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1.
Transpl Int ; 35: 10626, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974701

ABSTRACT

Alloimmune responses in kidney transplant (KT) patients previously hospitalized with COVID-19 are understudied. We analyzed a cohort of 112 kidney transplant recipients who were hospitalized following a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result during the first 20 months of the COVID-19 pandemic. We found a cumulative incidence of 17% for the development of new donor-specific antibodies (DSA) or increased levels of pre-existing DSA in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-infected KT patients. This risk extended 8 months post-infection. These changes in DSA status were associated with late allograft dysfunction. Risk factors for new or increased DSA responses in this KT patient cohort included the presence of circulating DSA pre-COVID-19 diagnosis and time post-transplantation. COVID-19 vaccination prior to infection and remdesivir administration during infection were each associated with decreased likelihood of developing a new or increased DSA response. These data show that new or enhanced DSA responses frequently occur among KT patients requiring admission with COVID-19 and suggest that surveillance, vaccination, and antiviral therapies may be important tools to prevent alloimmunity in these individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Graft Rejection , HLA Antigens , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Vaccination
2.
Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation ; 35, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1970584

ABSTRACT

Alloimmune responses in kidney transplant (KT) patients previously hospitalized with COVID-19 are understudied. We analyzed a cohort of 112 kidney transplant recipients who were hospitalized following a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result during the first 20 months of the COVID-19 pandemic. We found a cumulative incidence of 17% for the development of new donor-specific antibodies (DSA) or increased levels of pre-existing DSA in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-infected KT patients. This risk extended 8 months post-infection. These changes in DSA status were associated with late allograft dysfunction. Risk factors for new or increased DSA responses in this KT patient cohort included the presence of circulating DSA pre-COVID-19 diagnosis and time post-transplantation. COVID-19 vaccination prior to infection and remdesivir administration during infection were each associated with decreased likelihood of developing a new or increased DSA response. These data show that new or enhanced DSA responses frequently occur among KT patients requiring admission with COVID-19 and suggest that surveillance, vaccination, and antiviral therapies may be important tools to prevent alloimmunity in these individuals. GRAPHICAL

3.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(7): e1010691, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951570

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) marks the third novel ß-coronavirus to cause significant human mortality in the last two decades. Although vaccines are available, too few have been administered worldwide to keep the virus in check and to prevent mutations leading to immune escape. To determine if antibodies could be identified with universal coronavirus activity, plasma from convalescent subjects was screened for IgG against a stabilized pre-fusion SARS-CoV-2 spike S2 domain, which is highly conserved between human ß-coronavirus. From these subjects, several S2-specific human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs) were developed that neutralized SARS-CoV-2 with recognition of all variants of concern (VoC) tested (Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon, and Omicron). The hmAb 1249A8 emerged as the most potent and broad hmAb, able to recognize all human ß-coronavirus and neutralize SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. 1249A8 demonstrated significant prophylactic activity in K18 hACE2 mice infected with SARS-CoV-2 lineage A and lineage B Beta, and Omicron VoC. 1249A8 delivered as a single 4 mg/kg intranasal (i.n.) dose to hamsters 12 hours following infection with SARS-CoV-2 Delta protected them from weight loss, with therapeutic activity further enhanced when combined with 1213H7, an S1-specific neutralizing hmAb. As little as 2 mg/kg of 1249A8 i.n. dose 12 hours following infection with SARS-CoV Urbani strain, protected hamsters from weight loss and significantly reduced upper and lower respiratory viral burden. These results indicate in vivo cooperativity between S1 and S2 specific neutralizing hmAbs and that potent universal coronavirus neutralizing mAbs with therapeutic potential can be induced in humans and can guide universal coronavirus vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Weight Loss
4.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886441

ABSTRACT

This secondary analysis of the phase 3 ENSEMBLE trial (NCT04505722) assessed the impact of preexisting humoral immunity to adenovirus type 26 (Ad26) on the immunogenicity of Ad26.COV2.S-elicited SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody levels in 380 participants in Brazil, South Africa, and the United States. Among those vaccinated in Brazil and South Africa, 31% and 66%, respectively, had prevaccination serum-neutralizing activity against Ad26, with little preexisting immunity detected in the United States. Vaccine recipients in each country had similar post-vaccination spike-binding antibody levels, indicating that baseline immunity to Ad26 has no clear impact on vaccine-induced immune responses.

