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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017777

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) was reported in association with the COVID-19 pandemic. MIS-A was included in the list of adverse events to be monitored as part of the emergency use authorizations issued for COVID-19 vaccines. METHODS: Reports of MIS-A patients received by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after COVID-19 vaccines became available were assessed. Data collected on the patients included clinical and demographic characteristics and their vaccine status. The Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) was also reviewed for possible cases of MIS-A. RESULTS: From December 14, 2020 to April 30, 2021, 20 patients who met the case definition for MIS-A were reported to CDC. Their median age was 35 years (range, 21-66 years), and 13 (65%) were male. Overall, 16 (80%) patients had a preceding COVID-19-like illness a median of 26 days (range 11-78 days) before MIS-A onset. All 20 patients had laboratory evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Seven MIS-A patients (35%) received COVID-19 vaccine a median of 10 days (range, 6-45 days) before MIS-A onset; 3 patients received a second dose of COVID-19 vaccine 4, 17, and 22 days before MIS-A onset. Patients with MIS-A predominantly had gastrointestinal and cardiac manifestations and hypotension or shock. CONCLUSIONS: Although 7 patients were reported to have received COVID-19 vaccine, all had evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Given the widespread use of COVID-19 vaccines, the lack of reporting of MIS-A associated with vaccination alone, without evidence of underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection, is reassuring.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769229

ABSTRACT

Background: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a novel severe postinfectious condition associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The purpose of this report is to describe nationwide trends in the evolving clinical management of MIS-C. Methods: Patients with MIS-C were reported from state and local jurisdictions to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) MIS-C national surveillance system. Patients' case reports were reviewed to ensure that they met the CDC MIS-C case definition and had sufficient data for analysis. The prevalence of use of treatments for MIS-C, temporal trends in use of these treatments, and frequency of administration of different treatment combinations were analyzed. Results: There were 4470 patients meeting the MIS-C case definition with onset dates from 19 February 2020 to 31 July 2021. The proportion of patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) has declined over time, from 78.7% in April 2020 to 57.5% in June 2021 (P = .001). The most common treatments were intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), given to 85.6% of patients; steroids (77.7%), and antiplatelet medications (73.7%); use of each of these treatments has increased over time, particularly in patients not requiring admission to an ICU (all P < .001). Older patients and non-Hispanic Black patients were more likely to receive additional modes of therapy including vasoactive medication, noninvasive respiratory support, anticoagulation medication, and intubation/mechanical ventilation. Conclusions: IVIG, steroids, and antiplatelet medication have become increasingly utilized as standard treatment for MIS-C patients, while the use of other treatments may be contingent on the type and severity of clinical findings.

4.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(3): ofac070, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The serologic and cytokine responses of children hospitalized with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) vs coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are poorly understood. METHODS: We performed a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study of hospitalized children who met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition for MIS-C (n = 118), acute COVID-19 (n = 88), or contemporaneous healthy controls (n = 24). We measured severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers and cytokine concentrations in patients and performed multivariable analysis to determine cytokine signatures associated with MIS-C. We also measured nucleocapsid IgG and convalescent RBD IgG in subsets of patients. RESULTS: Children with MIS-C had significantly higher SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG than children with acute COVID-19 (median, 2783 vs 146; P < .001), and titers correlated with nucleocapsid IgG. For patients with MIS-C, RBD IgG titers declined in convalescence (median, 2783 vs 1135; P = .010) in contrast to patients with COVID-19 (median, 146 vs 4795; P < .001). MIS-C was characterized by transient acute proinflammatory hypercytokinemia, including elevated levels of interleukin (IL) 6, IL-10, IL-17A, and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). Elevation of at least 3 of these cytokines was associated with significantly increased prevalence of prolonged hospitalization ≥8 days (prevalence ratio, 3.29 [95% CI, 1.17-9.23]). CONCLUSIONS: MIS-C was associated with high titers of SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG antibodies and acute hypercytokinemia with IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, and IFN-γ.

