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1.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0284372, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295391

ABSTRACT

Historically SARS-CoV-2 secondary attack rates (SAR) have been based on PCR positivity on screening symptomatic contacts; this misses transmission events and identifies only symptomatic contacts who are PCR positive at the time of sampling. We used serology to detect the relative transmissibility of Alpha Variant of Concern (VOC) to non-VOC SARS-CoV-2 to calculate household secondary attack rates. We identified index patients diagnosed with Alpha and non-VOC SARS-CoV-2 across two London Hospitals between November 2020 and January 2021 during a prolonged and well adhered national lockdown. We completed a household seroprevalence survey and found that 61.8% of non-VOC exposed household contacts were seropositive compared to 82.1% of Alpha exposed household contacts. The odds of infection doubled with exposure to an index diagnosed with Alpha. There was evidence of transmission events in almost all households. Our data strongly support that estimates of SAR should include serological data to improve accuracy and understanding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Communicable Disease Control
2.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 23(5): 609-620, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290619

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Three pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are currently licensed and WHO prequalified for supply by UN agencies. Here, we aimed to investigate the safety and immunogenicity of SIIPL-PCV compared with PHiD-CV and PCV13, when administered to infants according to a 2 + 1 schedule. METHODS: This single-centre, double-blind, active-controlled, randomised, phase 3 trial was done in Medical Research Council Unit The Gambia at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine clinical trial facilities within two government health centres in the western region of The Gambia. Healthy, PCV-naive infants aged 6-8 weeks were enrolled if they weighed at least 3·5 kg and had no clinically significant health complaints, as determined by history and clinical examination. Eligible infants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive either SIIPL-PCV, PHiD-CV, or PCV13 using permuted blocks of variable size. Parents and the trial staff assessing all study outcomes were masked to vaccine group. The first PCV vaccine was given with other routine Expanded Programme on Immunization vaccines when infants were aged 6-8 weeks (visit 1). At visit 2, routine vaccines alone (without a PCV) were administered. At visit 3, the second dose of the PCV was administered alongside other routine vaccines. At visit 4, a blood sample was collected. Visits 1-4 took place at intervals of 4 weeks. The booster PCV was administered at age 9-18 months (visit 5), with final follow-up 4 weeks after the booster (visit 6). The primary immunogenicity outcome compared the serotype-specific IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) generated by SIIPL-PCV with those generated by PHiD-CV and PCV13, 4 weeks after the booster. We used descriptive 95% CIs without adjustment for multiplicity. Immunogenicity analyses were done in the per protocol population (defined as all children who received all the assigned study vaccines, who had an immunogenicity measurement available, and who had no protocol deviations that might interfere with the immunogenicity assessment). This trial was registered with the Pan African Clinical Trials Registry, PACTR201907754270299, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03896477. FINDINGS: Between July 18 and Nov 14, 2019, 745 infants were assessed for study eligibility. Of these, 85 infants (11%) were ineligible and 660 (89%) were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive SIIPL-PCV (n=220), PHiD-CV (n=220), or PCV13 (n=220). 602 infants (91%) were included in the per protocol immunogenicity population. The median age at vaccination was 46 days (range 42-56). 342 infants (52%) were female and 318 (48%) were male. Post-booster serotype-specific IgG GMCs generated by SIIPL-PCV ranged from 1·54 µg/mL (95% CI 1·38-1·73) for serotype 5 to 12·46 µg/mL (11·07-14·01) for serotype 6B. Post-booster GMCs against shared serotypes generated by PHiD-CV ranged from 0·80 µg/mL (0·72-0·88) for serotype 5 to 17·31 µg/mL (14·83-20·20) for serotype 19F. Post-booster GMCs generated by PCV13 ranged from 2·04 µg/mL (1·86-2·24) for serotype 5 to 15·54 µg/mL (13·71-17·60) for serotype 6B. Post-booster IgG GMCs generated by SIIPL-PCV were higher than those generated by PHiD-CV for seven of the eight shared serotypes (1, 5, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, and 23F). The GMC generated by serotype 19F was higher after PHiD-CV. The SIIPL-PCV to PHiD-CV GMC ratios for shared serotypes ranged from 0·64 (95% CI 0·52-0·79) for serotype 19F to 2·91 (2·47-3·44) for serotype 1. The serotype 1 GMC generated by SIIPL-PCV was higher than that generated by PCV13, whereas serotype 5, 6A, 19A, and 19F GMCs were higher after PCV13. The SIIPL-PCV to PCV13 GMC ratios ranged from 0·72 (0·60-0·87) for serotype 19A to 1·44 (1·23-1·69) for serotype 1. INTERPRETATION: SIIPL-PCV was safe and immunogenic when given to infants in The Gambia according to a 2 + 1 schedule. This PCV is expected to provide similar protection against invasive and mucosal pneumococcal disease to the protection provided by PCV13 and PHiD-CV, for which effectiveness data are available. Generating post-implementation data on the impact of SIIPL-PCV on pneumococcal disease endpoints remains important. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bacterial , Pneumococcal Infections , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Gambia , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccines, Conjugate/adverse effects
3.
Cell reports Medicine ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2297499

