disruptions in care patterns for patients with many common acute and chronic illnesses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15097, 2021 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322503

ABSTRACT

There is little data describing trends in the use of hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 following publication of randomized trials that failed to demonstrate a benefit of this therapy. We identified 13,957 patients admitted for active COVID-19 at 85 U.S. hospitals participating in a national registry between March 1 and August 31, 2020. The overall proportion of patients receiving hydroxychloroquine peaked at 55.2% in March and April and decreased to 4.8% in May and June and 0.8% in July and August. At the hospital-level, median use was 59.4% in March and April (IQR 48.5-71.5%, range 0-100%) and decreased to 0.3% (IQR 0-5.4%, range 0-100%) by May and June and 0% (IQR 0-1.3%, range 0-36.4%) by July and August. The rate and hospital-level uniformity in deimplementation of this ineffective therapy for COVID-19 reflects a rapid response to evolving clinical information and further study may offer strategies to inform deimplementation of ineffective clinical care.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Registries
7.
Circulation ; 143(24): 2332-2342, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304327

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has exposed longstanding racial and ethnic inequities in health risks and outcomes in the United States. We aimed to identify racial and ethnic differences in presentation and outcomes for patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: The American Heart Association COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry is a retrospective observational registry capturing consecutive patients hospitalized with COVID-19. We present data on the first 7868 patients by race/ethnicity treated at 88 hospitals across the United States between January 17, 2020, and July 22, 2020. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included major adverse cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure) and COVID-19 cardiorespiratory ordinal severity score (worst to best: death, cardiac arrest, mechanical ventilation with mechanical circulatory support, mechanical ventilation with vasopressors/inotrope support, mechanical ventilation without hemodynamic support, and hospitalization alone. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between race/ethnicity and each outcome adjusting for differences in sociodemographic, clinical, and presentation features, and accounting for clustering by hospital. RESULTS: Among 7868 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 33.0% were Hispanic, 25.5% were non-Hispanic Black, 6.3% were Asian, and 35.2% were non-Hispanic White. Hispanic and Black patients were younger than non-Hispanic White and Asian patients and were more likely to be uninsured. Black patients had the highest prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. Black patients also had the highest rates of mechanical ventilation (23.2%) and renal replacement therapy (6.6%) but the lowest rates of remdesivir use (6.1%). Overall mortality was 18.4% with 53% of all deaths occurring in Black and Hispanic patients. The adjusted odds ratios for mortality were 0.93 (95% CI, 0.76-1.14) for Black patients, 0.90 (95% CI, 0.73-1.11) for Hispanic patients, and 1.31 (95% CI, 0.96-1.80) for Asian patients compared with non-Hispanic White patients. The median odds ratio across hospitals was 1.99 (95% CI, 1.74-2.48). Results were similar for major adverse cardiovascular events. Asian patients had the highest COVID-19 cardiorespiratory severity at presentation (adjusted odds ratio, 1.48 [95% CI, 1.16-1.90]). CONCLUSIONS: Although in-hospital mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events did not differ by race/ethnicity after adjustment, Black and Hispanic patients bore a greater burden of mortality and morbidity because of their disproportionate representation among COVID-19 hospitalizations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Health Status Disparities , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , American Heart Association , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Race Factors , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , United States
8.
Am Heart J ; 241: 14-25, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283847

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted routine cardiovascular care, with unclear impact on procedural deferrals and associated outcomes across diverse patient populations. METHODS: Cardiovascular procedures performed at 30 hospitals across 6 Western states in 2 large, non-profit healthcare systems (Providence St. Joseph Health and Stanford Healthcare) from December 2018-June 2020 were analyzed for changes over time. Risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality was compared across pandemic phases with multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 36,125 procedures (69% percutaneous coronary intervention, 13% coronary artery bypass graft surgery, 10% transcatheter aortic valve replacement, and 8% surgical aortic valve replacement), weekly volumes changed in 2 distinct phases after the initial inflection point on February 23, 2020: an initial period of significant deferral (COVID I: March 15-April 11) followed by recovery (COVID II: April 12 onwards). Compared to pre-COVID, COVID I patients were less likely to be female (P = .0003), older (P < .0001), Asian or Black (P = .02), or Medicare insured (P < .0001), and COVID I procedures were higher acuity (P < .0001), but not higher complexity. In COVID II, there was a trend toward more procedural deferral in regions with a higher COVID-19 burden (P = .05). Compared to pre-COVID, there were no differences in risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality during both COVID phases. CONCLUSIONS: Significant decreases in cardiovascular procedural volumes occurred early in the COVID-19 pandemic, with disproportionate impacts by race, gender, and age. These findings should inform our approach to future healthcare disruptions.


