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1.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 196, 2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-lasting symptoms following SARS-CoV2-infection have been described in several studies. However, there is only limited knowledge about the ongoing pathophysiology and the association with pathological findings in medical examinations. METHODS: In this post hoc analysis of a prospective trial, 135 patients following COVID-19 were enrolled and grouped with respect to the presence or absence of respiratory ongoing symptoms following COVID-19. Pulmonary function test (PFT), diffusion capacity measurement (TLCO SB and TLCO/VA), blood gas analysis (BGA), laboratory tests and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of patients with persistent respiratory symptoms were compared to those of asymptomatic patients. RESULTS: In this analysis, 71% (96/135) of all patients (mean age 49 years; range 20-91 years) reported long-lasting symptoms after a median (IQR) of 85 days (60-116) following COVID-19 whereby 57.8% (78/135) complained about persistent pulmonary symptoms. Pathological findings in blood test, PFT, TLCO, BGA and/or HRCT were found in 71.8% and 64.1% of patients with and without long-lasting respiratory symptoms respectively. Patients with persistent respiratory symptoms were significantly younger and presented a significant lower FVC (%), TLC (L), and TLCO SB compared to asymptomatic patients (p < 0.05). The multiple logistic regression results in a significant effect of age (p = 0.004) and TLCO SB (p = 0.042). CONCLUSION: Following COVID-19, a large proportion of patients experience ongoing symptoms, whereby the respiratory symptoms are the predominant complaints. Compared to asymptomatic patients, patients with ongoing symptoms were younger and presented a significant lower FVC, TLC and TLCO SB. The multiple logistic regression demonstrated only a significant association between the TLCO SB as the only PFT parameter and the perceived symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Gas Analysis , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , Respiratory Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
2.
Frontiers in medicine ; 8, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1610549

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic affecting individuals to varying degrees. There is emerging evidence that even patients with mild symptoms will suffer from prolonged physical impairment. Methods: In this prospective observational study, lung function, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing have been performed in 100 patients for 3–6 months after COVID-19 diagnosis (post-CoVG). Depending on the severity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, patients were divided into asymptomatic, or mild to moderate (mild post-CoVG), and severe post-CoVG [hospitalization with or without intensive care unit/non-invasive ventilation (ICU/NIV)]. Results have been compared with age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) matched control group (CG, N = 50). Results: Both lung function (resting) and exercise capacity (peak workload, Wpeak and peak oxygen uptake, VO2 peak - % predicted) were considerably affected in patients with severe post-CoV (81.7 ± 27.6 and 86.1 ± 20.6%), compared to the mild post-CoVG (104.8 ± 24.0%, p = 0.001 and 100.4 ± 24.8;p = 0.003). In addition, also the submaximal exercise performance was significantly reduced in the severe post-CoVG (predicted VT1/VO2 peak;p = 0.013 and VT2/VO2 peak;p = 0.001). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that 74 % (adjusted R2) of the variance in relative VO2 peak of patients who had CoV could be explained by the following variables: lower age, male sex, lower BMI, higher DLCO, higher predicted heart rate (HR) peak, lower breathing reserve (BR), and lower SaO2 peak, which were related to higher relative VO2 peak values. Higher NT-proBNP and lower creatinine kinase (CK) values were seen in severe cases compared to patients who experienced mild CoV. Discussion: Maximal and submaximal exercise performance in patients recovering from severe COVID-19 remain negatively affected for 3–6 months after COVID-19 diagnosis. The presented findings reveal that impaired pulmonary, cardiac, and skeletal muscle function contributed to the limitation of VO2 peak in those patients, which may have important implications on rehabilitation programs.

