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1.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; : 1-8, 2022 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740556

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study is to share the experience of a tertiary reference pandemic centre on the labour and delivery of pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This prospective cohort study was conducted on pregnant women with COVID-19 (n = 337). Patients were divided into two groups based on their severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity (n = 103 positive and n = 234 negative) during the delivery. Thereafter, clinical characteristics and perinatal outcomes were compared between the groups. Moreover, delivery characteristics and clinical features were compared between primary caesarean section (n = 117) and normal spontaneous vaginal delivery cases (n = 100). Labour induction was performed in 16% of cases with a failure rate of 35%. Caesarean rate was 70% and the most common indication was worsening in maternal condition. Significant, positive and moderate correlations were observed between COVID-19 severity at admission (r = 0.422, p<.001), radiologic findings consistent with COVID-19 (r = 0.400, p<.001), the necessity for oxygen support during the delivery (r = 0.406, p<.001) and postpartum worsening in maternal condition. A significant, positive weak correlation was found between caesarean delivery and postpartum worsening in maternal condition (r = 0.176, p<.001). COVID-19 seems to be associated with increased rates of obstetric complications and caesarean delivery.Impact StatementWhat is already known on this subject? Increased rates of foetal distress and caesarean section were reported in pregnant women with COVID-19. Appropriate management of labour and delivery in infected pregnant women is crucial to obtain favourable perinatal outcomes.What do the results of this study add? COVID-19 seems to be associated with increased rates of obstetric complications and caesarean delivery. PCR positive group had significantly higher primary and prelabor caesarean delivery rates. Severe/critic COVID-19 infection rate was significantly higher in the primary caesarean group. Significant, positive and moderate correlations were observed between COVID-19 severity at admission, radiologic findings consistent with COVID-19, the necessity for oxygen support during the delivery and postpartum worsening in maternal condition. A significant, positive weak correlation was found between caesarean delivery and postpartum worsening in maternal condition.What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? Management and delivery of pregnant women with COVID-19 should be individualised. The findings of the present study may lead to the establishment of future obstetric protocols in this special population.

2.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718372

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to share the comprehensive experience of a tertiary pandemic center on pregnant women with COVID-19 and to compare clinical outcomes between pregnancy trimesters. The present prospective cohort study consisted of pregnant women with COVID-19 who were followed up at Ankara City Hospital between March 11, 2020 and February 20, 2021. Clinical characteristics and perinatal outcomes were compared between the pregnancy trimesters. A total of 1416 pregnant women (1400 singletons and 16 twins) with COVID-19 were evaluated. Twenty-six (1.8%) patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and maternal mortality was observed in six (0.4%) cases. Pregnancy complications were present in 227 (16.1%) cases and preterm labor was the most common one (n = 42, 2.9%). There were 311, 433, and 672 patients in the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. Rates of mild and severe/critic COVID-19 were highest in the first and second trimesters, respectively. The hospitalization rate was highest in the third trimester. Pregnancy complications, maternal mortality, and NICU admission rates were similar between the groups. The course of the disease and obstetric outcomes may be different among pregnancy trimesters. A worse course of the disease may be observed even in pregnant women without any coexisting health problems.