5.
Protein Eng Des Sel ; 352022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692166

ABSTRACT

Quantification of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response has proven to be a prominent diagnostic tool during the COVID-19 pandemic. Antibody measurements have aided in the determination of humoral protection following infection or vaccination and will likely be essential for predicting the prevalence of population level immunity over the next several years. Despite widespread use, current tests remain limited in part, because antibody capture is accomplished through the use of complete spike and nucleocapsid proteins that contain significant regions of overlap with common circulating coronaviruses. To address this limitation, a unique epitope display platform utilizing monovalent display and protease-driven capture of peptide epitopes was used to select high affinity peptides. A single round of selection using this strategy with COVID-19 positive patient plasma samples revealed surprising differences and specific patterns in the antigenicity of SARS-CoV-2 proteins, especially the spike protein. Putative epitopes were assayed for specificity with convalescent and control samples, and the individual binding kinetics of peptides were also determined. A subset of prioritized peptides was used to develop an antibody diagnostic assay that showed low cross reactivity while detecting 37% more positive antibody cases than a gold standard FDA EUA test. Finally, a subset of peptides were compared with serum neutralization activity to establish a 2 peptide assay that strongly correlates with neutralization. Together, these data demonstrate a novel phage display method that is capable of comprehensively and rapidly mapping patient viral antibody responses and selecting high affinity public epitopes for the diagnosis of humoral immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Humans , Pandemics , Peptides , Serologic Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
6.
N Engl J Med ; 386(9): 847-860, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Ad26.COV2.S vaccine was highly effective against severe-critical coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), hospitalization, and death in the primary phase 3 efficacy analysis. METHODS: We conducted the final analysis in the double-blind phase of our multinational, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, in which adults were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive single-dose Ad26.COV2.S (5×1010 viral particles) or placebo. The primary end points were vaccine efficacy against moderate to severe-critical Covid-19 with onset at least 14 days after administration and at least 28 days after administration in the per-protocol population. Safety and key secondary and exploratory end points were also assessed. RESULTS: Median follow-up in this analysis was 4 months; 8940 participants had at least 6 months of follow-up. In the per-protocol population (39,185 participants), vaccine efficacy against moderate to severe-critical Covid-19 at least 14 days after administration was 56.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.3 to 60.8; 484 cases in the vaccine group vs. 1067 in the placebo group); at least 28 days after administration, vaccine efficacy was 52.9% (95% CI, 47.1 to 58.1; 433 cases in the vaccine group vs. 883 in the placebo group). Efficacy in the United States, primarily against the reference strain (B.1.D614G) and the B.1.1.7 (alpha) variant, was 69.7% (95% CI, 60.7 to 76.9); efficacy was reduced elsewhere against the P.1 (gamma), C.37 (lambda), and B.1.621 (mu) variants. Efficacy was 74.6% (95% CI, 64.7 to 82.1) against severe-critical Covid-19 (with only 4 severe-critical cases caused by the B.1.617.2 [delta] variant), 75.6% (95% CI, 54.3 to 88.0) against Covid-19 leading to medical intervention (including hospitalization), and 82.8% (95% CI, 40.5 to 96.8) against Covid-19-related death, with protection lasting 6 months or longer. Efficacy against any severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was 41.7% (95% CI, 36.3 to 46.7). Ad26.COV2.S was associated with mainly mild-to-moderate adverse events, and no new safety concerns were identified. CONCLUSIONS: A single dose of Ad26.COV2.S provided 52.9% protection against moderate to severe-critical Covid-19. Protection varied according to variant; higher protection was observed against severe Covid-19, medical intervention, and death than against other end points and lasted for 6 months or longer. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development and others; ENSEMBLE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04505722.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , /statistics & numerical data , /adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Double-Blind Method , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
7.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 11(1): e1360, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1619419