ABSTRACT

Despite the successes of current COVID-19 vaccines, waning immunity, the emergence of variants of concern, and breakthrough infections among vaccinees, have begun to highlight opportunities to improve vaccine platforms. Real-world vaccine efficacy studies have highlighted the reduced risk of breakthrough infection and disease among individuals infected and vaccinated, referred to as hybrid immunity. Thus, we sought to define whether hybrid immunity shapes the humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 following Pfizer/BNT162b2, Moderna mRNA1273, ChadOx1/AZ1222, and Ad26.COV2.S vaccination. Each vaccine exhibits a unique functional humoral profile in vaccination only or hybrid immunity. However, hybrid immunity shows a unique augmentation of S2-domain-specific functional immunity that was poorly induced for the vaccination only. These data highlight the importance of natural infection in breaking the immunodominance away from the evolutionarily unstable S1-domain and potentially affording enhanced cross-variant protection by targeting the more highly conserved S2 domain of SARS-CoV-2. Graphical Kaplonek et al shows that mRNA- and vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines display distinct immune profiles in individual vaccinated only or infected and vaccinated. The infection prior vaccination helps improving the immunity and triggers response to the more conserve domain of SARS-CoV-2 which might enhance the effectiveness of vaccines against new variants.

5.
EClinicalMedicine ; 53: 101655, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237425

ABSTRACT

Background: More than half the global population has been exposed to SARS-CoV-2. Naturally induced immunity influences the outcome of subsequent exposure to variants and vaccine responses. We measured anti-spike IgG responses to explore the basis for this enhanced immunity. Methods: A prospective cohort study of mothers in a South African community through ancestral/beta/delta/omicron SARS-CoV-2 waves (March 2020-February 2022). Health seeking behaviour/illness were recorded and post-wave serum samples probed for IgG to Spike (CoV2-S-IgG) by ECLISA. To estimate protective CoV2-S-IgG threshold levels, logistic functions were fit to describe the correlation of CoV2-S-IgG measured before a wave and the probability for seroconversion/boosting thereafter for unvaccinated and vaccinated adults. Findings: Despite little disease, 176/339 (51·9%) participants were seropositive following wave 1, rising to 74%, 89·8% and 97·3% after waves 2, 3 and 4 respectively. CoV2-S-IgG induced by natural exposure protected against subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection with the greatest protection for beta and least for omicron. Vaccination induced higher CoV2-S-IgG in seropositive compared to naïve vaccinees. Amongst seropositive participants, proportions above the 50% protection against infection threshold were 69% (95% CrI: 62, 72) following 1 vaccine dose, 63% (95% CrI: 63, 75) following 2 doses and only 11% (95% CrI: 7, 14) in unvaccinated during the omicron wave. Interpretation: Naturally induced CoV2-S-IgG do not achieve high enough levels to prevent omicron infection in most exposed individuals but are substantially boosted by vaccination leading to significant protection. A single vaccination in those with prior immunity is more immunogenic than 2 doses in a naïve vaccinee and may provide adequate protection. Funding: UK NIH GECO award (GEC111), Wellcome Trust Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Africa (CIDRI), Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, USA (OPP1017641, OPP1017579) and NIH H3 Africa (U54HG009824, U01AI110466]. HZ is supported by the SA-MRC. MPN is supported by an Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Investigator Grant (APP1174455). BJQ is supported by a grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP1139859). Stefan Flasche is supported by a Sir Henry Dale Fellowship jointly funded by the Wellcome Trust and the Royal Society (Grant number 208812/Z/17/Z).

