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1.
Womens Health Rep (New Rochelle) ; 3(1): 405-413, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948143

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic may have a unique emotional impact on pregnant people. This qualitative study aimed to characterize the emotional effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on pregnant and recently pregnant patients who had either suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection during the initial 6 months of the pandemic. Methods: Pregnant and recently pregnant participants (n = 20) from Massachusetts General Hospital Obstetrics and Gynecology clinical sites with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection were interviewed about their experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. Interviews were transcribed and coded using NVivo 12 software. Using data display matrices, thematic analysis was performed to identify emergent, crosscutting themes. Results: Twenty pregnant and postpartum patients participated of whom 12 had confirmed COVID-19 infection and 8 had suspected infection. The most frequently described emotions were anxiety (90%), uncertainty (80%), fear (70%), relief (65%), and sadness (60%). The following three crosscutting themes were identified: risk, protection, and change. The ways in which participants articulated their emotional reactions to the themes of risk, protection, and change were complex and varied. Conclusions: There was a broad range of negative and positive emotional experiences of pregnancy, birth, and the postpartum period during the first 4 months of the COVID-19 pandemic. A better understanding of pregnant people's emotional experiences may lead to changes in clinical practice and institutional policies that are more supportive of their needs and congruent with their values.

2.
Am J Perinatol ; 2022 Jul 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937468

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterize attitudes toward novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination and to evaluate factors associated with vaccine uptake among pregnant individuals. STUDY DESIGN: An anonymous survey was distributed to a convenience sample of pregnant individuals receiving prenatal care at two large urban academic hospitals in a single health care network in Massachusetts. Individual demographic variables were included in the survey along with questions assessing attitudes toward COVID-19 and vaccination in pregnancy. Data were analyzed using parametric or nonparametric tests when appropriate, and associated odds ratios (OR) were calculated via univariable logistic regression. RESULTS: There were 684 surveys distributed, and 477 pregnant and postpartum individuals completed the survey, for a response rate of 69.7%. Overall, 233 (49.3%) had received or were scheduled to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Age, White race, non-Hispanic or Latinx ethnicity, working from home, and typical receipt of the influenza vaccine were associated with COVID-19 vaccination. Further, 276 respondents (58.4%) reported that their provider recommended the COVID-19 vaccine in pregnancy; these participants were more likely to have received a vaccine (OR = 5.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.68-9.26, p < 0.005). Vaccinated individuals were less likely to be worried about the effects of the vaccine on themselves (OR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.12-0.27, p < 0.005) or their developing babies (OR = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.11-0.26, p < 0.005). Unvaccinated individuals were less likely to report that it is easy to schedule a COVID-19 vaccine (OR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.34-0.93, p = 0.02), to travel to receive a vaccine (OR = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.10-0.36, p < 0.005), and to miss work to receive a vaccine (OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.18-0.48, p < 0.005). CONCLUSION: Strategies are needed to improve patient education regarding vaccine side effects and safety in pregnancy. Policy changes should focus on making it feasible for patients to schedule a vaccine and miss work without loss of pay to get vaccinated. KEY POINTS: · There were racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 vaccination.. · Unvaccinated respondents were more likely to be concerned about vaccine effects for themselves or their growing babies.. · Unvaccinated respondents cited work and scheduling-related barriers to vaccination, indicating areas for advocacy..

3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3571, 2022 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908170

ABSTRACT

The availability of three COVID-19 vaccines in the United States provides an unprecedented opportunity to examine how vaccine platforms and timing of vaccination in pregnancy impact maternal and neonatal immunity. Here, we characterize the antibody profile after Ad26.COV2.S, mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2 vaccination in 158 pregnant individuals and evaluate transplacental antibody transfer by profiling maternal and umbilical cord blood in 175 maternal-neonatal dyads. These analyses reveal lower vaccine-induced functions and Fc receptor-binding after Ad26.COV2.S compared to mRNA vaccination and subtle advantages in titer and function with mRNA-1273 versus BN162b2. mRNA vaccines have higher titers and functions against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. First and third trimester vaccination results in enhanced maternal antibody-dependent NK-cell activation, cellular and neutrophil phagocytosis, and complement deposition relative to second trimester. Higher transplacental transfer ratios following first and second trimester vaccination may reflect placental compensation for waning maternal titers. These results provide novel insight into the impact of platform and trimester of vaccination on maternal humoral immune response and transplacental antibody transfer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Ad26COVS1 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Immunity , Infant, Newborn , Placenta , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Vaccination/methods
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e3996-e4004, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562033

