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1.
Gac Sanit ; 36 Suppl 1: S82-S86, 2022.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1920886

ABSTRACT

In Spain, the vaccination program began in a context of high transmission and low availability of vaccines. The objective of this article is to review the vaccination program against COVID-19 in Europe (3/03/2022) and assess the obstacles, challenges and opportunities posed by the control of this disease. Five vaccines are currently available in Europe: two based on mRNA technology (Comirnaty® and Spikevax®); two based on a non-replicative vector (Vaxzevria® and Janssen); and another based on subunit S (Novavax®). Health authorities have developed comprehensive vaccination strategies prioritizing the prevention of hospitalizations and deaths. In January 2022, 90% of the population was exceeded with full vaccination and 95% coverage in people over 50 years of age. The new challenge is to achieve similar coverage in the rest of the age groups. Vaccination in children and adolescents has become a priority due to the educational and social implications derived from COVID-19 in this population. Communication strategies must be renewed and access barriers eliminated to achieve good coverage. In Spain, studies have been published that find a high effectiveness of vaccination. The main strategy for controlling the pandemic and recovering social activity is the vaccination, but everything indicates that very high levels of vaccination coverage will be necessary and to follow with the non-pharmaceutical measures. In a globalized world, COVID-19 control will only be achieved with a coordinated global strategy and technical and economic support for the vaccination strategy in resource-poor countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Humans , Immunization Programs , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination
2.
SAGE Open Med ; 10: 20503121221108556, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1916880

ABSTRACT

Objective: We aimed to assess the prevalence and clinical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 reinfections in a Spanish region. Methods: This is a retrospective observational study in all patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections in the Lleida health region from 1 March to 30 November 2020. Reinfections were classified as patients with positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests separated by at least 90 days plus a negative test result between both infection episodes. Primary and secondary outcomes: The primary outcome was the percentage of SARS-CoV-2 reinfections among all SARS-CoV-2 infections detected during our study period. Secondary outcomes were the clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of patients with SARS-CoV-2 reinfections. Results: Of the 27,758 patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the study period, 14 were identified as coronavirus reinfection (0.050%). Of the reinfected sample, 12 patients (85.7%) were women. The median age was 41.5 years. Two patients died in the second coronavirus episode. Conclusion: The reinfection rate of SARS-CoV-2 in the Spanish region Lleida was relatively low during the observational period in 2020 (less than 1%). These data are in line with the notion that previous SARS-CoV-2 infections may offer a significant protection by so called natural immunity.

3.
Vacunas ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1877183

ABSTRACT

Objectives Seasonal fruit workers are a high-risk group for SARS-COV-2 infection. We aimed to estimate vaccination coverage and factors associated with vaccination in seasonal fruit workers. Methods We carried out an anonymous survey of seasonal fruit workers in the 2021 campaign in Baix Segria region and Lleida city (Spain) on vaccination, knowledge and attitudes about the COVID-19 vaccine. Univariate and bivariate descriptive analyses were performed comparing vaccinated versus non-vaccinated. Multivariate analysis was performed using to assess factors associated to vaccination uptake. Results We included 286 seasonal workers. The prevalence of confirmed COVID-19 was 39.5% and overall vaccination coverage was 78.7%. Factors associated with vaccination were age (aOR = 0.96;95% CI: 0.94–0.99), good knowledge of disease (aOR = 1.87;95% CI = 1.01–3.47) and having a high-perceived vaccine effectiveness (aOR = 2.94;95% CI = 1.50–5.73). High vaccination coverage in workers was associated to knowledge (OR = 3.69;95% CI: 1.61–8.48), safe transport (OR = 2.84;95% CI: 1.40–5.76) and appropriate housing (OR = 2.62;95% CI: 1.25–5.46) as important non-pharmacological measures to reduced transmission. Conclusion The study confirms the high prevalence of COVID-19 history and moderate vaccination coverage in seasonal fruit workers. Health education programs to improve knowledge about COVID-19 and its vaccination can help improve vaccination uptake.

