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1.
ASAIO J ; 2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878844

ABSTRACT

Anticoagulation during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for Coronovirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) can be performed by direct or indirect thrombin inhibitors but differences in outcomes with these agents are uncertain. A retrospective, multicenter study was conducted. All consecutive adult patients with COVID-19 placed on ECMO between March 1, 2020 and April 30, 2021 in participating centers, were included. Patients were divided in groups receiving either a direct thrombin inhibitor (DTI) or an indirect thrombin inhibitor such as unfractionated heparin (UFH). Overall, 455 patients with COVID-19 from 17 centers were placed on ECMO during the study period. Forty-four patients did not receive anticoagulation. Of the remaining 411 patients, DTI was used in 160 (39%) whereas 251 (61%) received UFH. At 90-days, in-hospital mortality was 50% (DTI) and 61% (UFH), adjusted hazard ratio: 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49-1.32. Deep vein thrombosis [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.60, 95% CI: 0.90-6.65], ischemic (aOR: 1.58, 95% CI: 0.18-14.0), and hemorrhagic (aOR:1.22, 95% CI: 0.39-3.87) stroke were similar with DTI in comparison to UFH. Bleeding requiring transfusion was lower in patients receiving DTI (aOR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.18-0.87). Anticoagulants that directly inhibit thrombin are associated with similar in-hospital mortality, stroke, and venous thrombosis and do not confer a higher risk of clinical bleeding in comparison to conventional heparin during ECMO for COVID-19.

2.
Artif Organs ; 46(8): 1659-1668, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701591

ABSTRACT

In a multicenter, retrospective analysis of 435 patients with refractory COVID-19 placed on V-V ECMO, cannulation by a single, dual-lumen catheter with directed outflow to the pulmonary artery was associated with lower inpatient mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , COVID-19/therapy , Catheterization/methods , Catheters , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Retrospective Studies
3.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 36(8 Pt B): 2935-2941, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665734

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Cardiac injury has been reported in up to 20%-to-30% of patients with COVID-19, and severe disease can lead to cardiopulmonary failure. The role of mechanical circulatory support in these patients remains undetermined. The authors here aimed to determine the characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 requiring venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) or veno-arterial-venous (VAV) ECMO support. DESIGN AND SETTING: A multicenter, retrospective case series. PARTICIPANTS: The cohort consisted of adult patients (18 years of age and older) with confirmed COVID-19 requiring VA ECMO or VAV ECMO support in the period from March 1, 2020, to April 30, 2021. Outcomes were recorded until July 31, 2021. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: To show factors related to death during hospitalization, patients were grouped as survivors and nonsurvivors. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate 90-day in-hospital mortality. Overall, 37 patients from 12 centers comprised the study cohort. The median patient age was 44 years old (interquartile range [IQR], 35-52), and 12 (32%) were female patients. The duration of ECMO support ranged from 2-to-132 days. At the end of the follow-up period, 13 patients (35%) were discharged or transferred alive, and 24 patients (65%) died during the hospitalization. The cumulative in-hospital mortality at 90 days was 64% (95% confidence interval: 47-81). During the time from intubation to VA ECMO or VAV ECMO initiation (1 day [IQR 0-7.5] v 6 days [IQR 2.5-14], p = 0.0383), body mass index (32 [IQR 26-36] v 37 [IQR 33-40], p = 0.009), and baseline C-reactive protein (7.15 v 38.9 mg/dL, p = 0.009) were higher in those who expired. CONCLUSION: Only one-third of the patients with COVID-19 requiring VA ECMO or VAV ECMO survived to discharge. Close monitoring of at-risk patients with early initiation of ECMO with circulatory support may further improve outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Retrospective Studies
4.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 113(3): 722-737, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611622

ABSTRACT

The twelfth annual report from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (Intermacs) highlights outcomes for 26 688 continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) patients over the past decade (2011-2020). In 2020, we observed the largest drop in yearly LVAD implant volumes since the registry's inception, which reflects the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on cardiac surgical volumes in the United States. The 2018 heart transplant allocation policy change in the United States continues to affect LVAD implantation volumes and device strategy, with 78.1% of patients now receiving LVAD implants as destination therapy. Despite an older and sicker patient cohort, survival in the recent era (2016-2020) at 1 and 2 years continues to improve at 82.8% and 74.1%. Patient adverse event profile has also improved in the recent era, with significant reductions in stroke, gastrointestinal bleeding, infection, and device malfunction/pump thrombosis. Finally, we review the burden of readmissions after LVAD implant and highlight an opportunity to improve patient outcomes by reducing this frequent and vexing problem.