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We previously described the Phase I-II evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 recombinant protein candidate vaccine, CoV2-PreS-dTM, with AF03- or AS03-adjuvant systems (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04537208). Here, we further characterise the cellular immunogenicity profile of this vaccine candidate using a whole-blood secretion assay in parallel to intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) of cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). METHODS: A randomly allocated subset of 90 healthy, SARS-CoV-2-seronegative adults aged ≥ 18 years who had received (random allocation) one or two separate injections (on study day [D]1 and D22) of saline placebo or CoV2-PreS-dTM formulated with AS03 or AF03 were included. Cytokine secretion was assessed using a TruCulture® whole-blood stimulation system in combination with multiplex bead array, and intracellular cytokine profiles were evaluated on thawed PBMCs following ex vivo stimulation with recombinant S protein at pre-vaccination (D1), post-dose 1 (D22) and post-dose 2 (D36). RESULTS: Both methods detected similar vaccine-induced responses after the first and second doses. We observed a Th1 bias (Th1/Th2 ratio > 1.0) for most treatment groups when analysed in whole blood, mainly characterised by increased IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α secretion. Among participants aged ≥ 50 years, the Th1/Th2 ratio was higher for those who received vaccine candidate with AS03 versus AF03 adjuvant. ICS revealed that this higher Th1/Th2 ratio resulted from higher levels of IFN-γ expression and that the vaccine induced polyfunctional CD4+ T cells. CONCLUSIONS: The whole-blood cytokine secretion assay is a high-throughput alternative for assessing the quantity and character of vaccine-induced cellular responses.

8.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(12): 1365-1376, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Functional impairment of interferon, a natural antiviral component of the immune system, is associated with the pathogenesis and severity of COVID-19. We aimed to compare the efficacy of interferon beta-1a in combination with remdesivir compared with remdesivir alone in hospitalised patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We did a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial at 63 hospitals across five countries (Japan, Mexico, Singapore, South Korea, and the USA). Eligible patients were hospitalised adults (aged ≥18 years) with SARS-CoV-2 infection, as confirmed by a positive RT-PCR test, and who met one of the following criteria suggestive of lower respiratory tract infection: the presence of radiographic infiltrates on imaging, a peripheral oxygen saturation on room air of 94% or less, or requiring supplemental oxygen. Patients were excluded if they had either an alanine aminotransferase or an aspartate aminotransferase concentration more than five times the upper limit of normal; had impaired renal function; were allergic to the study product; were pregnant or breast feeding; were already on mechanical ventilation; or were anticipating discharge from the hospital or transfer to another hospital within 72 h of enrolment. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous remdesivir as a 200 mg loading dose on day 1 followed by a 100 mg maintenance dose administered daily for up to 9 days and up to four doses of either 44 µg interferon beta-1a (interferon beta-1a group plus remdesivir group) or placebo (placebo plus remdesivir group) administered subcutaneously every other day. Randomisation was stratified by study site and disease severity at enrolment. Patients, investigators, and site staff were masked to interferon beta-1a and placebo treatment; remdesivir treatment was given to all patients without masking. The primary outcome was time to recovery, defined as the first day that a patient attained a category 1, 2, or 3 score on the eight-category ordinal scale within 28 days, assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population, defined as all randomised patients who were classified according to actual clinical severity. Safety was assessed in the as-treated population, defined as all patients who received at least one dose of the assigned treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04492475. FINDINGS: Between Aug 5, 2020, and Nov 11, 2020, 969 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to the interferon beta-1a plus remdesivir group (n=487) or to the placebo plus remdesivir group (n=482). The mean duration of symptoms before enrolment was 8·7 days (SD 4·4) in the interferon beta-1a plus remdesivir group and 8·5 days (SD 4·3) days in the placebo plus remdesivir group. Patients in both groups had a time to recovery of 5 days (95% CI not estimable) (rate ratio of interferon beta-1a plus remdesivir group vs placebo plus remdesivir 0·99 [95% CI 0·87-1·13]; p=0·88). The Kaplan-Meier estimate of mortality at 28 days was 5% (95% CI 3-7%) in the interferon beta-1a plus remdesivir group and 3% (2-6%) in the placebo plus remdesivir group (hazard ratio 1·33 [95% CI 0·69-2·55]; p=0·39). Patients who did not require high-flow oxygen at baseline were more likely to have at least one related adverse event in the interferon beta-1a plus remdesivir group (33 [7%] of 442 patients) than in the placebo plus remdesivir group (15 [3%] of 435). In patients who required high-flow oxygen at baseline, 24 (69%) of 35 had an adverse event and 21 (60%) had a serious adverse event in the interferon beta-1a plus remdesivir group compared with 13 (39%) of 33 who had an adverse event and eight (24%) who had a serious adverse event in the placebo plus remdesivir group. INTERPRETATION: Interferon beta-1a plus remdesivir was not superior to remdesivir alone in hospitalised patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Patients who required high-flow oxygen at baseline had worse outcomes after treatment with interferon beta-1a compared with those given placebo. FUNDING: The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (USA).