4.
Vacunas ; 23: S44-S51, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867884

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Seasonal fruit workers are a high-risk group for SARS-COV-2 infection. We aimed to estimate vaccination coverage and factors associated with vaccination in seasonal fruit workers. Methods: We carried out an anonymous survey of seasonal fruit workers in the 2021 campaign in Baix Segria region and Lleida city (Spain) on vaccination, knowledge and attitudes about the COVID-19 vaccine. Univariate and bivariate descriptive analyses were performed comparing vaccinated versus non-vaccinated. Multivariate analysis was performed using to assess factors associated to vaccination uptake. Results: We included 286 seasonal workers. The prevalence of confirmed COVID-19 background was 39.5% and overall vaccination coverage was 78.7%. Factors associated with vaccination were age (aOR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.94-0.99), good knowledge of disease (aOR = 1.87; 95% CI : 1.01-3.47) and having a high-perceived vaccine effectiveness (aOR = 2.94; 95% CI : 1.50-5.73). High vaccination coverage in workers was associated to knowledge (OR = 3.69; 95% CI: 1.61-8.48), safe transport (OR = 2.84; 95% CI: 1.40-5.76) and appropriate housing (OR = 2.62; 95% CI: 1.25-5.46) as important non-pharmacological measures to reduced transmission. Conclusion: The study confirms the high prevalence of COVID-19 history and moderate vaccination coverage in seasonal fruit workers. Health education programs to improve knowledge about COVID-19 and its vaccination can help improve vaccination uptake.


Objetivos: Los trabajadores temporales de la fruta son un grupo de alto riesgo de infección por SARS-COV-2. El objetivo fue estimar la cobertura vacunal y los factores asociados a la vacunación en los trabajadores temporales de la fruta. Métodos: Se realizó una encuesta anónima a los temporeros de la campaña de la fruta 2021 en la comarca del Baix Segrià y en la ciudad de Lleida sobre la vacunación, y los conocimientos y actitudes sobre la vacuna de la COVID-19. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos y bivariantes comparando los vacunados con los no vacunados y se realizó un análisis multivariante para evaluar los factores asociados a la vacunación. Resultados: Se incluyeron 286 trabajadores temporales. La prevalencia de haber sido COVID-19 confirmado previamente fue del 39,5% y la cobertura global de vacunación fue del 78,7%. Los factores asociados a la vacunación fueron la edad (ORa = 0,96; IC 95%: 0,94-0,99), el conocimiento correcto de la enfermedad (ORa = 1,87; IC 95% : 1,01-3,47) y tener una alta percepción de la eficacia de la vacuna (ORa = 2,94; IC 95% : 1,50-5,73). Se observó una alta cobertura vacunal en los trabajadores manifestaron que los conocimientos de la enfermedad (OR = 3,69; IC 95%: 1,61-8,48), el transporte seguro (OR = 2,84; IC 95%: 1,40-5,76) y el alojamiento adecuado (OR = 2,62; IC 95%: 1,25-5,46) son importantes medidas para reducir la transmisión. Conclusiones: El estudio confirma la alta prevalencia de haber pasado la COVID-19 y la moderada cobertura de vacunación en los trabajadores estacionales de la fruta. Los programas de educación sanitaria para mejorar el conocimiento sobre el COVID-19 y su vacunación pueden ayudar a mejorar la aceptación de la vacunación.

5.
Eur J Public Health ; 32(4): 643-647, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758732

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic could have negative effects on tuberculosis (TB) control. The objective was to assess the impact of the pandemic in contact tracing, TB and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in contacts of patients with pulmonary TB in Catalonia (Spain). METHODS: Contact tracing was carried out in cases of pulmonary TB detected during 14 months in the pre-pandemic period (1 January 2019 to 28 February 2020) and 14 months in the pandemic period (1 March 2020 to 30 April 2021). Contacts received the tuberculin skin test and/or interferon gamma release assay and it was determined whether they had TB or LTBI. Variables associated with TB or LTBI in contacts (study period and sociodemographic variables) were analyzed using adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and the 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: The pre-pandemic and pandemic periods showed, respectively: 503 and 255 pulmonary TB reported cases (reduction of 50.7%); and 4676 and 1687 contacts studied (reduction of 36.1%). In these periods, the proportion of TB cases among the contacts was 1.9% (84/4307) and 2.2% (30/1381) (P = 0.608); and the proportion of LTBI was 25.3% (1090/4307) and 29.2% (403/1381) (P < 0.001). The pandemic period was associated to higher LTBI proportion (aOR = 1.3; 95% CI 1.1-1.5), taking into account the effect on LTBI of the other variables studied as sex, age, household contact and migrant status. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is affecting TB control due to less exhaustive TB and LTBI case detection. An increase in LTBI was observed during the pandemic period. Efforts should be made to improve detection of TB and LTBI among contacts of TB cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Latent Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Humans , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Tuberculin Test , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology
6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329899

