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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316906

ABSTRACT

Background: Stroke in the course of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was associated with higher severity of respiratory symptoms and mortality, but little knowledge exists on older populations. We aimed to investigate the incidence, characteristics, and prognosis of acute stroke in old patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Methods: : Monocentric retrospective study of 265 older patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in geriatric wards, 11 of which having presented a stroke episode during hospitalization. Mortality rates and two-group comparisons (stroke vs non-stroke patients) were calculated and significant variables added in logistic regression models to investigate stroke risk factors. Results: : Combined ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke incidence was 4.15%. 72.7% of events occurred during acute care. Strokes presented with altered state of consciousness and/or delirium in 81.8%, followed by a focal neurological deficit in 45.5%. Ischemic stroke was more frequently unilateral (88.8%) and localized in the middle cerebral artery territory (55.5%). Smoking and a history of previous stroke increased by more than seven (OR 7.44;95% CI 1.75-31.64;p=0.007) and five times (OR 5.19;95% CI 1.50-17.92;p=0.009), respectively, the risk of stroke. Each additional point in body mass index (BMI) reduced the risk of stroke by 14% (OR 0.86;95% CI 0.74-0.98;p=0.03). In-hospital mortality (32.1% vs. 27.3%;p>0.999) and institutionalization at discharge (36.4% vs. 21.1%;p=0.258) were similar between patients with and without stroke. Conclusion: Incident stroke complicating COVID-19 in old patients was associated with active smoking, previous history of stroke, and low BMI. Acute stroke did not influence early mortality or institutionalization rate at discharge.

2.
J Clin Med ; 10(23)2021 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542601

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated the prognostic significance of visceral and subcutaneous adiposity in octogenarians with COVID-19. METHODS: This paper presents a monocentric retrospective study that was conducted in acute geriatric wards with 64 hospitalized patients aged 80+ who had a diagnosis of COVID-19 and who underwent a chest CT scan. A quantification of the subcutaneous, visceral, and total fat areas was performed after segmentations on the first abdominal slice caudal to the deepest pleural recess on a soft-tissue window setting. Logistic regression models were applied to investigate the association with in-hospital mortality and the extent of COVID-19 pneumonia. RESULTS: The patients had a mean age of 86.4 ± 6.0 years, and 46.9% were male, with a mean BMI of 24.1 ± 4.4Kg/m2 and mortality rate of 32.8%. A higher subcutaneous fat area had a protective effect against mortality (OR 0.416; 0.183-0.944 95% CI; p = 0.036), which remained significant after adjustments for age, sex, and BMI (OR 0.231; 0.071-0.751 95% CI; p = 0.015). Inversely, higher abdominal circumference, total fat area, subcutaneous fat area, and visceral fat were associated with worse COVID-19 pneumonia, with the latter presenting the strongest association after adjustments for age, sex, and BMI (OR 2.862; 1.523-5.379 95% CI; p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Subcutaneous and visceral fat areas measured on chest CT scans were associated with prognosis in octogenarians with COVID-19.

3.
J Clin Med ; 10(7)2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mechanisms and causes of death in older patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection are still poorly understood. METHODS: We conducted in a retrospective monocentric study, a clinical chart review and post-mortem examination of patients aged 75 years and older hospitalized in acute care and positive for SARS-CoV-2. Full body autopsy and correlation with clinical findings and suspected causes of death were done. RESULTS: Autopsies were performed in 12 patients (median age 85 years; median of 4 comorbidities, mainly hypertension and cardiovascular disease). All cases showed exudative or proliferative phases of alveolar damage and/or a pattern of organizing pneumonia. Causes of death were concordant in 6 cases (50%), and undetected diagnoses were found in 6. Five patients died from hypoxemic respiratory failure due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), five had another associated diagnosis and two died from alternative causes. Deaths that occurred in the second week were related to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia whereas those occurring earlier were related mainly to heart failure and those occurring later to complications. CONCLUSIONS: Although COVID-19 hypoxemic respiratory failure was the most common cause of death, post-mortem pathological examination revealed that acute decompensation from chronic comorbidities during the first week of COVID-19 and complications in the third week contributed to mortality.