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Mexico , Middle Aged , Oxygen , Oxygen Saturation , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore , Treatment Outcome , United States
9.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(9): 1257-1270, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371556

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: CoV2 preS dTM is a stabilised pre-fusion spike protein vaccine produced in a baculovirus expression system being developed against SARS-CoV-2. We present interim safety and immunogenicity results of the first-in-human study of the CoV2 preS dTM vaccine with two different adjuvant formulations. METHODS: This phase 1-2, randomised, double-blind study is being done in healthy, SARS-CoV-2-seronegative adults in ten clinical research centres in the USA. Participants were stratified by age (18-49 years and ≥50 years) and randomly assigned using an interactive response technology system with block randomisation (blocks of varying size) to receive one dose (on day 1) or two doses (on days 1 and 22) of placebo or candidate vaccine, containing low-dose (effective dose 1·3 µg) or high-dose (2·6 µg) antigen with adjuvant AF03 (Sanofi Pasteur) or AS03 (GlaxoSmithKline) or unadjuvanted high-dose antigen (18-49 years only). Primary endpoints were safety, assessed up to day 43, and immunogenicity, measured as SARS-C0V-2 neutralising antibodies (geometric mean titres), assessed on days 1, 22, and 36 serum samples. Safety was assessed according to treatment received in the safety analysis set, which included all randomly assigned participants who received at least one dose. Neutralising antibody titres were assessed in the per-protocol analysis set for immunogenicity, which included participants who received at least one dose, met all inclusion and exclusion criteria, had no protocol deviation, had negative results in the neutralisation test at baseline, and had at least one valid post-dose serology sample. This planned interim analysis reports data up to 43 days after the first vaccination; participants in the trial will be followed up for 12 months after the last study injection. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04537208, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Sept 3 and Sept 29, 2020, 441 individuals (299 aged 18-49 years and 142 aged ≥50 years) were randomly assigned to one of the 11 treatment groups. The interim safety analyses included 439 (>99%) of 441 randomly assigned participants (299 aged 18-49 years and 140 aged ≥50 years). Neutralising antibody titres were analysed in 326 (74%) of 441 participants (235 [79%] of 299 aged 18-49 years and 91 [64%] of 142 aged ≥50 years). There were no vaccine-related unsolicited immediate adverse events, serious adverse events, medically attended adverse events classified as severe, or adverse events of special interest. Among all study participants, solicited local and systemic reactions of any grade after two vaccine doses were reported in 81% (95% CI 61-93; 21 of 26) of participants in the low-dose plus AF03 group, 93% (84-97; 74 of 80) in the low-dose plus AS03 group, 89% (70-98; 23 of 26) in the high-dose plus AF03 group, 95% (88-99; 81 of 85) in the high-dose plus AS03 group, 29% (10-56; five of 17) in the unadjuvanted high-dose group, and 21% (8-40; six of 29) in the placebo group. A single vaccine dose did not generate neutralising antibody titres above placebo levels in any group at days 22 or 36. Among participants aged 18-49 years, neutralising antibody titres after two vaccine doses were 13·1 (95% CI 6·40-26·9) in the low-dose plus AF03 group, 20·5 (13·1-32·1) in the low-dose plus AS03 group, 43·2 (20·6-90·4) in the high-dose plus AF03 group, 75·1 (50·5-112·0) in the high-dose plus AS03 group, 5·00 (not calculated) in the unadjuvanted high-dose group, and 5·00 (not calculated) in the placebo group. Among participants aged 50 years or older, neutralising antibody titres after two vaccine doses were 8·62 (1·90-39·0) in the low-dose plus AF03 group, 12·9 (7·09-23·4) in the low-dose plus AS03 group, 12·3 (4·35-35·0) in the high-dose plus AF03 group, 52·3 (25·3-108·0) in the high-dose plus AS03 group, and 5·00 (not calculated) in the placebo group. INTERPRETATION: The lower than expected immune responses, especially in the older age groups, and the high reactogenicity after dose two were probably due to higher than anticipated host-cell protein content and lower than planned antigen doses in the formulations tested, which was discovered during characterisation studies on the final bulk drug substance. Further development of the AS03-adjuvanted candidate vaccine will focus on identifying the optimal antigen formulation and dose. FUNDING: Sanofi Pasteur and Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/drug effects , Antibodies, Viral/drug effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , United States/epidemiology
10.
JCI Insight ; 6(15)2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350084

