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1.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(658): eabq4130, 2022 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992934

ABSTRACT

Despite the remarkable efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines, waning immunity and the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants such as Omicron represents a global health challenge. Here, we present data from a study in nonhuman primates demonstrating durable protection against the Omicron BA.1 variant induced by a subunit SARS-CoV-2 vaccine comprising the receptor binding domain of the ancestral strain (RBD-Wu) on the I53-50 nanoparticle adjuvanted with AS03, which was recently authorized for use in individuals 18 years or older. Vaccination induced neutralizing antibody (nAb) titers that were maintained at high concentrations for at least 1 year after two doses, with a pseudovirus nAb geometric mean titer (GMT) of 1978 and a live virus nAb GMT of 1331 against the ancestral strain but not against the Omicron BA.1 variant. However, a booster dose at 6 to 12 months with RBD-Wu or RBD-ß (RBD from the Beta variant) displayed on I53-50 elicited high neutralizing titers against the ancestral and Omicron variants. In addition, we observed persistent neutralization titers against a panel of sarbecoviruses, including SARS-CoV. Furthermore, there were substantial and persistent memory T and B cell responses reactive to Beta and Omicron variants. Vaccination resulted in protection against Omicron infection in the lung and suppression of viral burden in the nares at 6 weeks after the final booster immunization. Even at 6 months after vaccination, we observed protection in the lung and rapid control of virus in the nares. These results highlight the durable and cross-protective immunity elicited by the AS03-adjuvanted RBD-I53-50 nanoparticle vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Subunit
2.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(7): e1010618, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923717

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 emerged in late 2019, rapidly reached pandemic status, and has maintained global ubiquity through the emergence of variants of concern. Efforts to develop animal models have mostly fallen short of recapitulating severe disease, diminishing their utility for research focusing on severe disease pathogenesis and life-saving medical countermeasures. We tested whether route of experimental infection substantially changes COVID-19 disease characteristics in two species of nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta; rhesus macaques; RM, Chlorocebus atheiops; African green monkeys; AGM). Species-specific cohorts were experimentally infected with SARS-CoV-2 by either direct mucosal (intratracheal + intranasal) instillation or small particle aerosol in route-discrete subcohorts. Both species demonstrated analogous viral loads in all compartments by either exposure route although the magnitude and duration of viral loading was marginally greater in AGMs than RMs. Clinical onset was nearly immediate (+1dpi) in the mucosal exposure cohort whereas clinical signs and cytokine responses in aerosol exposure animals began +7dpi. Pathologies conserved in both species and both exposure modalities include pulmonary myeloid cell influx, development of pleuritis, and extended lack of regenerative capacity in the pulmonary compartment. Demonstration of conserved pulmonary pathology regardless of species and exposure route expands our understanding of how SARS-CoV-2 infection may lead to ARDS and/or functional lung damage and demonstrates the near clinical response of the nonhuman primate model for anti-fibrotic therapeutic evaluation studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aerosols , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Lung/pathology , Macaca mulatta , SARS-CoV-2
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(12): e1010162, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595940

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19 disease, has killed over five million people worldwide as of December 2021 with infections rising again due to the emergence of highly transmissible variants. Animal models that faithfully recapitulate human disease are critical for assessing SARS-CoV-2 viral and immune dynamics, for understanding mechanisms of disease, and for testing vaccines and therapeutics. Pigtail macaques (PTM, Macaca nemestrina) demonstrate a rapid and severe disease course when infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), including the development of severe cardiovascular symptoms that are pertinent to COVID-19 manifestations in humans. We thus proposed this species may likewise exhibit severe COVID-19 disease upon infection with SARS-CoV-2. Here, we extensively studied a cohort of SARS-CoV-2-infected PTM euthanized either 6- or 21-days after respiratory viral challenge. We show that PTM demonstrate largely mild-to-moderate COVID-19 disease. Pulmonary infiltrates were dominated by T cells, including CD4+ T cells that upregulate CD8 and express cytotoxic molecules, as well as virus-targeting T cells that were predominantly CD4+. We also noted increases in inflammatory and coagulation markers in blood, pulmonary pathologic lesions, and the development of neutralizing antibodies. Together, our data demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 infection of PTM recapitulates important features of COVID-19 and reveals new immune and viral dynamics and thus may serve as a useful animal model for studying pathogenesis and testing vaccines and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Models, Animal , Macaca nemestrina , Monkey Diseases/virology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Male , Monkey Diseases/immunology , Monkey Diseases/pathology , Monkey Diseases/physiopathology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
4.
Viruses ; 14(1)2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580395

ABSTRACT

In recent months, several SARS-CoV-2 variants have emerged that enhance transmissibility and escape host humoral immunity. Hence, the tracking of viral evolutionary trajectories is clearly of great importance. Little is known about SARS-CoV-2 evolution in nonhuman primate models used to test vaccines and therapies and to model human disease. Viral RNA was sequenced from rectal swabs from Chlorocebus aethiops (African green monkeys) after experimental respiratory SARS-CoV-2 infection. Two distinct patterns of viral evolution were identified that were shared between all collected samples. First, mutations in the furin cleavage site that were initially present in the virus as a consequence of VeroE6 cell culture adaptation were not detected in viral RNA recovered in rectal swabs, confirming the necessity of this motif for viral infection in vivo. Three amino acid changes were also identified; ORF 1a S2103F, and spike D215G and H655Y, which were detected in rectal swabs from all sampled animals. These findings are demonstrative of intra-host SARS-CoV-2 evolution and may identify a host-adapted variant of SARS-CoV-2 that would be useful in future primate models involving SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Evolution, Molecular , Mutation , Polyproteins/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Rectum/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/genetics
5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293281

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has caused a worldwide pandemic resulting in widespread efforts in development of animal models that recapitulate human disease for evaluation of medical countermeasures, and to dissect COVID-19 immunopathogenesis. We tested whether route of experimental infection substantially changes COVID-19 disease characteristics in two species (Macaca mulatta;rhesus macaques;RM, Chlorocebus atheiops;African green monkeys;AGM) of nonhuman primates. Species-specific cohorts of RM and AGM Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta, RMs) and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops, AGMs) were experimentally infected with homologous SARS-CoV-2 by either direct mucosal instillation or small particle aerosol in route-discrete subcohorts. Both species demonstrated equivalent infection initially by either exposure route although the magnitude and duration of viral loading was greater in AGMs than that of the RM. Clinical onset was nearly immediate (+1dpi) in mucosally-exposed cohorts whereas aerosol-infected animals began to show signs +7dpi. Myeloid cell responses indicative of the development of pulmonary scarring and extended lack of regenerative capacity in the pulmonary compartment was a conserved pathologic response in both species by either exposure modality. This pathological commonality may be useful in future anti-fibrosis therapeutic evaluations and expands our understanding of how SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to ARDS and functional lung damage.

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