6.
J Infect Dis ; 226(8): 1401-1406, 2022 10 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077781

ABSTRACT

The highly transmissible severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant has caused high rates of breakthrough infections in those previously vaccinated with ancestral strain coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines. Here, we demonstrate that a booster dose of UB-612 vaccine candidate delivered 7-9 months after primary vaccination increased neutralizing antibody levels by 131-, 61-, and 49-fold against ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and the Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 variants, respectively. Based on the receptor-binding domain protein binding antibody responses, the UB-612 third-dose booster may lead to an estimated approximately 95% efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19 caused by the ancestral strain. Our results support UB-612 as a potential potent booster against current and emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Elife ; 112022 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067163

ABSTRACT

Background: The development of vaccines to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic progression is a worldwide priority. CoronaVac is an inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine approved for emergency use with robust efficacy and immunogenicity data reported in trials in China, Brazil, Indonesia, Turkey, and Chile. Methods: This study is a randomized, multicenter, and controlled phase 3 trial in healthy Chilean adults aged ≥18 years. Volunteers received two doses of CoronaVac separated by 2 (0-14 schedule) or 4 weeks (0-28 schedule); 2302 volunteers were enrolled, 440 were part of the immunogenicity arm, and blood samples were obtained at different times. Samples from a single center are reported. Humoral immune responses were evaluated by measuring the neutralizing capacities of circulating antibodies. Cellular immune responses were assessed by ELISPOT and flow cytometry. Correlation matrixes were performed to evaluate correlations in the data measured. Results: Both schedules exhibited robust neutralizing capacities with the response induced by the 0-28 schedule being better. No differences were found in the concentration of antibodies against the virus and different variants of concern (VOCs) between schedules. Stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with Mega pools of Peptides (MPs) induced the secretion of interferon (IFN)-γ and the expression of activation induced markers in CD4+ T cells for both schedules. Correlation matrixes showed strong correlations between neutralizing antibodies and IFN-γ secretion. Conclusions: Immunization with CoronaVac in Chilean adults promotes robust cellular and humoral immune responses. The 0-28 schedule induced a stronger humoral immune response than the 0-14 schedule. Funding: Ministry of Health, Government of Chile, Confederation of Production and Commerce & Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy, Chile. Clinical trial number: NCT04651790.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization Schedule , Adult , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Immunity, Humoral , Interferons , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Nat Immunol ; 23(9): 1324-1329, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016769

ABSTRACT

T cells can contribute to clearance of respiratory viruses that cause acute-resolving infections such as SARS-CoV-2, helping to provide long-lived protection against disease. Recent studies have suggested an additional role for T cells in resisting overt infection: pre-existing cross-reactive responses were preferentially enriched in healthcare workers who had abortive infections1, and in household contacts protected from infection2. We hypothesize that such early viral control would require pre-existing cross-reactive memory T cells already resident at the site of infection; such airway-resident responses have been shown to be critical for mediating protection after intranasal vaccination in a murine model of SARS-CoV3. Bronchoalveolar lavage samples from the lower respiratory tract of healthy donors obtained before the COVID-19 pandemic revealed airway-resident, SARS-CoV-2-cross-reactive T cells, which correlated with the strength of human seasonal coronavirus immunity. We therefore demonstrate the potential to harness functional airway-resident SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells in next-generation mucosal vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Cross Reactions , Humans , Mice , Pandemics , Respiratory System
9.
Front Physiol ; 12: 749077, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969059

ABSTRACT

Besides providing an essential protective barrier, airway epithelial cells directly sense pathogens and respond defensively. This is a frontline component of the innate immune system with specificity for different pathogen classes. It occurs in the context of numerous interactions with leukocytes, but here we focus on intrinsic epithelial mechanisms. Type 1 immune responses are directed primarily at intracellular pathogens, particularly viruses. Prominent stimuli include microbial nucleic acids and interferons released from neighboring epithelial cells. Epithelial responses revolve around changes in the expression of interferon-sensitive genes (ISGs) that interfere with viral replication, as well as the further induction of interferons that signal in autocrine and paracrine manners. Type 2 immune responses are directed primarily at helminths and fungi. Prominent pathogen stimuli include proteases and chitin, and important responses include mucin hypersecretion and chitinase release. Type 3 immune responses are directed primarily at extracellular microbial pathogens, including bacteria and fungi, as well as viruses during their extracellular phase of infection. Prominent microbial stimuli include bacterial wall components, such as lipopeptides and endotoxin, as well as microbial nucleic acids. Key responses are the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). For all three types of response, paracrine signaling to neighboring epithelial cells induces resistance to infection over a wide field. Often, the epithelial effector molecules themselves also have signaling properties, in addition to the release of inflammatory cytokines that boost local innate immunity. Together, these epithelial mechanisms provide a powerful first line of pathogen defense, recruit leukocytes, and instruct adaptive immune responses.

