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J Am Coll Cardiol ; 79(9): 917-928, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706820


Clinical, laboratory, and autopsy findings support an association between coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and thromboembolic disease. Acute COVID-19 infection is characterized by mononuclear cell reactivity and pan-endothelialitis, contributing to a high incidence of thrombosis in large and small blood vessels, both arterial and venous. Observational studies and randomized trials have investigated whether full-dose anticoagulation may improve outcomes compared with prophylactic dose heparin. Although no benefit for therapeutic heparin has been found in patients who are critically ill hospitalized with COVID-19, some studies support a possible role for therapeutic anticoagulation in patients not yet requiring intensive care unit support. We summarize the pathology, rationale, and current evidence for use of anticoagulation in patients with COVID-19 and describe the main design elements of the ongoing FREEDOM COVID-19 Anticoagulation trial, in which 3,600 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 not requiring intensive care unit level of care are being randomized to prophylactic-dose enoxaparin vs therapeutic-dose enoxaparin vs therapeutic-dose apixaban. (FREEDOM COVID-19 Anticoagulation Strategy [FREEDOM COVID]; NCT04512079).

Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Thrombosis/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Thromboembolism/virology , Thrombosis/virology
N Engl J Med ; 385(9): 777-789, 2021 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343497


BACKGROUND: Thrombosis and inflammation may contribute to morbidity and mortality among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). We hypothesized that therapeutic-dose anticoagulation would improve outcomes in critically ill patients with Covid-19. METHODS: In an open-label, adaptive, multiplatform, randomized clinical trial, critically ill patients with severe Covid-19 were randomly assigned to a pragmatically defined regimen of either therapeutic-dose anticoagulation with heparin or pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis in accordance with local usual care. The primary outcome was organ support-free days, evaluated on an ordinal scale that combined in-hospital death (assigned a value of -1) and the number of days free of cardiovascular or respiratory organ support up to day 21 among patients who survived to hospital discharge. RESULTS: The trial was stopped when the prespecified criterion for futility was met for therapeutic-dose anticoagulation. Data on the primary outcome were available for 1098 patients (534 assigned to therapeutic-dose anticoagulation and 564 assigned to usual-care thromboprophylaxis). The median value for organ support-free days was 1 (interquartile range, -1 to 16) among the patients assigned to therapeutic-dose anticoagulation and was 4 (interquartile range, -1 to 16) among the patients assigned to usual-care thromboprophylaxis (adjusted proportional odds ratio, 0.83; 95% credible interval, 0.67 to 1.03; posterior probability of futility [defined as an odds ratio <1.2], 99.9%). The percentage of patients who survived to hospital discharge was similar in the two groups (62.7% and 64.5%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio, 0.84; 95% credible interval, 0.64 to 1.11). Major bleeding occurred in 3.8% of the patients assigned to therapeutic-dose anticoagulation and in 2.3% of those assigned to usual-care pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients with Covid-19, an initial strategy of therapeutic-dose anticoagulation with heparin did not result in a greater probability of survival to hospital discharge or a greater number of days free of cardiovascular or respiratory organ support than did usual-care pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. (REMAP-CAP, ACTIV-4a, and ATTACC numbers, NCT02735707, NCT04505774, NCT04359277, and NCT04372589.).

Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heparin/administration & dosage , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Heparin/adverse effects , Heparin/therapeutic use , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Respiration, Artificial , Treatment Failure
Eur Heart J ; 42(1): 113-131, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209573


Systemic vascular inflammation plays multiple maladaptive roles which contribute to the progression and destabilization of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). These roles include: (i) driving atheroprogression in the clinically stable phase of disease; (ii) inciting atheroma destabilization and precipitating acute coronary syndromes (ACS); and (iii) responding to cardiomyocyte necrosis in myocardial infarction (MI). Despite an evolving understanding of these biologic processes, successful clinical translation into effective therapies has proven challenging. Realizing the promise of targeting inflammation in the prevention and treatment of ASCVD will likely require more individualized approaches, as the degree of inflammation differs among cardiovascular patients. A large body of evidence has accumulated supporting the use of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) as a clinical measure of inflammation. Appreciating the mechanistic diversity of ACS triggers and the kinetics of hsCRP in MI may resolve purported inconsistencies from prior observational studies. Future clinical trial designs incorporating hsCRP may hold promise to enable individualized approaches. The aim of this Clinical Review is to summarize the current understanding of how inflammation contributes to ASCVD progression, destabilization, and adverse clinical outcomes. We offer forward-looking perspective on what next steps may enable successful clinical translation into effective therapeutic approaches-enabling targeting the right patients with the right therapy at the right time-on the road to more individualized ASCVD care.

Acute Coronary Syndrome , Atherosclerosis , Cardiovascular Diseases , Myocardial Infarction , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Inflammation