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1.
mBio ; : e0337721, 2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637923

ABSTRACT

Pathogenic coronaviruses are a major threat to global public health. Here, using a recombinant reporter virus-based compound screening approach, we identified small-molecule inhibitors that potently block the replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Among them, JIB-04 inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells with a 50% effective concentration of 695 nM, with a specificity index of greater than 1,000. JIB-04 showed in vitro antiviral activity in multiple cell types, including primary human bronchial epithelial cells, against several DNA and RNA viruses, including porcine coronavirus transmissible gastroenteritis virus. In an in vivo porcine model of coronavirus infection, administration of JIB-04 reduced virus infection and associated tissue pathology, which resulted in improved weight gain and survival. These results highlight the potential utility of JIB-04 as an antiviral agent against SARS-CoV-2 and other viral pathogens. IMPORTANCE The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, is an ongoing public health disaster worldwide. Although several vaccines are available as a preventive measure and the FDA approval of an orally bioavailable drug is on the horizon, there remains a need for developing antivirals against SARS-CoV-2 that could work on the early course of infection. By using infectious reporter viruses, we screened small-molecule inhibitors for antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. Among the top hits was JIB-04, a compound previously studied for its anticancer activity. Here, we showed that JIB-04 inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 as well as different DNA and RNA viruses. Furthermore, JIB-04 conferred protection in a porcine model of coronavirus infection, although to a lesser extent when given as therapeutic rather than prophylactic doses. Our findings indicate a limited but still promising utility of JIB-04 as an antiviral agent in the combat against COVID-19 and potentially other viral diseases.

3.
Immunity ; 54(6): 1304-1319.e9, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246001

ABSTRACT

Despite mounting evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) engagement with immune cells, most express little, if any, of the canonical receptor of SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Here, using a myeloid cell receptor-focused ectopic expression screen, we identified several C-type lectins (DC-SIGN, L-SIGN, LSECtin, ASGR1, and CLEC10A) and Tweety family member 2 (TTYH2) as glycan-dependent binding partners of the SARS-CoV-2 spike. Except for TTYH2, these molecules primarily interacted with spike via regions outside of the receptor-binding domain. Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis of pulmonary cells from individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) indicated predominant expression of these molecules on myeloid cells. Although these receptors do not support active replication of SARS-CoV-2, their engagement with the virus induced robust proinflammatory responses in myeloid cells that correlated with COVID-19 severity. We also generated a bispecific anti-spike nanobody that not only blocked ACE2-mediated infection but also the myeloid receptor-mediated proinflammatory responses. Our findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2-myeloid receptor interactions promote immune hyperactivation, which represents potential targets for COVID-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Myeloid Cells/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/genetics , Cell Line , Cytokines , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Lectins, C-Type/chemistry , Membrane Proteins/chemistry , Models, Molecular , Neoplasm Proteins/chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(50): 32105-32113, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947594

ABSTRACT

Cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H) is an interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene that shows broad antiviral activities against a wide range of enveloped viruses. Here, using an IFN-stimulated gene screen against vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-SARS-CoV and VSV-SARS-CoV-2 chimeric viruses, we identified CH25H and its enzymatic product 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC) as potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 replication. Internalized 25HC accumulates in the late endosomes and potentially restricts SARS-CoV-2 spike protein catalyzed membrane fusion via blockade of cholesterol export. Our results highlight one of the possible antiviral mechanisms of 25HC and provide the molecular basis for its therapeutic development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Endosomes/genetics , Hydroxycholesterols/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Endosomes/metabolism , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , Membrane Fusion/drug effects , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
5.
Sci Immunol ; 5(47)2020 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260039

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal symptoms and fecal shedding of SARS-CoV-2 RNA are frequently observed in COVID-19 patients. However, it is unclear whether SARS-CoV-2 replicates in the human intestine and contributes to possible fecal-oral transmission. Here, we report productive infection of SARS-CoV-2 in ACE2+ mature enterocytes in human small intestinal enteroids. Expression of two mucosa-specific serine proteases, TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4, facilitated SARS-CoV-2 spike fusogenic activity and promoted virus entry into host cells. We also demonstrate that viruses released into the intestinal lumen were inactivated by simulated human colonic fluid, and infectious virus was not recovered from the stool specimens of COVID-19 patients. Our results highlight the intestine as a potential site of SARS-CoV-2 replication, which may contribute to local and systemic illness and overall disease progression.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Enterocytes/virology , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Cell Line , Duodenum/cytology , Enterocytes/pathology , Humans , Mice , Organoids/virology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Rotavirus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vesiculovirus/genetics
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