10.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(672): eabn9237, 2022 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962065

ABSTRACT

Although children have been largely spared from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOCs) with increased transmissibility, combined with fluctuating mask mandates and school reopenings, has led to increased infections and disease among children. Thus, there is an urgent need to roll out COVID-19 vaccines to children of all ages. However, whether children respond equivalently to adults to mRNA vaccines and whether dosing will elicit optimal immunity remain unclear. Here, we aimed to deeply profile the vaccine-induced humoral immune response in 6- to 11-year-old children receiving either a pediatric (50 µg) or adult (100 µg) dose of the mRNA-1273 vaccine and to compare these responses to vaccinated adults, infected children, and children who experienced multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Children elicited an IgG-dominant vaccine-induced immune response, surpassing adults at a matched 100-µg dose but more variable immunity at a 50-µg dose. Irrespective of titer, children generated antibodies with enhanced Fc receptor binding capacity. Moreover, like adults, children generated cross-VOC humoral immunity, marked by a decline of omicron-specific receptor binding domain, but robustly preserved omicron spike protein binding. Fc receptor binding capabilities were also preserved in a dose-dependent manner. These data indicate that both the 50- and 100-µg doses of mRNA vaccination in children elicit robust cross-VOC antibody responses and that 100-µg doses in children result in highly preserved omicron-specific functional humoral immunity.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Child , Humans , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Receptors, Fc , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8550, 2022 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947441

ABSTRACT

Some social settings such as households and workplaces, have been identified as high risk for SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Identifying and quantifying the importance of these settings is critical for designing interventions. A tightly-knit religious community in the UK experienced a very large COVID-19 epidemic in 2020, reaching 64.3% seroprevalence within 10 months, and we surveyed this community both for serological status and individual-level attendance at particular settings. Using these data, and a network model of people and places represented as a stochastic graph rewriting system, we estimated the relative contribution of transmission in households, schools and religious institutions to the epidemic, and the relative risk of infection in each of these settings. All congregate settings were important for transmission, with some such as primary schools and places of worship having a higher share of transmission than others. We found that the model needed a higher general-community transmission rate for women (3.3-fold), and lower susceptibility to infection in children to recreate the observed serological data. The precise share of transmission in each place was related to assumptions about the internal structure of those places. Identification of key settings of transmission can allow public health interventions to be targeted at these locations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Jews , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10517, 2022 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900658

ABSTRACT

Sensitive serological testing is essential to estimate the proportion of the population exposed or infected with SARS-CoV-2, to guide booster vaccination and to select patients for treatment with anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The performance of serological tests is usually evaluated at 14-21 days post infection. This approach fails to take account of the important effect of time on test performance after infection or exposure has occurred. We performed parallel serological testing using 4 widely used assays (a multiplexed SARS-CoV-2 Nucleoprotein (N), Spike (S) and Receptor Binding Domain assay from Meso Scale Discovery (MSD), the Roche Elecsys-Nucleoprotein (Roche-N) and Spike (Roche-S) assays and the Abbott Nucleoprotein assay (Abbott-N) on serial positive monthly samples collected as part of the Co-STARs study ( www.clinicaltrials.gov , NCT04380896) up to 200 days following infection. Our findings demonstrate the considerable effect of time since symptom onset on the diagnostic sensitivity of different assays. Using a time-to-event analysis, we demonstrated that 50% of the Abbott nucleoprotein assays will give a negative result after 175 days (median survival time 95% CI 168-185 days), compared to the better performance over time of the Roche Elecsys nucleoprotein assay (93% survival probability at 200 days, 95% CI 88-97%). Assays targeting the spike protein showed a lower decline over the follow-up period, both for the MSD spike assay (97% survival probability at 200 days, 95% CI 95-99%) and the Roche Elecsys spike assay (95% survival probability at 200 days, 95% CI 93-97%). The best performing quantitative Roche Elecsys Spike assay showed no evidence of waning Spike antibody titers over the 200-day time course of the study. We have shown that compared to other assays evaluated, the Abbott-N assay fails to detect SARS-CoV-2 antibodies as time passes since infection. In contrast the Roche Elecsys Spike Assay and the MSD assay maintained a high sensitivity for the 200-day duration of the study. These limitations of the Abbott assay should be considered when quantifying the immune correlates of protection or the need for SARS-CoV-2 antibody therapy. The high levels of maintained detectable neutralizing spike antibody titers identified by the quantitative Roche Elecsys assay is encouraging and provides further evidence in support of long-lasting SARS-CoV-2 protection following natural infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Studies as Topic , Humans , Nucleoproteins , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Immunol Rev ; 310(1): 6-26, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879045