4.
Clin Nutr ; 2021 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144558

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: To investigate the association of nutritional risk at admission with the length of hospital stay (LOS) and mortality in older patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Retrospective monocentric study in an acute geriatric hospital. Data were collected after an extensive review of medical records and the nutritional risk was assessed according to the Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS). Univariate and multivariate (adjusted for age, sex and comorbidity burden) Cox proportional-hazard and linear regression models were used to investigate the association with the above-mentioned outcomes. RESULTS: Of a total of 245 patients (86.1 ± 6.4 yrs), 50.6% had a severe nutritional risk with an NRS≥5/7 at admission. Lower BMI, cognitive impairment and swallowing disorders were more prevalent in the patients with a higher NRS. A NRS≥5 was not associated with mortality but prolonged by more than 3 days the LOS among the 173 survivors (ß 3.69; 0.71-6.67 95% CI; p = 0.016), with a discharge rate delayed by 1.8 times (HR 0.55; 0.37-0.83 95% CI; p = 0.101). CONCLUSION: Among the survivors of COVID-19 in an acute geriatric hospital, a NRS ≥5 at admission was associated with a longer LOS, but not with mortality.

5.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 76(8): e142-e146, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Delirium prevalence increases with age and is associated with poor outcomes. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for delirium in older patients hospitalized with COVID-19, as well as its association with length of stay and mortality. METHOD: This was a retrospective study of patients aged 65 years and older hospitalized with COVID-19. Data were collected from computerized medical records and all patients had delirium assessment at admission. Risk factors for delirium as well as the outcomes mentioned above were studied by 2-group comparison, logistic regression, and Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Of a total of 235 Caucasian patients, 48 (20.4%) presented with delirium, which was hypoactive in 41.6% of cases, and hyperactive and mixed in 35.4% and 23.0%, respectively. Patients with cognitive impairment had a nearly 4 times higher risk of developing delirium compared to patients who were cognitively normal before SARS-CoV-2 infection (odds ratio 3.7; 95% CI: 1.7-7.9, p = .001). The presence of delirium did not modify the time from symptoms' onset to hospitalization or the length of stay in acute care, but it was associated with an increased risk of dying (hazard ratio 2.1; 95% CI: 1.2-3.7, p = .0113). CONCLUSION: Delirium was a prevalent condition in older people admitted with COVID-19 and preexisting cognitive impairment was its main risk factor. Delirium was associated with higher in-hospital mortality. These results highlight the importance of early recognition of delirium especially when premorbid cognitive comorbidities are present.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delirium/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Mass Screening , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Humans , Male , Models, Statistical , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology
6.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 52, 2021 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1031058

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stroke in the course of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been shown to be associated with more severe respiratory symptoms and higher mortality, but little knowledge in this regard exists on older populations. We aimed to investigate the incidence, characteristics, and prognosis of acute stroke in geriatric patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: A monocentric cross-sectional retrospective study of 265 older patients hospitalized with COVID-19 on acute geriatric wards. 11/265 presented a stroke episode during hospitalization. Mortality rates and two-group comparisons (stroke vs non-stroke patients) were calculated and significant variables added in logistic regression models to investigate stroke risk factors. RESULTS: Combined ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke incidence was 4.15%. 72.7% of events occurred during acute care. Strokes presented with altered state of consciousness and/or delirium in 81.8%, followed by a focal neurological deficit in 45.5%. Ischemic stroke was more frequently unilateral (88.8%) and localized in the middle cerebral artery territory (55.5%). Smoking and a history of previous stroke increased by more than seven (OR 7.44; 95% CI 1.75-31.64; p = 0.007) and five times (OR 5.19; 95% CI 1.50-17.92; p = 0.009), respectively, the risk of stroke. Each additional point in body mass index (BMI) reduced the risk of stroke by 14% (OR 0.86; 95% CI 0.74-0.98; p = 0.03). In-hospital mortality (32.1% vs. 27.3%; p > 0.999) and institutionalization at discharge (36.4% vs. 21.1%; p = 0.258) were similar between patients with and without stroke. CONCLUSION: Incident stroke complicating COVID-19 in old patients was associated with active smoking, previous history of stroke, and low BMI. Acute stroke did not influence early mortality or institutionalization rate at discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Stroke , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology
7.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 150: w20446, 2020 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004915