3.
J Perinat Med ; 50(2): 139-143, 2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561422

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the long-term effects of the SARS-CoV-2 infection on the fetal immune system by fetal thymus size measurements with ultrasound (USG). METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in the Turkish Ministry of Health Ankara City Hospital between November 1, 2020 and April 1, 2021, with recovered, pregnant women, four weeks after they had been confirmed for the SARS-CoV-2 infection by real-time polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR). COVID-19 recovered (CR) pregnant women compared with age-matched pregnant controls in terms of demographic features, fetal thymic-thoracic ratio (TTR), and laboratory parameters. RESULTS: There was no difference in demographic features between the two groups. TTR found significantly lower in the CR group than the control group (p=0.001). The fetal TTR showed a significant and moderate correlation with maternal monocyte counts, monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR), and red cell distribution width (RDW); while it did not correlate with lymphocyte counts, c-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin levels. CONCLUSIONS: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) reduces fetal thymus size in pregnant women with mild or moderate symptoms after recovery from the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Fetus/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Thymus Gland/pathology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Fetus/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Organ Size , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Thymus Gland/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Young Adult
4.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(11): 4043-4047, 2021 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly around the world, causing massive morbidity and mortality. Vaccination during puerperium protects both the mother and the newborn and is important to keep the pandemic under control. METHODS: Women who gave birth at Ankara City Hospital between February 11, 2021 and March 21, 2021 were included. Data were collected through a face-to-face questionnaire. RESULTS: We asked 412 postpartum women were surveyed about their acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine; 137 (33.3%) of them wanted to be vaccinated, while 275 (66.7%) of them did not want to be vaccinated. Reasons for vaccination rejection; 209 (76%) of them stated that there was not enough information about the safety of the vaccine for the postpartum period, and 89 (32.4%) of them thought that the vaccine would not be effective for the disease. Three of the answers in the survey were found significantly different in high-risk pregnancy (HRP) group compared to low-risk pregnancy (LRP) group; 1) Having their babies to be vaccinated, 2) To be vaccinated if it will be recommended to the puerperal women, and 3) Feeling anxious about being infected by SARS-CoV-2 (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Health authorities recommend the COVID-19 vaccine to breastfeeding mothers. However, a relatively low vaccination acceptance rate was observed in the present study. For newly developed vaccines, concern over vaccine safety is the biggest obstacle to vaccine administration. Therefore, the reasons that influence acceptance or refusal of vaccines are important for developing targeted communication strategies and healthcare policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
5.
Cytokine ; 149: 155751, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487680

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: New biomarkers for diagnosis and monitoring the COVID-19 disease are the most important topics to be studied recently. We aimed to investigate the association between midkine levels and disease severity in pregnant women with COVID-19. METHODS: Totally 186 pregnant women were participated in this study. 96 of them were healthy pregnant women, 90 of them were pregnant women with COVID19. Pregnant women were evaluated according to their trimesters. Serum midkine level, biochemical profile clinical and disease severity outcomes of pregnant women were obtained. RESULTS: Our results showed that pregnant women with COVID19 have significantly increased serum midkine level compared to healthy pregnant women (1.801 ± 0.977 vs 0.815 ± 0.294 ng/dL). According to the data among each trimester, it was shown that there were significant increase in serum midkine level during all pregnancy trimesters (1st trimester Control Group: 0.714 ± 0.148, COVID-19 group 1.623 ± 0.824, p < 0.0001; 2nd trimester Control Group: 0.731 ± 0.261, COVID-19 group 2.059 ± 1.146, p < 0.0001; 3rd trimester Control Group: 1.0 ± 0.35, COVID-19 group 1.723 ± 0.907, p = 0.001). Serum midkine levels were significantly different between disease severity subgroups of pregnant women with COVID19; moderate and severe/critic groups had significantly higher serum midkine level than mild group. There was also significant correlation between serum midkine level and severity status (p:0.0001, r: 0.468). The most striking results of serum midkine levels were corelation between length of hospitalization (p: 0.01, r: 0.430) and O2 saturation (p < 0.0001, r: -0.521). ROC curve analysis showed that serum midkine level might be a tool for predicting COVID-19 in pregnant women with COVID-19 (AUC: 0.912, 95% CI: [0.871, 0.952], p < 0.0001) CONCLUSION: Our data showed that there is an obvious relation between COVID19 progression and serum midkine level for the first time which might be used for monitoring the disease process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Midkine/blood , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimesters , ROC Curve , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
6.
Women Health ; 61(9): 872-879, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434248