5.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 6(5): 280-281, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692740
6.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e26, 2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683880

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) is a hyperinflammatory illness related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The characteristics of patients with this syndrome and the frequency with which it occurs among patients hospitalised after SARS-CoV-2 infection are unclear. Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition for MIS-A, we created ICD-10-CM code and laboratory criteria to identify potential MIS-A patients in the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release, a database containing patient-level information on hospital discharges across the United States. Modified MIS-A criteria were applied to hospitalisations with discharge from March to December 2020. The proportion of hospitalisations meeting electronic health record criteria for MIS-A and descriptive statistics for patients in the potential MIS-A cohort were calculated. Of 34 515 SARS-CoV-2-related hospitalisations with complete clinical and laboratory data, 53 met modified criteria for MIS-A (0.15%). The median age was 62 years (IQR 52-74). Most patients met the severe cardiac illness criterion through either myocarditis (66.0%) or new-onset heart failure (35.8%). A total of 79.2% of patients required ICU admission, while 43.4% of patients in the cohort died. MIS-A appears to be a rare but severe outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Additional studies are needed to investigate how this syndrome differs from severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/ethnology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a severe hyperinflammatory condition in persons aged <21 years associated with antecedent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our objective was to describe MIS-C cases reported to CDC's national surveillance since the COVID-19 pandemic began. METHODS: We included patients meeting the MIS-C case definition with onset date from February 19, 2020 through July 31, 2021, using CDC's MIS-C case report form, which collects information on demographics, clinical presentation, and laboratory results. Trends over time across 3 MIS-C pandemic waves were assessed using Cochran-Armitage test for categorical and Jonckheere-Terpstra test for continuous variables. RESULTS: Of 4,901 reported cases, 4,470 met inclusion criteria. Median patient age increased over time (P<0.001), with a median of 9 years (interquartile range, 5-13 years) during the most recent (third) wave. Male predominance also increased (62% in third wave, P<0.001). A significant (P<0.001) increase in severe hematologic and gastrointestinal involvement was observed across the study period. Frequency of several cardiovascular complications (i.e., cardiac dysfunction, myocarditis, and shock/ vasopressor receipt) and renal failure declined (P<0.001). Provision of critical care including mechanical ventilation (P<0.001) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO; P=0.046) decreased, as did duration of hospitalization and mortality (each P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Over the first 3 pandemic waves of MIS-C in the United States, cardiovascular complications and clinical outcomes including length of hospitalization, receipt of ECMO, and death decreased over time. These data serve as a baseline for monitoring future trends associated with SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) or other variants and increased COVID-19 vaccination among children.

9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) was reported in association with the COVID-19 pandemic. MIS-A was included in the list of adverse events to be monitored as part of the emergency use authorizations issued for COVID-19 vaccines. METHODS: Reports of MIS-A patients received by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after COVID-19 vaccines became available were assessed. Data collected on the patients included clinical and demographic characteristics and their vaccine status. The Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) was also reviewed for possible cases of MIS-A. RESULTS: From December 14, 2020 to April 30, 2021, 20 patients who met the case definition for MIS-A were reported to CDC. Their median age was 35 years (range, 21-66 years), and 13 (65%) were male. Overall, 16 (80%) patients had a preceding COVID-19-like illness a median of 26 days (range 11-78 days) before MIS-A onset. All 20 patients had laboratory evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Seven MIS-A patients (35%) received COVID-19 vaccine a median of 10 days (range, 6-45 days) before MIS-A onset; 3 patients received a second dose of COVID-19 vaccine 4, 17, and 22 days before MIS-A onset. Patients with MIS-A predominantly had gastrointestinal and cardiac manifestations and hypotension or shock. CONCLUSIONS: Although 7 patients were reported to have received COVID-19 vaccine, all had evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Given the widespread use of COVID-19 vaccines, the lack of reporting of MIS-A associated with vaccination alone, without evidence of underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection, is reassuring.

10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2126456, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432338