ABSTRACT

Antibodies against epitopes in S1 give the most accurate CoP against infection by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. Measurement of those antibodies by neutralization or binding assays both have predictive value, with binding antibody titers giving the highest statistical correlation. However, the protective functions of antibodies are multiple. Antibodies with multiple functions other than neutralization influence efficacy. The role of cellular responses can be discerned with respect to CD4+ T cells and their augmentation of antibodies, and with respect to CD8+ cells with regard to control of viral replication, particularly in the presence of insufficient antibody. More information is needed on mucosal responses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
14.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869857

ABSTRACT

Assessing COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants is crucial for determining future vaccination strategies and other public health strategies. When clinical effectiveness data are unavailable, a common method of assessing vaccine performance is to utilize neutralization assays using post-vaccination sera. Neutralization studies are typically performed across a wide array of settings, populations and vaccination strategies, and using different methodologies. For any comparison and meta-analysis to be meaningful, the design and methodology of the studies used must at minimum address aspects that confer a certain degree of reliability and comparability. We identified and characterized three important categories in which studies differ (cohort details, assay details and data reporting details) and that can affect the overall reliability and/or usefulness of neutralization assay results. We define reliability as a measure of methodological accuracy, proper study setting concerning subjects, samples and viruses, and reporting quality. Each category comprises a set of several relevant key parameters. To each parameter, we assigned a possible impact (ranging from low to high) on overall study reliability depending on its potential to influence the results. We then developed a reliability assessment tool that assesses the aggregate reliability of a study across all parameters. The reliability assessment tool provides explicit selection criteria for inclusion of comparable studies in meta-analyses of neutralization activity of SARS-CoV-2 variants in post-vaccination sera and can also both guide the design of future neutralization studies and serve as a checklist for including important details on key parameters in publications.

15.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 22(6): 333-334, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799586
16.
Nat Cancer ; 3(5): 552-564, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764216

ABSTRACT

Patients with hematological malignancies are at increased risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes due to compromised immune responses, but the insights of these studies have been compromised due to intrinsic limitations in study design. Here we present the PROSECO prospective observational study ( NCT04858568 ) on 457 patients with lymphoma that received two or three COVID-19 vaccine doses. We show undetectable humoral responses following two vaccine doses in 52% of patients undergoing active anticancer treatment. Moreover, 60% of patients on anti-CD20 therapy had undetectable antibodies following full vaccination within 12 months of receiving their anticancer therapy. However, 70% of individuals with indolent B-cell lymphoma displayed improved antibody responses following booster vaccination. Notably, 63% of all patients displayed antigen-specific T-cell responses, which increased after a third dose irrespective of their cancer treatment status. Our results emphasize the urgency of careful monitoring of COVID-19-specific immune responses to guide vaccination schemes in these vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(7): 1220-1229, 2022 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706235

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been shown to neutralize the virus in vitro and prevent disease in animal challenge models on reexposure. However, the current understanding of SARS-CoV-2 humoral dynamics and longevity is conflicting. METHODS: The COVID-19 Staff Testing of Antibody Responses Study (Co-Stars) prospectively enrolled 3679 healthcare workers to comprehensively characterize the kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S), receptor-binding domain, and nucleoprotein (N) antibodies in parallel. Participants screening seropositive had serial monthly serological testing for a maximum of 7 months with the Meso Scale Discovery Assay. Survival analysis determined the proportion of seroreversion, while 2 hierarchical gamma models predicted the upper and lower bounds of long-term antibody trajectory. RESULTS: A total of 1163 monthly samples were provided from 349 seropositive participants. At 200 days after symptoms, >95% of participants had detectable S antibodies, compared with 75% with detectable N antibodies. S antibody was predicted to remain detectable in 95% of participants until 465 days (95% confidence interval, 370-575 days) using a "continuous-decay" model and indefinitely using a "decay-to-plateau" model to account for antibody secretion by long-lived plasma cells. S-antibody titers were correlated strongly with surrogate neutralization in vitro (R2 = 0.72). N antibodies, however, decayed rapidly with a half-life of 60 days (95% confidence interval, 52-68 days). CONCLUSIONS: The Co-Stars data presented here provide evidence for long-term persistence of neutralizing S antibodies. This has important implications for the duration of functional immunity after SARS-CoV-2 infection. In contrast, the rapid decay of N antibodies must be considered in future seroprevalence studies and public health decision-making. This is the first study to establish a mathematical framework capable of predicting long-term humoral dynamics after SARS-CoV-2 infection. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT04380896.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
18.
Vaccine ; 40(2): 306-315, 2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569121