ABSTRACT

Anakinra, which is an Interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist with the advancing disease process, has started to be considered as an alternative treatment for Covid-19 patients with cytokine storms. We evaluated the effect of corticosteroids and IL-1 receptor blockage with anakinra on pregnant patients with Covid-19 at high risk for respiratory distress, ongoing fever, deterioration in their general condition and consequently maternal and fetal complications. Fourteen pregnant women who received anakinra (median dosage: 400 mg) and corticosteroid (methylprednisolone-median dosage: 80 mg) treatment were evaluated retrospectively. Patients were assessed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) scale. The mortality rate of the cohort was 7.1%, the median hospitalization period of the patients was 15 days and 2 patients had premature births. Covid-19 was found to have a similar spectrum of symptoms in pregnant and non-pregnant women, such as dyspnea, cough and fever. Our study was the first to analyze the combined treatment of corticosteroid and anakinra in pregnant patients with pneumonia from Covid-19 based on the WHO scoring system. Due to the obscurity in the treatment process in pregnant patients, studies are ongoing on managing Covid-19 infection in these patients. We presume that the early use of anakinra and corticosteroid treatments in patients severely infected with Covid-19 may have positive effects on disease progression and survival.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 213: 105964, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433601

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the vitamin D status of pregnant women with COVID-19, and the association between vitamin D level and severity of COVID-19. METHODS: In this case control study, 159 women with a single pregnancy and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and randomly selected 332 healthy pregnant women with similar gestational ages were included. COVID-19 patients were classified as mild, moderate, and severe. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol <20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L), and 25-OH D vitamin <10 ng/mL was defined as severe vitamin D deficiency, also 25-OH D vitamin level between 20-29 ng/mL (525-725 nmol/L) was defined as vitamin D insufficiency. RESULTS: Vitamin D levels of the pregnant women in the COVID-19 group (12.46) were lower than the control group (18.76). 25-OH D vitamin levels of those in the mild COVID-19 category (13.69) were significantly higher than those in the moderate/severe category (9.06). In terms of taking vitamin D supplementation, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. However, it was observed that all of those who had severe COVID-19 were the patients who did not take vitamin D supplementation. CONCLUSION: The vitamin D levels are low in pregnant women with COVID-19. Also, there is a significant difference regarding to vitamin D level and COVID-19 severity in pregnant women. Maintenance of adequate vitamin D level can be useful as an approach for the prevention of an aggressive course of the inflammation induced by this novel coronavirus in pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diet therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diet therapy , Dietary Supplements , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diet therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/diet therapy , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Calcifediol/blood , Case-Control Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/pathology , Vitamin D Deficiency/virology
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5864-5872, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432419

ABSTRACT

The aim was to investigate the association of the delivery mode and vertical transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) through the samples of vaginal secretions, placenta, cord blood, or amniotic fluid as well as the neonatal outcomes. This cross-sectional study presents an analysis of prospectively gathered data collected at a single tertiary hospital. Sixty-three pregnant women with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) participated in the study. Vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was analyzed with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests and blood tests for immunoglobulin G (IgG)-immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. All patients were in the mild or moderate category for COVID-19. Only one placental sample and two of the vaginal secretion samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Except for one, all positive samples were obtained from patients who gave birth by cesarean. All cord blood and amniotic fluid samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2. Two newborns were screened positive for COVID-19 IgG-IgM within 24 h after delivery, but the RT-PCR tests were negative. A positive RT-PCR result was detected in a neof a mother whose placenta, cord blood, amniotic fluid, and vaginal secretions samples were negative. He died due to pulmonary hemorrhage on the 11th day of life. In conclusion, we demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 can be detectable in the placenta or vaginal secretions of pregnant women. Detection of the virus in the placenta or vaginal secretions may not be associated with neonatal infection. Vaginal delivery may not increase the incidence of neonatal infection, and cesarean may not prevent vertical transmission. The decision regarding the mode of delivery should be based on obstetric indications and COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cesarean Section , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/diagnosis , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Male , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tertiary Care Centers , Vagina/virology , Young Adult
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5438-5445, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363683

