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1.
Immunity ; 55(6): 1096-1104.e4, 2022 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778211

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant can escape neutralization by vaccine-elicited and convalescent antibodies. Memory B cells (MBCs) represent another layer of protection against SARS-CoV-2, as they persist after infection and vaccination and improve their affinity. Whether MBCs elicited by mRNA vaccines can recognize the Omicron variant remains unclear. We assessed the affinity and neutralization potency against the Omicron variant of several hundred naturally expressed MBC-derived monoclonal IgG antibodies from vaccinated COVID-19-recovered and -naive individuals. Compared with other variants of concern, Omicron evaded recognition by a larger proportion of MBC-derived antibodies, with only 30% retaining high affinity against the Omicron RBD, and the reduction in neutralization potency was even more pronounced. Nonetheless, neutralizing MBC clones could be found in all the analyzed individuals. Therefore, despite the strong immune escape potential of the Omicron variant, these results suggest that the MBC repertoire generated by mRNA vaccines still provides some protection against the Omicron variant in vaccinated individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Memory B Cells , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccination
3.
Transfusion Clinique et Biologique ; 28(4):S46-S46, 2021.
Article in French | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1492680

ABSTRACT

L'émergence de variants portant des mutations dans des épitopes clés a fait craindre que l'évolution virale n'érode l'immunité acquise. Caractérisé la dynamique et la fonctionnalité de la réponse B mémoire naturelle et acquise après administration d'un vaccin à ARNm. Nous avons analysé, au cours du temps, 33 sujets avec un antécédent de la COVID-19 et 23 individus naïfs avant et après vaccination par ARNm. Nous avons combiné différentes approches, l'analyse transcriptomique en cellule unique, le séquençage du VH, le phénotypages cellulaire par cytométrie en flux multi-paramétriques ainsi que la mesure du pouvoir neutralisant des anticorps et leur affinité. La mémoire B anti-SARS-Cov-2 porte une empreinte d'un passage par le centre germinatif et parait stable chez la majorité des patients, et ce un an après l'infection initiale. Le rappel vaccinal mobilise les B mémoires sans entraîner de réduction de leur diversité. Chez les patients guéris, les B mémoires spécifiques du RBD montrent des preuves évidentes de sélection par affinité, un processus toujours en cours chez les individus naïfs, deux mois après leur deuxième dose. Seule une faible proportion de clones B mémoires spécifiques du domaine RBD n'a pas réussi à reconnaître le variant B.1.351. Néanmoins, de puissantes B mémoires neutralisant le B.1.351 pourraient toujours être détectés chez tous les individus naïfs et guéris de la Covid-19. En raison de sa diversité et de son affinité, le répertoire B mémoires anti la protéine RBDwt, sélectionné lors de l'infection ou la vaccination contient des clones capables de faire face à l'évolution virale. (French) [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Transfusion Clinique et Biologique is the property of Elsevier B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

4.
Immunity ; 54(12): 2893-2907.e5, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433403

ABSTRACT

In addition to serum immunoglobulins, memory B cell (MBC) generation against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is another layer of immune protection, but the quality of MBC responses in naive and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-recovered individuals after vaccination remains ill defined. We studied longitudinal cohorts of naive and disease-recovered individuals for up to 2 months after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. We assessed the quality of the memory response by analysis of antibody repertoires, affinity, and neutralization against variants of concern (VOCs) using unbiased cultures of 2,452 MBCs. Upon boosting, the MBC pool of recovered individuals expanded selectively, matured further, and harbored potent neutralizers against VOCs. Although naive individuals had weaker neutralizing serum responses, half of their RBD-specific MBCs displayed high affinity toward multiple VOCs, including delta (B.1.617.2), and one-third retained neutralizing potency against beta (B.1.351). Our data suggest that an additional challenge in naive vaccinees could recall such affinity-matured MBCs and allow them to respond efficiently to VOCs.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Memory B Cells/immunology , Precursor Cells, B-Lymphoid/immunology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Affinity , Cells, Cultured , Convalescence , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Immunologic Memory , Mass Vaccination , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
8.
BMJ ; 369: m1844, 2020 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260539

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine in patients admitted to hospital with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pneumonia who require oxygen. DESIGN: Comparative observational study using data collected from routine care. SETTING: Four French tertiary care centres providing care to patients with covid-19 pneumonia between 12 March and 31 March 2020. PARTICIPANTS: 181 patients aged 18-80 years with documented severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia who required oxygen but not intensive care. INTERVENTIONS: Hydroxychloroquine at a dose of 600 mg/day within 48 hours of admission to hospital (treatment group) versus standard care without hydroxychloroquine (control group). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was survival without transfer to the intensive care unit at day 21. Secondary outcomes were overall survival, survival without acute respiratory distress syndrome, weaning from oxygen, and discharge from hospital to home or rehabilitation (all at day 21). Analyses were adjusted for confounding factors by inverse probability of treatment weighting. RESULTS: In the main analysis, 84 patients who received hydroxychloroquine within 48 hours of admission to hospital (treatment group) were compared with 89 patients who did not receive hydroxychloroquine (control group). Eight additional patients received hydroxychloroquine more than 48 hours after admission. In the weighted analyses, the survival rate without transfer to the intensive care unit at day 21 was 76% in the treatment group and 75% in the control group (weighted hazard ratio 0.9, 95% confidence interval 0.4 to 2.1). Overall survival at day 21 was 89% in the treatment group and 91% in the control group (1.2, 0.4 to 3.3). Survival without acute respiratory distress syndrome at day 21 was 69% in the treatment group compared with 74% in the control group (1.3, 0.7 to 2.6). At day 21, 82% of patients in the treatment group had been weaned from oxygen compared with 76% in the control group (weighted risk ratio 1.1, 95% confidence interval 0.9 to 1.3). Eight patients in the treatment group (10%) experienced electrocardiographic modifications that required discontinuation of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Hydroxychloroquine has received worldwide attention as a potential treatment for covid-19 because of positive results from small studies. However, the results of this study do not support its use in patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 who require oxygen.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Young Adult
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