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1.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(11): e14672, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476203
3.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 404-406, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377591

ABSTRACT

The presence of a complex immune dysregulation syndrome has been established in COVID-19 patients. We aimed to assess Th1/Th2 response in COVID-19 patients and its association with disease severity by performing a prospective cohort study in a tertiary hospital COVID-19 referral center. We report no difference between Th1/Th2 responses between patients with severe and mild disease, except for levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10. Future larger studies should examine lung-specific versus systemic inflammatory responses, as well as, diverse immunotypes driving poor clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Female , Greece , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
4.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(3): 1081-1095, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274998

ABSTRACT

In light of the accumulating evidence for survival benefit coming from the use of macrolides for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), a group of experts from the field of internal medicine and infectious diseases frame a position statement on the use of macrolides for the management of bacterial CAP and for infection by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). The statement is framed taking into consideration existing publications and own research experience. The main content of this statement is that the combination of one ß-lactam and a macrolide should be the first treatment of choice for patients with severe bacterial CAP. Severity is assessed as scoring 2 or more points on the CURB65 scoring system of severity or as pneumonia severity index III to V or C-reactive protein more than 150 mg/l; the suggested macrolide is either azithromycin or clarithromycin. The experts also suggest that in COVID-19 pneumonia, the combination of one ß-lactam and a macrolide should be reserved only when there is strong suspicion of bacterial co-infection.

5.
Adv Respir Med ; 89(2): 197-202, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191093

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently considered a significant threat to global health and global economy. This new rapidly spreading virus causes enormous stress to healthcare systems as large number of patients present with respiratory failure, needing intubation and mechanical ventilation. While the industry is racing to meet the rising demand for ventilators, all the alternative respiratory support modalities are employed to save lives in hospitals around the globe. We hereby report 6 patients who were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 and treated with continuous positive airway pressure in a negative pressure isolated room in a tertiary center in western Greece. The rapid progression of mild flu-like symptoms to respiratory failure in all patients was controlled with the use of continuous positive airway pressure making this strategy a reasonable alternative to respiratory failure due to SARS-CoV-2 as it may avert intubation and mechanical ventilation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Greece , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology
10.
Respirology ; 25(11): 1209, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781016
11.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(6): 992-1000.e3, 2020 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-735030

ABSTRACT

Proper management of COVID-19 mandates better understanding of disease pathogenesis. The sudden clinical deterioration 7-8 days after initial symptom onset suggests that severe respiratory failure (SRF) in COVID-19 is driven by a unique pattern of immune dysfunction. We studied immune responses of 54 COVID-19 patients, 28 of whom had SRF. All patients with SRF displayed either macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) or very low human leukocyte antigen D related (HLA-DR) expression accompanied by profound depletion of CD4 lymphocytes, CD19 lymphocytes, and natural killer (NK) cells. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production by circulating monocytes was sustained, a pattern distinct from bacterial sepsis or influenza. SARS-CoV-2 patient plasma inhibited HLA-DR expression, and this was partially restored by the IL-6 blocker Tocilizumab; off-label Tocilizumab treatment of patients was accompanied by increase in circulating lymphocytes. Thus, the unique pattern of immune dysregulation in severe COVID-19 is characterized by IL-6-mediated low HLA-DR expression and lymphopenia, associated with sustained cytokine production and hyper-inflammation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Female , HLA-DR Antigens/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Lymphopenia/pathology , Macrophage Activation , Male , Monocytes/pathology , Pandemics
13.
Le infezioni in medicina ; 28(suppl 1):89-95, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-599174

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in China and has become a global threat. Comparison of hematological parameters between mild and severe cases of SARS-CoV 2 is so far limited, but significant differences in parameters such as interleukin-6, d-dimers, glucose, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein have been already reported. PURPOSE: In this study we analyzed the changes observed in easily measured blood biomarkers in the patients and provided evidence of how these markers can be used as prognostic factors of the disease. METHODS: Demographic characteristics, detailed medical history, and laboratory findings of all enrolled SARS-CoV 2 infection positive patients who were referred to Patras University Hospital from the period of March 4th 2020 (when first confirmed case in Greece appeared in our hospital) until April 4th 2020 were extracted from electronic medical records and analyzed. RESULTS: We provided evidence that some very common laboratory values can be used as independent predictive factors in SARS-CoV 2 infection. Despite the retrospective nature of this study and the small number of subjects analyzed, we showed that NLR, LDH, d-dimers, CRP, fibrinogen and ferritin can be used early at the patient's first visit for SARS-CoV 2 infection symptoms and can predict the severity of infection. CONCLUSION: More studies are warranted to further objectively confirm the clinical value of prognostic factors related to SARS-CoV 2 and establish an easy-to-get panel of laboratory findings for evaluating the disease severity.

14.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(2)2020 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591480

ABSTRACT

The novel corona virus (SARS-CoV-2) continuous to spread around the globe causing high mortality, tremendous stress on healthcare systems and an unprecedented disruption of everyday life with unpredictable socioeconomic ramifications. The diseaseis typically affecting the respiratory system and some patients will develop refractory hypoxemic respiratory insufficiency requiring mechanical ventilation. The role of non-invasive ventilation (NIV), high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) or continuous positive airway pressure devices (C-PAP) in the treatment of the 2019 corona virus disease (COVID-19) is not yet clear. We hereby report a case of a 44-year-old COVID-19 positive male patient suffering from hypoxic respiratory failure that was successfully treated with high flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy in a negative pressure intensive care room. Although specific criteria for the use of high flow nasal canula devices COVID-19 are not available at this time, clinicians could use this non-invasive modality as analternative method of respiratory support in selected patients presenting with respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/instrumentation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Adult , COVID-19 , Cannula , Critical Care , Humans , Male , Noninvasive Ventilation/instrumentation , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Treatment Outcome
15.
Cell Press ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-47314

ABSTRACT

Proper management of COVID-19 mandates better understanding of disease pathogenesis. The sudden clinical deterioration 7-8 days after initial symptom onset suggests that severe respiratory failure (SRF) in COVID-19 is driven by a unique pattern of immune dysfunction. We studied immune responses of 54 COVID-19 patients, 28 of whom had SRF. All SRF patients displayed either macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) or very low human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR expression accompanied by profound depletion of CD4-lymphocytes, CD19- lymphocytes and natural killer cells. TNFα and IL-6 production by circulating monocytes was sustained, a pattern distinct from bacterial sepsis or influenza. SARS-CoV-2 patient plasma inhibited HLA-DR expression, and this was partially restored by the IL-6 blocker Tocilizumab;off-label Tocilizumab treatment of patients was accompanied by increase in circulating lymphocytes. Thus, the unique pattern of immune dysregulation in severe COVID-19 is characterized by IL-6-mediated low HLA-DR expression and lymphopenia, associated with sustained cytokine production and hyper-inflammation.

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