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Remdesivir is efficacious for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adults, but data in pregnant women are limited. We describe outcomes in the first 86 pregnant women with severe COVID-19 who were treated with remdesivir. METHODS: The reported data span 21 March to 16 June 2020 for hospitalized pregnant women with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and room air oxygen saturation ≤94% whose clinicians requested remdesivir through the compassionate use program. The intended remdesivir treatment course was 10 days (200 mg on day 1, followed by 100 mg for days 2-10, given intravenously). RESULTS: Nineteen of 86 women delivered before their first dose and were reclassified as immediate "postpartum" (median postpartum day 1 [range, 0-3]). At baseline, 40% of pregnant women (median gestational age, 28 weeks) required invasive ventilation, in contrast to 95% of postpartum women (median gestational age at delivery 30 weeks). By day 28 of follow-up, the level of oxygen requirement decreased in 96% and 89% of pregnant and postpartum women, respectively. Among pregnant women, 93% of those on mechanical ventilation were extubated, 93% recovered, and 90% were discharged. Among postpartum women, 89% were extubated, 89% recovered, and 84% were discharged. Remdesivir was well tolerated, with a low incidence of serious adverse events (AEs) (16%). Most AEs were related to pregnancy and underlying disease; most laboratory abnormalities were grade 1 or 2. There was 1 maternal death attributed to underlying disease and no neonatal deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Among 86 pregnant and postpartum women with severe COVID-19 who received compassionate-use remdesivir, recovery rates were high, with a low rate of serious AEs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Compassionate Use Trials , Female , Humans , Infant , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Placenta ; 109: 72-74, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386464

ABSTRACT

Whether early SARS-CoV-2 definitively increases the risk of stillbirth is unknown, though studies have suggested possible trends of stillbirth increase during the pandemic. This study of third trimester stillbirth does not identify an increase in rates during the first wave of the pandemic period, however investigation of the placental pathology demonstrates trends towards more vascular placental abnormalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Placenta Diseases/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Stillbirth/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death , Female , Fetal Death/etiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Placenta/pathology , Placenta Diseases/etiology , Placenta Diseases/pathology , Placenta Diseases/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Cell ; 184(3): 628-642.e10, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385216

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causes more severe disease in pregnant women compared to age-matched non-pregnant women. Whether maternal infection causes changes in the transfer of immunity to infants remains unclear. Maternal infections have previously been associated with compromised placental antibody transfer, but the mechanism underlying this compromised transfer is not established. Here, we used systems serology to characterize the Fc profile of influenza-, pertussis-, and SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies transferred across the placenta. Influenza- and pertussis-specific antibodies were actively transferred. However, SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody transfer was significantly reduced compared to influenza- and pertussis-specific antibodies, and cord titers and functional activity were lower than in maternal plasma. This effect was only observed in third-trimester infection. SARS-CoV-2-specific transfer was linked to altered SARS-CoV-2-antibody glycosylation profiles and was partially rescued by infection-induced increases in IgG and increased FCGR3A placental expression. These results point to unexpected compensatory mechanisms to boost immunity in neonates, providing insights for maternal vaccine design.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Maternal-Fetal Exchange/immunology , Placenta/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, Third/immunology , Receptors, IgG/immunology , THP-1 Cells
8.
Med (N Y) ; 2(5): 460-464, 2021 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230669

ABSTRACT

Pregnant people's exclusion from COVID-19 vaccine research highlights both the harms of excluding pregnant people from clinical trials and the growing public support for their equitable inclusion. Protectionary tendencies must be challenged for the sake of progress. The COVID-19 pandemic presents an opportunity to translate recognition of an unjust paradigm into action.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 35(1): 24-33, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While studies from large cities affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have reported on the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the context of universal testing during admission for delivery, the patient demographic, social and clinical factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women are not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the epidemiological factors associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in women admitted for labour and delivery, in the context of universal screening at four Boston-area hospitals. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we reviewed the health records of all women admitted for labour and delivery at four hospitals from the largest health system in Massachusetts between 19 April 2020 and 27 June 2020. We calculated the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, including asymptomatic infection. We calculated associations between SARS-CoV-2 infection and demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 93 patients (3.2%, 95% confidence interval 2.5, 3.8) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection on admission for labour and delivery out of 2945 patients included in the analysis; 80 (86.0%) of the patients who tested positive were asymptomatic at the time of testing. Factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection included the following: younger age, obesity, African American or Hispanic race/ethnicity, residence in heavily affected communities (as measured in cases reported per capita), presence of a household member with known SARS-CoV-2 infection, non-health care essential worker occupation and MassHealth or Medicaid insurance compared to commercial insurance. 93.8% of patients testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 on admission had one or more identifiable factors associated with disease acquisition. CONCLUSIONS: In this large sample of deliveries during the height of the surge in infections during the spring of 2020, SARS-CoV-2 infection was largely concentrated in patients with distinct demographic characteristics, those largely from disadvantaged communities. Racial disparities seen in pregnancy persist with respect to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Massachusetts , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
10.
AJP Rep ; 10(3): e315-e318, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-834951

ABSTRACT

The transformation of our health care system in response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) provides a unique opportunity to examine the use of telehealth for postpartum care. The postpartum period can pose significant risks and challenges, particularly for women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Remote blood pressure monitoring has proven feasible and acceptable among women and providers but has not been widely implemented or researched. Early studies have identified improved outcomes with use of telehealth, including increased compliance with care and decreased disparity in hypertension follow-up. Preliminary data make a compelling case for remote monitoring as a promising treatment strategy to manage postpartum hypertension. Remote monitoring technology should be incorporated as a standard component for the comprehensive management of postpartum hypertension during COVID-19. As a consequence of the pandemic, we now have an opportunity to research the impact of postpartum remote blood pressure monitoring on maternal outcome and disparities within these outcomes.

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