3.
J Pers Med ; 11(12)2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542639

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Cirrhotic patients have an increased risk for severe COVID-19. We investigated the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS), parameters of endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and coagulation/fibrinolysis in cirrhotic patients and in COVID-19 patients. (2) Methods: 127 prospectively characterized cirrhotic patients (CIRR), along with nine patients with mild COVID-19 (mild-COVID), 11 patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS; ARDS-COVID), and 10 healthy subjects (HS) were included in the study. Portal hypertension (PH) in cirrhotic patients was characterized by hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG). (3) Results: With increased liver disease severity (Child-Pugh stage A vs. B vs. C) and compared to HS, CIRR patients exhibited higher RAS activity (angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), renin, aldosterone), endothelial dysfunction (von Willebrand-factor (VWF) antigen), inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6)), and a disturbed coagulation/fibrinolysis profile (prothrombin fragment F1,2, D-dimer, plasminogen activity, antiplasmin activity). Increased RAS activity (renin), endothelial dysfunction (vWF), coagulation parameters (D-dimer, prothrombin fragment F1,2) and inflammation (CRP, IL-6) were significantly altered in COVID patients and followed similar trends from mild-COVID to ARDS-COVID. In CIRR patients, ACE activity was linked to IL-6 (ρ = 0.26; p = 0.003), independently correlated with VWF antigen (aB: 0.10; p = 0.001), and was inversely associated with prothrombin fragment F1,2 (aB: -0.03; p = 0.023) and antiplasmin activity (aB: -0.58; p = 0.006), after adjusting for liver disease severity. (4) Conclusions: The considerable upregulation of the RAS in Child-Pugh B/C cirrhosis is linked to systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and abnormal coagulation profile. The cirrhosis-associated abnormalities of ACE, IL-6, VWF antigen, and antiplasmin parallel those observed in severe COVID-19.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258351, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496507

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elevated D-dimer is known as predictor for severity of SARS-CoV2-infection. Increased D-dimer is associated with thromboembolic complications, but it is also a direct consequence of the acute lung injury seen in COVID-19 pneumonia. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the rate of persistent elevated D-dimer and its association with thromboembolic complications and persistent ground glass opacities (GGO) after recovery from COVID-19. METHODS: In this post hoc analysis of a prospective multicenter trial, patients underwent blood sampling, measurement of diffusion capacity, blood gas analysis, and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scan following COVID-19. In case of increased D-dimer (>0,5 µg/ml), an additional contrast medium-enhanced CT was performed in absence of contraindications. Results were compared between patients with persistent D-dimer elevation and patients with normal D-dimer level. RESULTS: 129 patients (median age 48.8 years; range 19-91 years) underwent D-Dimer assessment after a median (IQR) of 94 days (64-130) following COVID-19. D-dimer elevation was found in 15% (19/129) and was significantly more common in patients who had experienced a severe SARS-CoV2 infection that had required hospitalisation compared to patients with mild disease (p = 0.049). Contrast-medium CT (n = 15) revealed an acute pulmonary embolism in one patient and CTEPH in another patient. A significant lower mean pO2 (p = 0.015) and AaDO2 (p = 0.043) were observed in patients with persistent D-Dimer elevation, but the rate of GGO were similar in both patient groups (p = 0.33). CONCLUSION: In 15% of the patients recovered from COVID-19, persistent D-dimer elevation was observed after a median of 3 months following COVID-19. These patients had experienced a more severe COVID and still presented more frequently a lower mean pO2 and AaDO2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
5.
Radiologe ; 61(10): 888-895, 2021 Oct.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a proportion of patients report prolonged or worsening symptoms and impairments. These symptoms are increasingly referred to as "long COVID" syndrome. They may be associated with radiological changes on computed tomography (CT) and pulmonary function impairment. OBJECTIVES: To discuss the role of long-term assessment of COVID-19 patients to determine which patients may benefit from follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This article presents the current results of clinical, radiological, and pulmonary function follow-up tests after COVID-19 pneumonia. RESULTS: Chronic fatigue and dyspnea are the most common persistent symptoms after COVID-19. Patients also present impaired exercise capacity. On CT, ground-glass opacities and parenchymal bands are the most common residual changes after COVID-19 pneumonia, histologically corresponding to organizing pneumonia. A proportion of patients who had severe COVID-19 pneumonia may show fibrotic-like changes during follow-up. Patients with severe acute infection may present with a restrictive syndrome with lower diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and total lung capacity (TLC) values. Overall, significant and continuous improvement in all symptoms as well as radiomorphological and functional changes were observed over time. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with persistent symptoms after COVID-19 should be evaluated and treated in specialized post-COVID-19 clinics in a multidisciplinary manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2
6.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(2)2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255899

ABSTRACT

The European Respiratory Society congress in the year 2020, a year dominated by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, was the first virtual congress planned with an innovative and interactive congress programme upfront. It was a large, novel platform for scientific discussion and presentations of cutting-edge innovative developments. This article summarises a selection of the scientific highlights from the Clinical Techniques, Imaging and Endoscopy assembly (assembly 14). In addition to presentations on the important role of bronchoscopy, imaging and ultrasound techniques in the field of SARS-CoV-2 infection, novel diagnostic approaches and innovative therapeutic strategies in patients with lung cancer, interstitial lung disease, obstructive airway disorders and infectious diseases were discussed.

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