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) has not been well described. Improved diagnosis and treatment of MIS-A might mitigate COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the descriptive epidemiology and clinical characteristics of MIS-A. EVIDENCE REVIEW: This systematic review identified patients with MIS-A using 3 strategies: (1) literature review from May 1, 2020, to May 25, 2021, by searching MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, CAB Abstracts, PsycINFO, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Academic Search Complete, Scopus, World Health Organization Global COVID-19 Literature Database, and Google Scholar; (2) voluntary reports of MIS-A to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); and (3) reports among persons aged 18 to 20 years in the CDC surveillance system for MIS in children. FINDINGS: Of 221 patients with MIS-A, the median age was 21 (interquartile range [IQR], 19-34) years, and 154 of 219 (70%) with data available were men. Sixty of 169 patients (36%) were non-Hispanic Black individuals, and 122 of 209 (58%) had no underlying comorbidity. One hundred two of 149 patients (68%) noted a previous symptomatic COVID-19-like illness (median, 28 [IQR, 20-36] days previously). Most patients with MIS-A presented with fever (197 of 205 [96%]), hypotension (133 of 220 [60%]), cardiac dysfunction (114 of 210 [54%]), shortness of breath (102 of 198 [52%]), and/or diarrhea (102 of 197 [52%]). The median number of organ systems involved was 5 (IQR, 4-6). Median hospital stay was 8 (IQR, 5-12) days; 115 of 201 patients (57%) were admitted to the intensive care unit; 101 of 213 (47%) required respiratory support, and 15 of 220 (7%) died. Most patients (176 of 195 [90%]) had elevated markers of coagulopathy and/or inflammation and a positive SARS-CoV-2 serologic finding (139 of 194 [72%]). Ten patients with MIS-A presented with Kawasaki disease. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These findings suggest that MIS-A is a serious hyperinflammatory condition that presents approximately 4 weeks after onset of acute COVID-19 with extrapulmonary multiorgan dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Young Adult
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(40): 1450-1456, 2020 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389856

ABSTRACT

During the course of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, reports of a new multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) have been increasing in Europe and the United States (1-3). Clinical features in children have varied but predominantly include shock, cardiac dysfunction, abdominal pain, and elevated inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, D-dimer, and interleukin-6 (1). Since June 2020, several case reports have described a similar syndrome in adults; this review describes in detail nine patients reported to CDC, seven from published case reports, and summarizes the findings in 11 patients described in three case series in peer-reviewed journals (4-6). These 27 patients had cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, dermatologic, and neurologic symptoms without severe respiratory illness and concurrently received positive test results for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or antibody assays indicating recent infection. Reports of these patients highlight the recognition of an illness referred to here as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A), the heterogeneity of clinical signs and symptoms, and the role for antibody testing in identifying similar cases among adults. Clinicians and health departments should consider MIS-A in adults with compatible signs and symptoms. These patients might not have positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR or antigen test results, and antibody testing might be needed to confirm previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Because of the temporal association between MIS-A and SARS-CoV-2 infections, interventions that prevent COVID-19 might prevent MIS-A. Further research is needed to understand the pathogenesis and long-term effects of this newly described condition.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(8): ofab388, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364827

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) occurs among persons aged <21 years following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Among 2818 MIS-C cases, 35 (1.2%) deaths were reported, primarily affecting racial/ethnic minority persons. Being 16-20 years old or having comorbidities was associated with death. Targeting coronavirus disease 2019 prevention among these groups and their caregivers might prevent MIS-C-related deaths.

13.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(11): e400-e406, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) varies by race and ethnicity. This study assessed whether disparities in MIS-C in the United States by race and ethnicity exceed known disparities in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence. METHODS: We compared the distribution of race and ethnicity among patients with MIS-C (<21 years of age, termed children) with onset March 2020 to February 2021 to that of children with COVID-19 and in the general population. Analysis was restricted to 369 counties with high completeness of race and ethnicity reporting for MIS-C and COVID-19. For each racial and ethnic group, observed numbers of patients with MIS-C were compared with expected numbers (observed/expected ratio) in children with COVID-19 and in the general population within these counties. RESULTS: Compared with children in the general population, MIS-C was more frequent among Hispanic (139% of expected) and non-Hispanic Black children (183%) and less frequent among non-Hispanic White (64%) and non-Hispanic Asian children (48%). Compared with children with COVID-19, MIS-C was more frequent in non-Hispanic Black children (207% of expected) and less frequent in non-Hispanic White children (68%); however, frequency was not different among Hispanic (102%) and non-Hispanic Asian (74%) children. CONCLUSIONS: Disparities in MIS-C by race and ethnicity exist, even after controlling for COVID-19 disparities and geographic variations. The high proportion of MIS-C among Hispanic children and low proportion among non-Hispanic Asian children align with COVID-19 rates, while the high proportion among non-Hispanic Black children and low proportion among non-Hispanic White children are not explainable by COVID-19 rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/history , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , History, 21st Century , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Public Health Surveillance , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/history , United States/epidemiology , United States/ethnology , Young Adult
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2116420, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263038