ABSTRACT

A subset of COVID-19 patients exhibit post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), but little is known about the immune signatures associated with these syndromes. We investigated longitudinal peripheral blood samples in 50 individuals with previously confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, including 20 who experienced prolonged duration of COVID-19 symptoms (lasting more than 30 days; median = 74 days) compared with 30 who had symptom resolution within 20 days. Individuals with prolonged symptom duration maintained antigen-specific T cell response magnitudes to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in CD4+ and circulating T follicular helper cell populations during late convalescence, while those without persistent symptoms demonstrated an expected decline. The prolonged group also displayed increased IgG avidity to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Significant correlations between symptom duration and both SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells and antibodies were observed. Activation and exhaustion markers were evaluated in multiple immune cell types, revealing few phenotypic differences between prolonged and recovered groups, suggesting that prolonged symptom duration is not due to persistent systemic inflammation. These findings demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2-specific immune responses are maintained in patients suffering from prolonged post-COVID-19 symptom duration in contrast to those with resolved symptoms and may suggest the persistence of viral antigens as an underlying etiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Immunity , Immunity, Cellular , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Young Adult
11.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(7): e1009761, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315898

ABSTRACT

T-cell immunity is likely to play a role in protection against SARS-CoV-2 by helping generate neutralizing antibodies. We longitudinally studied CD4 T-cell responses to the M, N, and S structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 in 26 convalescent individuals. Within the first two months following symptom onset, a majority of individuals (81%) mounted at least one CD4 T-cell response, and 48% of individuals mounted detectable SARS-CoV-2-specific circulating T follicular helper cells (cTfh, defined as CXCR5+PD1+ CD4 T cells). SARS-CoV-2-specific cTfh responses across all three protein specificities correlated with antibody neutralization with the strongest correlation observed for S protein-specific responses. When examined over time, cTfh responses, particularly to the M protein, increased in convalescence, and robust cTfh responses with magnitudes greater than 5% were detected at the second convalescent visit, a median of 38 days post-symptom onset. CD4 T-cell responses declined but persisted at low magnitudes three months and six months after symptom onset. These data deepen our understanding of antigen-specific cTfh responses in SARS-CoV-2 infection, suggesting that in addition to S protein, M and N protein-specific cTfh may also assist in the development of neutralizing antibodies and that cTfh response formation may be delayed in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T Follicular Helper Cells/immunology , T Follicular Helper Cells/virology , Adult , Aged , Antibody Specificity , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors , Viral Matrix Proteins/immunology , Young Adult
12.
N Engl J Med ; 384(23): 2187-2201, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196903

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Ad26.COV2.S vaccine is a recombinant, replication-incompetent human adenovirus type 26 vector encoding full-length severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein in a prefusion-stabilized conformation. METHODS: In an international, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned adult participants in a 1:1 ratio to receive a single dose of Ad26.COV2.S (5×1010 viral particles) or placebo. The primary end points were vaccine efficacy against moderate to severe-critical coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) with an onset at least 14 days and at least 28 days after administration among participants in the per-protocol population who had tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Safety was also assessed. RESULTS: The per-protocol population included 19,630 SARS-CoV-2-negative participants who received Ad26.COV2.S and 19,691 who received placebo. Ad26.COV2.S protected against moderate to severe-critical Covid-19 with onset at least 14 days after administration (116 cases in the vaccine group vs. 348 in the placebo group; efficacy, 66.9%; adjusted 95% confidence interval [CI], 59.0 to 73.4) and at least 28 days after administration (66 vs. 193 cases; efficacy, 66.1%; adjusted 95% CI, 55.0 to 74.8). Vaccine efficacy was higher against severe-critical Covid-19 (76.7% [adjusted 95% CI, 54.6 to 89.1] for onset at ≥14 days and 85.4% [adjusted 95% CI, 54.2 to 96.9] for onset at ≥28 days). Despite 86 of 91 cases (94.5%) in South Africa with sequenced virus having the 20H/501Y.V2 variant, vaccine efficacy was 52.0% and 64.0% against moderate to severe-critical Covid-19 with onset at least 14 days and at least 28 days after administration, respectively, and efficacy against severe-critical Covid-19 was 73.1% and 81.7%, respectively. Reactogenicity was higher with Ad26.COV2.S than with placebo but was generally mild to moderate and transient. The incidence of serious adverse events was balanced between the two groups. Three deaths occurred in the vaccine group (none were Covid-19-related), and 16 in the placebo group (5 were Covid-19-related). CONCLUSIONS: A single dose of Ad26.COV2.S protected against symptomatic Covid-19 and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and was effective against severe-critical disease, including hospitalization and death. Safety appeared to be similar to that in other phase 3 trials of Covid-19 vaccines. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development and others; ENSEMBLE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04505722.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Asymptomatic Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Proportional Hazards Models , Young Adult
13.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(3): 100218, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101541