ABSTRACT

The emergence of new variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus may suppose a problem for public health to control the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to assess and compare symptoms and severity of COVID-19 cases in the months with a predominance of the Alpha variant compared to the Delta variant, taking the effect of COVID-19 vaccination into account. A prospective epidemiological study of SARS-CoV-2 in the province of Lleida was done that aimed to search for differences between the predominance of the Alpha and Delta variants. The information analyzed was the symptoms, specific comorbidities, socio-demographic information and vaccination status. A bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) in order to investigate relationships of symptoms and severity between variants. In the Alpha variant period there was an increased risk of ICU admission (aOR=2.0;95%CI:1.2-2.3) and death (aOR=2.6;95%CI:1.8-3.9) and cases were associated with those aged over 85 (aOR=2.1;95%CI:1.7-2.6) and partially vaccinated (aOR=5.6;95%CI:3.2-9.9) or unvaccinated (aOR=27.8;95%CI:19.7-40.5). Regarding the symptoms, fever, cough and vomits gave significant results with aORs of 1.6 (95% CI: 1.5-1.7), 2.0 (95% CI: 1.9-2.2) and 2.5 (95% CI: 2.2-2.9). The results suggest that more severe cases appeared during the predominance of the alpha variant. The risk of ICU admission and the death was higher in the alpha period due to it affecting more elderly people and a lack of vaccination among cases. Fever, cough and vomiting were more frequent during the dominance of the alpha variant.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13587, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500741

ABSTRACT

Influenza is an important cause of severe illness and death among patients with underlying medical conditions and in the elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with ICU admission and death in patients hospitalized with severe laboratory-confirmed influenza during the 2017-2018 season in Catalonia. An observational epidemiological case-to-case study was carried out. Reported cases of severe laboratory-confirmed influenza requiring hospitalization in 2017-2018 influenza season were included. Mixed-effects regression analysis was used to estimate the factors associated with ICU admission and death. A total of 1306 cases of hospitalized severe influenza cases were included, of whom 175 (13.4%) died and 217 (16.6%) were ICU admitted. Age 65-74 years and ≥ 75 years and having ≥ 2 comorbidities were positively associated with death (aOR 3.19; 95%CI 1.19-8.50, aOR 6.95, 95%CI 2.76-1.80 and aOR 1.99; 95%CI 1.12-3.52, respectively). Neuraminidase inhibitor treatment and pneumonia were negatively associated with death. The 65-74 years and ≥ 75 years age groups were negatively associated with ICU admission (aOR 0.41; 95%CI 0.23-0.74 and aOR 0.30; 95%CI 0.17-0.53, respectively). A factor positively associated with ICU admission was neuraminidase inhibitor treatment. Our results support the need to investigate the worst outcomes of hospitalized severe cases, distinguishing between death and ICU admission.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human , Intensive Care Units , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Neuraminidase/antagonists & inhibitors , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology
8.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259318, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496537

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiota of infants with possible and confirmed pertussis compared to healthy controls. METHODS: This prospective study included all infants <1 year with microbiologically confirmed diagnosis of pertussis attended at a University Hospital over a 12-month period. For each confirmed case, up to 2 consecutive patients within the same age range and meeting the clinical case definition of pertussis but testing PCR-negative were included as possible cases. A third group of asymptomatic infants (healthy controls) were also included. Nasopharyngeal microbiota was characterized by sequencing the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Common respiratory DNA/RNA viral co-infection was tested by multiplex PCR. RESULTS: Twelve confirmed cases, 21 possible cases and 9 healthy controls were included. Confirmed whooping cough was primarily driven by detection of Bordetella with no other major changes on nasopharyngeal microbiota. Possible cases had limited abundance or absence of Bordetella and a distinctive microbiota with lower bacterial richness and diversity and higher rates of viral co-infection than both confirmed cases and healthy controls. Bordetella reads determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were found in all 12 confirmed cases (100%), 3 out of the 21 possible cases (14.3%) but in any healthy control. CONCLUSION: This study supports the usefulness of 16S rRNA gene sequencing for improved sensitivity on pertussis diagnosis compared to real-time PCR and to understand other microbial changes occurring in the nasopharynx in children <1 year old with suspected whooping cough compared to healthy controls.


Subject(s)
Microbiota , Whooping Cough/microbiology , Bordetella/genetics , Bordetella/isolation & purification , Bordetella/pathogenicity , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Nasal Cavity/microbiology , Pharynx/microbiology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Whooping Cough/diagnosis
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