Subject(s)
Heart-Assist Devices , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Annual Reports as Topic , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , United States
5.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 161(2): e238-e239, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1382603
6.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 163(6): 2107-2116.e6, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233517

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine characteristics, outcomes, and clinical factors associated with death in patients with COVID-19 requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective cohort study was conducted. The cohort consisted of adult patients (18 years of age and older) requiring ECMO in the period from March 1, 2020, to September 30, 2020. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality after ECMO initiation assessed with a time to event analysis at 90 days. Multivariable Cox proportional regression was used to determine factors associated with in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Overall, 292 patients from 17 centers comprised the study cohort. Patients were 49 (interquartile range, 39-57) years old and 81 (28%) were female. At the end of the follow-up period, 19 (6%) patients were still receiving ECMO, 25 (9%) were discontinued from ECMO but remained hospitalized, 135 (46%) were discharged or transferred alive, and 113 (39%) died during the hospitalization. The cumulative in-hospital mortality at 90 days was 42% (95% confidence interval [CI], 36%-47%). Factors associated with in-hospital mortality were age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.31; 95% CI, 1.06-1.61 per 10 years), renal dysfunction measured according to serum creatinine level (aHR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.01-1.45), and cardiopulmonary resuscitation before ECMO placement (aHR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.01-3.46). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe COVID-19 necessitating ECMO support, in-hospital mortality occurred in fewer than half of the cases. ECMO might serve as a viable modality for terminally ill patients with refractory COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
7.
Crit Care Med ; 49(2): e161-e169, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927073

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics and outcomes associated with concomitant renal and respiratory failure in patients with critical coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: This is a case series of patients from a U.S. healthcare system in New York City. All adult patients (≥ 18 yr) admitted to the hospital with positive coronavirus disease 2019 testing between March 10, 2020, and March 31, 2020, who required mechanical ventilatory support were included. Patients who remained hospitalized were followed through May 1, 2020. INTERVENTIONS: Renal replacement therapy included at least one session of dialysis, continued venovenous hemofiltration, or peritoneal dialysis. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Baseline characteristics, laboratory markers, 30-day in-hospital outcomes, ventilator days, and survival to discharge were included. Multivariate predictors for mortality and need for renal replacement therapy were identified. A total of 330 patients were included in this analysis and were most commonly greater than or equal to 70 years (40%), male (61%), Black or African American (41%), and Hispanic or Latino (38%). Renal replacement therapy was required in 101 patients (29%), most commonly among Blacks or African Americans (50%). Elevated d-dimer, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin were associated with renal replacement therapy, compared with the nondialysis cohort. Overall, 243 patients (74%) died and 56 (17%) were discharged from the hospital, of which 9 (3%) required renal replacement therapy. Male sex (odds ratio, 2.0; 1.1-3.5; p = 0.020), Black race (odds ratio, 1.8; 1.0-3.1; p = 0.453), and history of hypertension (odds ratio, 2.7; 1.3-5.4; p = 0.005) were predictors for requiring renal replacement therapy. Risk factors for in-hospital mortality included age greater than or equal to 60 years (odds ratio, 6.2; 3.0-13.0; p < 0.0001), male sex (odds ratio, 3.0; 1.4-6.4; p = 0.004), and body mass index greater than or equal to 30 kg/m2 (odds ratio, 2.1; 1.0-4.4; p = 0.039). Concomitant renal failure in critical coronavirus disease 2019 was not a significant predictor of death (odds ratio, 2.3; 0.98-5.5; p = 0.057). CONCLUSIONS: This case series concludes that respiratory failure conveys significant mortality risk in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and that survival with concomitant renal failure is rare.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness/mortality , Renal Insufficiency/mortality , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data
8.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 160(4): 952-953, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-548314
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