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection results in viral burden in the respiratory tract, enabling transmission and leading to substantial lung pathology. The 1212C2 fully human monoclonal antibody was derived from an IgM memory B cell of a COVID-19 patient, has high affinity for the Spike protein receptor binding domain, neutralizes SARS-CoV-2, and exhibits in vivo prophylactic and therapeutic activity in hamsters when delivered intraperitoneally, reducing upper and lower respiratory viral burden and lung pathology. Inhalation of nebulized 1212C2 at levels as low as 0.6 mg/kg, corresponding to 0.03 mg/kg lung-deposited dose, reduced the viral burden below the detection limit and mitigated lung pathology. The therapeutic efficacy of an exceedingly low dose of inhaled 1212C2 supports the rationale for local lung delivery for dose-sparing benefits, as compared to the conventional parenteral route of administration. These results suggest that the clinical development of 1212C2 formulated and delivered via inhalation for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection should be considered.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Administration, Inhalation , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/classification , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Epitope Mapping , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , /metabolism , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Phylogeny , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
14.
J Clin Invest ; 131(1)2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011051

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 causes a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and significant mortality. Studies investigating underlying immune characteristics are needed to understand disease pathogenesis and inform vaccine design. In this study, we examined immune cell subsets in hospitalized and nonhospitalized individuals. In hospitalized patients, many adaptive and innate immune cells were decreased in frequency compared with those of healthy and convalescent individuals, with the exception of an increase in B lymphocytes. Our findings show increased frequencies of T cell activation markers (CD69, OX40, HLA-DR, and CD154) in hospitalized patients, with other T cell activation/exhaustion markers (PD-L1 and TIGIT) remaining elevated in hospitalized and nonhospitalized individuals. B cells had a similar pattern of activation/exhaustion, with increased frequency of CD69 and CD95 during hospitalization followed by an increase in PD1 frequencies in nonhospitalized individuals. Interestingly, many of these changes were found to increase over time in nonhospitalized longitudinal samples, suggesting a prolonged period of immune dysregulation after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Changes in T cell activation/exhaustion in nonhospitalized patients were found to positively correlate with age. Severely infected individuals had increased expression of activation and exhaustion markers. These data suggest a prolonged period of immune dysregulation after SARS-CoV-2 infection, highlighting the need for additional studies investigating immune dysregulation in convalescent individuals.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Differentiation/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , B-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , T-Lymphocytes/pathology
15.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(1): 100164, 2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957488

ABSTRACT

Convalescent plasma (CP) is widely used to treat COVID-19, but without formal evidence of efficacy. Here, we report the beneficial effects of CP in a severely ill COVID-19 patient with prolonged pneumonia and advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), who was unable to generate an antiviral antibody response of her own. On day 33 after becoming symptomatic, the patient received CP containing high-titer (ID50 > 5,000) neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), defervesced, and improved clinically within 48 h and was discharged on day 37. Hence, when present in sufficient quantities, NAbs to SARS-CoV-2 have clinical benefit even if administered relatively late in the disease course. However, analysis of additional CP units revealed widely varying NAb titers, with many recipients exhibiting endogenous NAb responses far exceeding those of the administered units. To obtain the full therapeutic benefits of CP immunotherapy, it will thus be important to determine the neutralizing activity in both CP units and transfusion candidates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunocompromised Host , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/pathology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 52(8): 527-537, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-382096

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 was identified as the causative pathogen in an outbreak of viral pneumonia cases originating in Wuhan, China, with an ensuing rapid global spread that led it to be declared a pandemic by the WHO on March 11, 2020. Given the threat to public health posed by sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the literature surrounding patient presentation in severe and non-severe cases, transmission rates and routes, management strategies, and initial clinical trial results have become available at an unprecedented pace. In this review we collate current clinical and immunologic reports, comparing these to reports of previous coronaviruses to identify mechanisms driving progression to severe disease in some patients. In brief, we propose a model wherein dysregulated type I interferon signalling leads to aberrant recruitment and accumulation of innate immune lineages in the lung, impairing establishment of productive adaptive responses, and permitting a pathologic pro-inflammatory state. Finally, we extend these findings to suggest possible treatment options that may merit investigation in randomized clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunologic Memory , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
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