ABSTRACT

Importance: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is associated with recent or current SARS-CoV-2 infection. Information on MIS-C incidence is limited. Objective: To estimate population-based MIS-C incidence per 1 000 000 person-months and to estimate MIS-C incidence per 1 000 000 SARS-CoV-2 infections in persons younger than 21 years. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used enhanced surveillance data to identify persons with MIS-C during April to June 2020, in 7 jurisdictions reporting to both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention national surveillance and to Overcoming COVID-19, a multicenter MIS-C study. Denominators for population-based estimates were derived from census estimates; denominators for incidence per 1 000 000 SARS-CoV-2 infections were estimated by applying published age- and month-specific multipliers accounting for underdetection of reported COVID-19 case counts. Jurisdictions included Connecticut, Georgia, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York (excluding New York City), and Pennsylvania. Data analyses were conducted from August to December 2020. Exposures: Race/ethnicity, sex, and age group (ie, ≤5, 6-10, 11-15, and 16-20 years). Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall and stratum-specific adjusted estimated MIS-C incidence per 1 000 000 person-months and per 1 000 000 SARS-CoV-2 infections. Results: In the 7 jurisdictions examined, 248 persons with MIS-C were reported (median [interquartile range] age, 8 [4-13] years; 133 [53.6%] male; 96 persons [38.7%] were Hispanic or Latino; 75 persons [30.2%] were Black). The incidence of MIS-C per 1 000 000 person-months was 5.1 (95% CI, 4.5-5.8) persons. Compared with White persons, incidence per 1 000 000 person-months was higher among Black persons (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR], 9.26 [95% CI, 6.15-13.93]), Hispanic or Latino persons (aIRR, 8.92 [95% CI, 6.00-13.26]), and Asian or Pacific Islander (aIRR, 2.94 [95% CI, 1.49-5.82]) persons. MIS-C incidence per 1 000 000 SARS-CoV-2 infections was 316 (95% CI, 278-357) persons and was higher among Black (aIRR, 5.62 [95% CI, 3.68-8.60]), Hispanic or Latino (aIRR, 4.26 [95% CI, 2.85-6.38]), and Asian or Pacific Islander persons (aIRR, 2.88 [95% CI, 1.42-5.83]) compared with White persons. For both analyses, incidence was highest among children aged 5 years or younger (4.9 [95% CI, 3.7-6.6] children per 1 000 000 person-months) and children aged 6 to 10 years (6.3 [95% CI, 4.8-8.3] children per 1 000 000 person-months). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, MIS-C was a rare complication associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Estimates for population-based incidence and incidence among persons with infection were higher among Black, Hispanic or Latino, and Asian or Pacific Islander persons. Further study is needed to understand variability by race/ethnicity and age group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Age Distribution , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
15.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(7): 601-605, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1192569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been identified in infants <12 months old. Clinical characteristics and follow-up data of MIS-C in infants have not been well described. We sought to describe the clinical course, laboratory findings, therapeutics and outcomes among infants diagnosed with MIS-C. METHODS: Infants of age <12 months with MIS-C were identified by reports to the CDC's MIS-C national surveillance system. Data were obtained on clinical signs and symptoms, complications, treatment, laboratory and imaging findings, and diagnostic SARS-CoV-2 testing. Jurisdictions that reported 2 or more infants were approached to participate in evaluation of outcomes of MIS-C. RESULTS: Eighty-five infants with MIS-C were identified and 83 (97.6%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection; median age was 7.7 months. Rash (62.4%), diarrhea (55.3%) and vomiting (55.3%) were the most common signs and symptoms reported. Other clinical findings included hypotension (21.2%), pneumonia (21.2%) and coronary artery dilatation or aneurysm (13.9%). Laboratory abnormalities included elevated C-reactive protein, ferritin, d-dimer and fibrinogen. Twenty-three infants had follow-up data; 3 of the 14 patients who received a follow-up echocardiogram had cardiac abnormalities during or after hospitalization. Nine infants had elevated inflammatory markers up to 98 days postdischarge. One infant (1.2%) died after experiencing multisystem organ failure secondary to MIS-C. CONCLUSIONS: Infants appear to have a milder course of MIS-C than older children with resolution of their illness after hospital discharge. The full clinical picture of MIS-C across the pediatric age spectrum is evolving.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , United States/epidemiology
16.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(8): 837-845, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168812