ABSTRACT

Correlates of protection for COVID-19 vaccines are urgently needed to license additional vaccines. We measured immune responses to four COVID-19 vaccines of proven efficacy using a single serological platform. IgG anti-Spike antibodies were highly correlated with ID50 neutralization in a validated pseudoviral assay and correlated significantly with efficacies for protection against infection with wild-type, alpha and delta variant SARS-CoV-2 virus. The protective threshold for each vaccine was calculated for IgG anti-Spike antibody. The mean protective threshold for all vaccine studies for WT virus was 154 BAU/ml (95 %CI 42-559), and for studies with antibody distributions that enabled precise estimation of thresholds (i.e. leaving out 2-dose mRNA regimens) was 60 BAU/ml (95 %CI 35-102). We propose that the proportion of individuals with responses above the appropriate protective threshold together with the geometric mean concentration can be used in comparative non-inferiority studies with licensed vaccines to ensure that new vaccines will be efficacious.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
19.
J Infect Dis ; 225(2): 327-331, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566021

ABSTRACT

A significant correlation has been shown between the binding antibody responses against original severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein and vaccine efficacy of 4 approved coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines. We therefore assessed the immune response against original SARS-CoV-2 elicited by the adjuvanted S-Trimer vaccine, SCB-2019 + CpG/alum, in the same assay and laboratory. Responses to SCB-2019 were comparable or superior for antibody to original and Alpha variant when compared with 4 approved vaccines. The comparison accurately predicted success of the recently reported efficacy trial of SCB-2019 vaccine. Immunogenicity comparisons to original strain and variants of concern should be considered as a basis for authorization of vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccine Efficacy , Vaccines, Subunit
20.
Nature ; 601(7891): 110-117, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510600

ABSTRACT

Individuals with potential exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) do not necessarily develop PCR or antibody positivity, suggesting that some individuals may clear subclinical infection before seroconversion. T cells can contribute to the rapid clearance of SARS-CoV-2 and other coronavirus infections1-3. Here we hypothesize that pre-existing memory T cell responses, with cross-protective potential against SARS-CoV-2 (refs. 4-11), would expand in vivo to support rapid viral control, aborting infection. We measured SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells, including those against the early transcribed replication-transcription complex (RTC)12,13, in intensively monitored healthcare workers (HCWs) who tested repeatedly negative according to PCR, antibody binding and neutralization assays (seronegative HCWs (SN-HCWs)). SN-HCWs had stronger, more multispecific memory T cells compared with a cohort of unexposed individuals from before the pandemic (prepandemic cohort), and these cells were more frequently directed against the RTC than the structural-protein-dominated responses observed after detectable infection (matched concurrent cohort). SN-HCWs with the strongest RTC-specific T cells had an increase in IFI27, a robust early innate signature of SARS-CoV-2 (ref. 14), suggesting abortive infection. RNA polymerase within RTC was the largest region of high sequence conservation across human seasonal coronaviruses (HCoV) and SARS-CoV-2 clades. RNA polymerase was preferentially targeted (among the regions tested) by T cells from prepandemic cohorts and SN-HCWs. RTC-epitope-specific T cells that cross-recognized HCoV variants were identified in SN-HCWs. Enriched pre-existing RNA-polymerase-specific T cells expanded in vivo to preferentially accumulate in the memory response after putative abortive compared to overt SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our data highlight RTC-specific T cells as targets for vaccines against endemic and emerging Coronaviridae.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/immunology , Memory T Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroconversion , Cell Proliferation , Cohort Studies , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/metabolism , Evolution, Molecular , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Membrane Proteins/immunology , Memory T Cells/cytology , Multienzyme Complexes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Transcription, Genetic/immunology
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