ABSTRACT

AIMS OF THE STUDY: Hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir have been used as experimental therapies to treat COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic. Randomised controlled trials have recently shown that there are no meaningful benefits of these two therapies in hospitalised patients. Uncertainty remains regarding the potential harmful impact of these therapies as very early treatments and their burden to the health care system. The present study investigated the length of hospital stay (LOS), mortality, and costs of hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir or their combination in comparison with standard of care among patients hospitalised for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This retrospective observational cohort study took place in the Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland (n = 840) between 26 February and 31 May 2020. Demographics, treatment regimens, comorbidities, the modified National Early Warning Score (mNEWS) on admission, and contraindications to COVID-19 treatment options were assessed. Outcomes included LOS, in-hospital mortality, and drug and LOS costs. RESULTS: After successful propensity score matching, patients treated with (1) hydroxychloroquine, (2) lopinavir/ritonavir or (3) their combination had on average 3.75 additional hospitalisation days (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.37–6.12, p = 0.002), 1.23 additional hospitalisation days (95% CI −1.24 – 3.51, p = 0.319), and 4.19 additional hospitalisation days (95% CI 1.52–5.31, p <0.001), respectively, compared with patients treated with the standard of care. Neither experimental therapy was significantly associated with mortality. These additional hospital days amounted to 1010.77 additional days for hydroxychloroquine and hydroxychloroquine combined with lopinavir/ritonavir, resulting in an additional cost of US$ 2,492,214 (95%CI US$ 916,839–3,450,619). CONCLUSIONS: Prescribing experimental therapies for COVID-19 was not associated with a reduced LOS and might have increased the pressure put on healthcare systems.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Health Expenditures , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Infant , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Therapies, Investigational/methods , Young Adult
8.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 21(11): 1546-1554.e3, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-758996

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine predictors of in-hospital mortality related to COVID-19 in older patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged 65 years and older hospitalized for a diagnosis of COVID-19. METHODS: Data from hospital admission were collected from the electronic medical records. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models were used to predict mortality, our primary outcome. Variables at hospital admission were categorized according to the following domains: demographics, clinical history, comorbidities, previous treatment, clinical status, vital signs, clinical scales and scores, routine laboratory analysis, and imaging results. RESULTS: Of a total of 235 Caucasian patients, 43% were male, with a mean age of 86 ± 6.5 years. Seventy-six patients (32%) died. Nonsurvivors had a shorter number of days from initial symptoms to hospitalization (P = .007) and the length of stay in acute wards than survivors (P < .001). Similarly, they had a higher prevalence of heart failure (P = .044), peripheral artery disease (P = .009), crackles at clinical status (P < .001), respiratory rate (P = .005), oxygen support needs (P < .001), C-reactive protein (P < .001), bilateral and peripheral infiltrates on chest radiographs (P = .001), and a lower prevalence of headache (P = .009). Furthermore, nonsurvivors were more often frail (P < .001), with worse functional status (P < .001), higher comorbidity burden (P < .001), and delirium at admission (P = .007). A multivariable Cox model showed that male sex (HR 4.00, 95% CI 2.08-7.71, P < .001), increased fraction of inspired oxygen (HR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.09, P < .001), and crackles (HR 2.42, 95% CI 1.15-6.06, P = .019) were the best predictors of mortality, while better functional status was protective (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99, P = .001). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: In older patients hospitalized for COVID-19, male sex, crackles, a higher fraction of inspired oxygen, and functionality were independent risk factors of mortality. These routine parameters, and not differences in age, should be used to evaluate prognosis in older patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospital Mortality/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Female , Forecasting , Geriatrics , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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