Subject(s)
Aortic Valve Disease/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Bypass/statistics & numerical data , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Hospital Mortality , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/statistics & numerical data , African Americans , Aged , Asian Americans , Female , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Medicare , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , United States/epidemiology
9.
Circulation ; 143(24): 2332-2342, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-930436

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has exposed longstanding racial and ethnic inequities in health risks and outcomes in the United States. We aimed to identify racial and ethnic differences in presentation and outcomes for patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: The American Heart Association COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry is a retrospective observational registry capturing consecutive patients hospitalized with COVID-19. We present data on the first 7868 patients by race/ethnicity treated at 88 hospitals across the United States between January 17, 2020, and July 22, 2020. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included major adverse cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure) and COVID-19 cardiorespiratory ordinal severity score (worst to best: death, cardiac arrest, mechanical ventilation with mechanical circulatory support, mechanical ventilation with vasopressors/inotrope support, mechanical ventilation without hemodynamic support, and hospitalization alone. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between race/ethnicity and each outcome adjusting for differences in sociodemographic, clinical, and presentation features, and accounting for clustering by hospital. RESULTS: Among 7868 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 33.0% were Hispanic, 25.5% were non-Hispanic Black, 6.3% were Asian, and 35.2% were non-Hispanic White. Hispanic and Black patients were younger than non-Hispanic White and Asian patients and were more likely to be uninsured. Black patients had the highest prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. Black patients also had the highest rates of mechanical ventilation (23.2%) and renal replacement therapy (6.6%) but the lowest rates of remdesivir use (6.1%). Overall mortality was 18.4% with 53% of all deaths occurring in Black and Hispanic patients. The adjusted odds ratios for mortality were 0.93 (95% CI, 0.76-1.14) for Black patients, 0.90 (95% CI, 0.73-1.11) for Hispanic patients, and 1.31 (95% CI, 0.96-1.80) for Asian patients compared with non-Hispanic White patients. The median odds ratio across hospitals was 1.99 (95% CI, 1.74-2.48). Results were similar for major adverse cardiovascular events. Asian patients had the highest COVID-19 cardiorespiratory severity at presentation (adjusted odds ratio, 1.48 [95% CI, 1.16-1.90]). CONCLUSIONS: Although in-hospital mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events did not differ by race/ethnicity after adjustment, Black and Hispanic patients bore a greater burden of mortality and morbidity because of their disproportionate representation among COVID-19 hospitalizations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Health Status Disparities , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , American Heart Association , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Race Factors , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , United States
10.
Am J Prev Cardiol ; 4: 100117, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-921810

ABSTRACT

In 2018, the AHA/ACC Multisociety Guideline on the Management of Blood Cholesterol was released. Less than one year later, the 2019 ESC/EAS Dyslipidemia Guideline was published. While both provide important recommendations for managing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk through lipid management, differences exist. Prior to the publication of both guidelines, important randomized clinical trial data emerged on non-statin lipid lowering therapy and ASCVD risk reduction. To illustrate important differences in guideline recommendations, we use this data to help answer three key questions: 1) Are ASCVD event rates similar in high-risk primary and stable secondary prevention? 2) Does imaging evidence of subclinical atherosclerosis justify aggressive use of statin and non-statin therapy (if needed) to reduce LDL-C levels below 55 â€‹mg/dL as recommended in the European Guideline? 3) Do LDL-C levels below 70 â€‹mg/dL achieve a large absolute risk reduction in secondary ASCVD prevention? The US guideline prioritizes both the added efficacy and cost implications of non-statin therapy, which limits intensive therapy to individuals with the highest risk of ASCVD. The European approach broadens the eligibility criteria by incorporating goals of therapy in both primary and secondary prevention. The current cost and access constraints of healthcare worldwide, especially amidst a COVID-19 pandemic, makes the European recommendations more challenging to implement. By restricting non-statin therapy to a subgroup of high- and, in particular, very high-risk individuals, the US guideline provides primary and secondary ASCVD prevention recommendations that are more affordable and attainable. Ultimately, finding a common ground for both guidelines rests on our ability to design trials that assess cost-effectiveness in addition to efficacy and safety.

11.
Circulation ; 141(21): e823-e831, 2020 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-827449

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic that is wreaking havoc on the health and economy of much of human civilization. Electrophysiologists have been impacted personally and professionally by this global catastrophe. In this joint article from representatives of the Heart Rhythm Society, the American College of Cardiology, and the American Heart Association, we identify the potential risks of exposure to patients, allied healthcare staff, industry representatives, and hospital administrators. We also describe the impact of COVID-19 on cardiac arrhythmias and methods of triage based on acuity and patient comorbidities. We provide guidance for managing invasive and noninvasive electrophysiology procedures, clinic visits, and cardiac device interrogations. In addition, we discuss resource conservation and the role of telemedicine in remote patient care along with management strategies for affected patients.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Electrocardiography , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , American Heart Association , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19 , Cardiology , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , Telemedicine , Triage , United States
12.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(12): 1419-1424, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695723

