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Nature ; 599(7883): 114-119, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114880


The B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first identified in the state of Maharashtra in late 2020 and spread throughout India, outcompeting pre-existing lineages including B.1.617.1 (Kappa) and B.1.1.7 (Alpha)1. In vitro, B.1.617.2 is sixfold less sensitive to serum neutralizing antibodies from recovered individuals, and eightfold less sensitive to vaccine-elicited antibodies, compared with wild-type Wuhan-1 bearing D614G. Serum neutralizing titres against B.1.617.2 were lower in ChAdOx1 vaccinees than in BNT162b2 vaccinees. B.1.617.2 spike pseudotyped viruses exhibited compromised sensitivity to monoclonal antibodies to the receptor-binding domain and the amino-terminal domain. B.1.617.2 demonstrated higher replication efficiency than B.1.1.7 in both airway organoid and human airway epithelial systems, associated with B.1.617.2 spike being in a predominantly cleaved state compared with B.1.1.7 spike. The B.1.617.2 spike protein was able to mediate highly efficient syncytium formation that was less sensitive to inhibition by neutralizing antibody, compared with that of wild-type spike. We also observed that B.1.617.2 had higher replication and spike-mediated entry than B.1.617.1, potentially explaining the B.1.617.2 dominance. In an analysis of more than 130 SARS-CoV-2-infected health care workers across three centres in India during a period of mixed lineage circulation, we observed reduced ChAdOx1 vaccine effectiveness against B.1.617.2 relative to non-B.1.617.2, with the caveat of possible residual confounding. Compromised vaccine efficacy against the highly fit and immune-evasive B.1.617.2 Delta variant warrants continued infection control measures in the post-vaccination era.

Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Replication/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cell Fusion , Cell Line , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , India , Kinetics , Male , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccination
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 39(4): 528-533, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525815


PURPOSE: The present study estimates the seroprevalence of SARS-COV-2 among asymptomatic HCWs and assess the impact of various categories of PPE. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of asymptomatic HCW using different levels of PPE as per their risk profile was undertaken between 18th and 24th September 2020. Participant demographics and other relevant details including the levels of PPE used were recorded using a customized questionnaire. IgG antibodies against SARS-COV-2 were detected by chemiluminescence method & used as a surrogate marker for incomplete protection. RESULTS: Out of 1033 HCWs tested, overall SARS-COV-2 sero-prevalence was 25.8%. Univariate and multivariate analysis both demonstrated that ancillary workers including security staff (OR 5.589, P â€‹< â€‹0.001) and sanitary workers (OR 3.946, P â€‹< â€‹0.001) were at significantly higher risk of seropositivity irrespective of the PPE used as per guidelines, whereas doctors were at significantly lower risk of seropositivity (OR 0.307, P â€‹= â€‹0.005). Staff working in office areas was associated with reduced risk of seropositivity (OR 0.21, P â€‹= â€‹0.045). CONCLUSIONS: We document high seroprevalence of SARS-COV-2 antibodies in asymptomatic HCWs. Doctors who are at the highest risk had the lowest seropositivity and seroprevalence among office staff having a risk level comparable to the general community was lower than that reported in general population, supporting the efficacy of PPE practices as per guidelines in these groups. In contrast, much higher rates of seropositivity were seen among ancillary workers despite the availability of adequate PPE. Active screening, proper PPE use as per guidelines, and regular infection control trainings including Covid appropriate behaviour are therefore essential to contain COVID-19 spread among HCW & preventing them to transfer infection to the patients.

COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , India/epidemiology , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Tertiary Care Centers