ABSTRACT

Importance: Multiple inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) occurs in association with the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and geographic and temporal distribution of the largest cohort of patients with MIS-C in the United States to date. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional analysis was conducted on clinical and laboratory data collected from patients with MIS-C. The analysis included patients with illness onset from March 2020 to January 2021 and met MIS-C case definition. Main Outcomes and Measures: Geographic and temporal distribution of MIS-C was compared with that of COVID-19 nationally, by region, and level of urbanicity by county. Clinical and laboratory findings and changes over time were described by age group and by presence or absence of preceding COVID-19. Results: A total of 1733 patients with MIS-C were identified; 994 (57.6%) were male and 1117 (71.3%) were Hispanic or non-Hispanic Black. Gastrointestinal symptoms, rash, and conjunctival hyperemia were reported by 53% (n = 931) to 67% (n = 1153) of patients. A total of 937 patients (54%) had hypotension or shock, and 1009 (58.2%) were admitted for intensive care. Cardiac dysfunction was reported in 484 patients (31.0%), pericardial effusion in 365 (23.4%), myocarditis in 300 (17.3%), and coronary artery dilatation or aneurysms in 258 (16.5%). Patients aged 0 to 4 years had the lowest proportion of severe manifestations, although 171 patients (38.4%) had hypotension or shock and 197 (44.3%) were admitted for intensive care. Patients aged 18 to 20 years had the highest proportions with myocarditis (17 [30.9%]), pneumonia (20 [36.4%]), acute respiratory distress syndrome (10 [18.2%]), and polymerase chain reaction positivity (39 [70.9%]). These older adolescents also had the highest proportion reporting preceding COVID-19-like illness (63%). Nationally, the first 2 MIS-C peaks followed the COVID-19 peaks by 2 to 5 weeks. The cumulative MIS-C incidence per 100 000 persons younger than 21 years was 2.1 and varied from 0.2 to 6.3 by state. Twenty-four patients (1.4%) died. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of a large cohort of patients with MIS-C, 2 peaks that followed COVID-19 peaks by 2 to 5 weeks were identified. The geographic and temporal association of MIS-C with the COVID-19 pandemic suggested that MIS-C resulted from delayed immunologic responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The clinical manifestations varied by age and by presence or absence of preceding COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(5): 323-331, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a newly identified and serious health condition associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinical manifestations vary widely among patients with MIS-C, and the aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with severe outcomes. METHODS: In this retrospective surveillance study, patients who met the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) case definition for MIS-C (younger than 21 years, fever, laboratory evidence of inflammation, admitted to hospital, multisystem [≥2] organ involvement [cardiac, renal, respiratory, haematological, gastrointestinal, dermatological, or neurological], no alternative plausible diagnosis, and either laboratory confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection by RT-PCR, serology, or antigen test, or known COVID-19 exposure within 4 weeks before symptom onset) were reported from state and local health departments to the CDC using standard case-report forms. Factors assessed for potential links to severe outcomes included pre-existing patient factors (sex, age, race or ethnicity, obesity, and MIS-C symptom onset date before June 1, 2020) and clinical findings (signs or symptoms and laboratory markers). Logistic regression models, adjusted for all pre-existing factors, were used to estimate odds ratios between potential explanatory factors and the following outcomes: intensive care unit (ICU) admission, shock, decreased cardiac function, myocarditis, and coronary artery abnormalities. FINDINGS: 1080 patients met the CDC case definition for MIS-C and had symptom onset between March 11 and Oct 10, 2020. ICU admission was more likely in patients aged 6-12 years (adjusted odds ratio 1·9 [95% CI 1·4-2·6) and patients aged 13-20 years (2·6 [1·8-3·8]), compared with patients aged 0-5 years, and more likely in non-Hispanic Black patients, compared with non-Hispanic White patients (1·6 [1·0-2·4]). ICU admission was more likely for patients with shortness of breath (1·9 [1·2-2·9]), abdominal pain (1·7 [1·2-2·7]), and patients with increased concentrations of C-reactive protein, troponin, ferritin, D-dimer, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), N-terminal pro B-type BNP, or interleukin-6, or reduced platelet or lymphocyte counts. We found similar associations for decreased cardiac function, shock, and myocarditis. Coronary artery abnormalities were more common in male patients (1·5 [1·1-2·1]) than in female patients and patients with mucocutaneous lesions (2·2 [1·3-3·5]) or conjunctival injection (2·3 [1·4-3·7]). INTERPRETATION: Identification of important demographic and clinical characteristics could aid in early recognition and prompt management of severe outcomes for patients with MIS-C. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Adolescent , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Critical Care , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome , United States , Young Adult
18.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(1): e35-e36, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892110