ABSTRACT

Importance: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed health care delivery worldwide. Although decreases in hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have been reported during the pandemic, the implication for in-hospital outcomes is not well understood. Objective: To define changes in AMI case rates, patient demographics, cardiovascular comorbidities, treatment approaches, and in-hospital outcomes during the pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study retrospectively analyzed AMI hospitalizations that occurred between December 30, 2018, and May 16, 2020, in 1 of the 49 hospitals in the Providence St Joseph Health system located in 6 states (Alaska, Washington, Montana, Oregon, California, and Texas). The cohort included patients aged 18 years or older who had a principal discharge diagnosis of AMI (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI] or non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction [NSTEMI]). Segmented regression analysis was performed to assess changes in weekly case volumes. Cases were grouped into 1 of 3 periods: before COVID-19 (December 30, 2018, to February 22, 2020), early COVID-19 (February 23, 2020, to March 28, 2020), and later COVID-19 (March 29, 2020, to May 16, 2020). In-hospital mortality was risk-adjusted using an observed to expected (O/E) ratio and covariate-adjusted multivariable model. Exposure: Date of hospitalization. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the weekly rate of AMI (STEMI or NSTEMI) hospitalizations. The secondary outcomes were patient characteristics, treatment approaches, and in-hospital outcomes of this patient population. Results: The cohort included 15 244 AMI hospitalizations (of which 4955 were for STEMI [33%] and 10 289 for NSTEMI [67%]) involving 14 724 patients (mean [SD] age of 68 [13] years and 10 019 men [66%]). Beginning February 23, 2020, AMI-associated hospitalizations decreased at a rate of -19.0 (95% CI, -29.0 to -9.0) cases per week for 5 weeks (early COVID-19 period). Thereafter, AMI-associated hospitalizations increased at a rate of +10.5 (95% CI, +4.6 to +16.5) cases per week (later COVID-19 period). No appreciable differences in patient demographics, cardiovascular comorbidities, and treatment approaches were observed across periods. The O/E mortality ratio for AMI increased during the early period (1.27; 95% CI, 1.07-1.48), which was disproportionately associated with patients with STEMI (1.96; 95% CI, 1.22-2.70). Although the O/E mortality ratio for AMI was not statistically different during the later period (1.23; 95% CI, 0.98-1.47), increases in the O/E mortality ratio were noted for patients with STEMI (2.40; 95% CI, 1.65-3.16) and after risk adjustment (odds ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.02-2.26). Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found important changes in AMI hospitalization rates and worse outcomes during the early and later COVID-19 periods. Future studies are needed to identify contributors to the increased mortality rate among patients with STEMI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Aged , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Coronary Artery Bypass/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
13.
Heart Rhythm ; 17(9): e233-e241, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-656387

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic that is wreaking havoc on the health and economy of much of human civilization. Electrophysiologists have been impacted personally and professionally by this global catastrophe. In this joint article from representatives of the Heart Rhythm Society, the American College of Cardiology, and the American Heart Association, we identify the potential risks of exposure to patients, allied healthcare staff, industry representatives, and hospital administrators. We also describe the impact of COVID-19 on cardiac arrhythmias and methods of triage based on acuity and patient comorbidities. We provide guidance for managing invasive and noninvasive electrophysiology procedures, clinic visits, and cardiac device interrogations. In addition, we discuss resource conservation and the role of telemedicine in remote patient care along with management strategies for affected patients.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Electrocardiography , Electrophysiologic Techniques, Cardiac , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Triage/organization & administration
15.
Am J Prev Cardiol ; 1: 100009, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-155113

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has consumed our healthcare system, with immediate resource focus on the management of high numbers of critically ill patients. Those that fare poorly with COVID-19 infection more commonly have cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension and diabetes. There are also several other conditions that raise concern for the welfare of patients with and at high risk for CVD during this pandemic. Traditional ambulatory care is disrupted and many patients are delaying or deferring necessary care, including preventive care. New impediments to medication access and adherence have arisen. Social distancing measures can increase social isolation and alter physical activity and nutrition patterns. Virtually all facility based cardiac rehabilitation programs have temporarily closed. If not promptly addressed, these changes may result in delayed waves of vulnerable patients presenting for urgent and preventable CVD events. Here, we provide several recommendations to mitigate the adverse effects of these disruptions in outpatient care. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers should be continued in patients already taking these medications. Where possible, it is strongly preferred to continue visits via telehealth, and patients should be counselled about promptly reporting new symptoms. Barriers to medication access should be reviewed with patients at every contact, with implementation of strategies to ensure ongoing provision of medications. Team-based care should be leveraged to enhance the continuity of care and adherence to lifestyle recommendations. Patient encounters should include discussion of safe physical activity options and access to healthy food choices. Implementation of adaptive strategies for cardiac rehabilitation is recommended, including home based cardiac rehab, to ensure continuity of this essential service. While the practical implementation of these strategies will vary by local situation, there are a broad range of strategies available to ensure ongoing continuity of care and health preservation for those at higher risk of CVD during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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