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic intussusception is a common cause of bowel obstruction in infants, presenting as refractory abdominal pain or mass, vomiting, lethargy, and currant jelly stool. Coronavirus disease 2019 is not well characterized in children, especially infants, but symptoms in children have included nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. From January to July 2020, intussusception was reported in 5 infants 4-10 months of age who had laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. All 5 infants presented with currant jelly stool and at least 1 other abdominal symptom, and none presented with respiratory symptoms. Four infants recovered but the fifth infant progressed to a critical illness and death. While an association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and intussusception has not been established, infants with symptoms consistent with intussusception may warrant testing for viral pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2, especially if presenting to healthcare with a history of SARS-CoV-2 exposure or with signs and symptoms of COVID-19. More investigation is needed to determine whether intussusception is part of the clinical spectrum of COVID-19 in infants or a coincidental finding among infants with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Intussusception/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant , Intussusception/pathology , Intussusception/therapy , Intussusception/virology , Male , Treatment Outcome
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(39): 1410-1415, 2020 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-809622

ABSTRACT

Approximately 56 million school-aged children (aged 5-17 years) resumed education in the United States in fall 2020.* Analysis of demographic characteristics, underlying conditions, clinical outcomes, and trends in weekly coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence during March 1-September 19, 2020 among 277,285 laboratory-confirmed cases in school-aged children in the United States might inform decisions about in-person learning and the timing and scaling of community mitigation measures. During May-September 2020, average weekly incidence (cases per 100,000 children) among adolescents aged 12-17 years (37.4) was approximately twice that of children aged 5-11 years (19.0). In addition, among school-aged children, COVID-19 indicators peaked during July 2020: weekly percentage of positive SARS-CoV-2 test results increased from 10% on May 31 to 14% on July 5; SARS-CoV-2 test volume increased from 100,081 tests on May 31 to 322,227 on July 12, and COVID-19 incidence increased from 13.8 per 100,000 on May 31 to 37.9 on July 19. During July and August, test volume and incidence decreased then plateaued; incidence decreased further during early September and might be increasing. Percentage of positive test results decreased during August and plateaued during September. Underlying conditions were more common among school-aged children with severe outcomes related to COVID-19: among school-aged children who were hospitalized, admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), or who died, 16%, 27%, and 28%, respectively, had at least one underlying medical condition. Schools and communities can implement multiple, concurrent mitigation strategies and tailor communications to promote mitigation strategies to prevent COVID-19 spread. These results can provide a baseline for monitoring trends and evaluating mitigation strategies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
20.
J Pediatr ; 226: 45-54.e1, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-803910

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To develop a more comprehensive description of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a novel syndrome linked to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, by conducting a systematic analysis of studies from different settings that used various inclusion criteria. STUDY DESIGN: MIS-C studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase as well as preprint repositories and article references to identify studies of MIS-C cases published from April 25, 2020, through June 29, 2020. MIS-C study metadata were assessed and information on case demographics, clinical symptoms, laboratory measurements, treatments, and outcomes were summarized and contrasted between studies. RESULTS: Eight studies were identified representing a total of 440 MIS-C cases. Inclusion criteria varied by study: 3 studies selected patients diagnosed with Kawasaki disease, 2 required cardiovascular involvement, and 3 had broader multisystem inclusion criteria. Median age of patients by study ranged from 7.3 to 10 years, and 59% of patients were male. Across all studies, the proportion of patients with positive results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction tests ranged from 13% to 69% and for serology, from 75% to 100%. Patients with MIS-C had high prevalence of gastrointestinal (87%), dermatologic/mucocutaneous (73%), and cardiovascular (71%) symptoms. Prevalence of cardiovascular, neurologic, and respiratory system involvement significantly differed by study inclusion criteria. All studies reported elevated C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and fibrinogen levels for at least 75% of patients in each study. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review of MIS-C studies assists with understanding this newly identified syndrome and may be useful in developing a refined, universal case definition of MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Child , Humans , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood
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