ABSTRACT

Adequate maternal selenium level is essential for immune response and healthy pregnancy. This study aimed to shed light on the selenium status of pregnant women with COVID-19 and the effects of potential deficiency in serum selenium levels. Totally 141 pregnant women, 71 of them were COVID-19 patients, in different trimesters were included in the study. Maternal serum selenium levels, demographic and clinical parameters were determined. Serum selenium levels of pregnant women in the second (p: .0003) and third (p: .001) trimesters with COVID-19 were significantly lower than in the healthy group. Maternal selenium level was found to be negatively correlated with gestational week (p < .0001, r: -.541), D-dimer (p: .0002, r: -.363) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) level (p: .02, r: -.243). In the second trimester, serum selenium level positively correlated with white blood cell (p: .002, r: .424), neutrophil (p: .006, r: .39), lymphocyte (p: .004, r: .410) count and hemoglobin (p: .02, r: .323), hematocrit (p: .008, r: .38) status. In the third trimester, it was found that maternal selenium level positively correlated with monocyte (p: .04, r: .353) and negatively correlated with C-reactive protein level (p: .03, r: -.384). Serum selenium level was gradually decreased during the pregnancy period, however, this natural decrease was enhanced together with COVID-19 infection. The reason might be increased selenium needs depended on the immune response against infection. The decrease in maternal selenium level was found to be related to IL-6 and D-dimer levels, which indicate selenium's role in disease progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Pregnancy Trimesters/blood , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Selenium/blood , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hematocrit , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/virology , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/virology , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimesters/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
10.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5864-5872, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252014

ABSTRACT

The aim was to investigate the association of the delivery mode and vertical transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) through the samples of vaginal secretions, placenta, cord blood, or amniotic fluid as well as the neonatal outcomes. This cross-sectional study presents an analysis of prospectively gathered data collected at a single tertiary hospital. Sixty-three pregnant women with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) participated in the study. Vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was analyzed with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests and blood tests for immunoglobulin G (IgG)-immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. All patients were in the mild or moderate category for COVID-19. Only one placental sample and two of the vaginal secretion samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Except for one, all positive samples were obtained from patients who gave birth by cesarean. All cord blood and amniotic fluid samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2. Two newborns were screened positive for COVID-19 IgG-IgM within 24 h after delivery, but the RT-PCR tests were negative. A positive RT-PCR result was detected in a neof a mother whose placenta, cord blood, amniotic fluid, and vaginal secretions samples were negative. He died due to pulmonary hemorrhage on the 11th day of life. In conclusion, we demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 can be detectable in the placenta or vaginal secretions of pregnant women. Detection of the virus in the placenta or vaginal secretions may not be associated with neonatal infection. Vaginal delivery may not increase the incidence of neonatal infection, and cesarean may not prevent vertical transmission. The decision regarding the mode of delivery should be based on obstetric indications and COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cesarean Section , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/diagnosis , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Male , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tertiary Care Centers , Vagina/virology , Young Adult
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5438-5445, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230212

ABSTRACT

Adequate maternal selenium level is essential for immune response and healthy pregnancy. This study aimed to shed light on the selenium status of pregnant women with COVID-19 and the effects of potential deficiency in serum selenium levels. Totally 141 pregnant women, 71 of them were COVID-19 patients, in different trimesters were included in the study. Maternal serum selenium levels, demographic and clinical parameters were determined. Serum selenium levels of pregnant women in the second (p: .0003) and third (p: .001) trimesters with COVID-19 were significantly lower than in the healthy group. Maternal selenium level was found to be negatively correlated with gestational week (p < .0001, r: -.541), D-dimer (p: .0002, r: -.363) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) level (p: .02, r: -.243). In the second trimester, serum selenium level positively correlated with white blood cell (p: .002, r: .424), neutrophil (p: .006, r: .39), lymphocyte (p: .004, r: .410) count and hemoglobin (p: .02, r: .323), hematocrit (p: .008, r: .38) status. In the third trimester, it was found that maternal selenium level positively correlated with monocyte (p: .04, r: .353) and negatively correlated with C-reactive protein level (p: .03, r: -.384). Serum selenium level was gradually decreased during the pregnancy period, however, this natural decrease was enhanced together with COVID-19 infection. The reason might be increased selenium needs depended on the immune response against infection. The decrease in maternal selenium level was found to be related to IL-6 and D-dimer levels, which indicate selenium's role in disease progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Pregnancy Trimesters/blood , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Selenium/blood , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hematocrit , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/virology , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/virology , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimesters/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 154(2): 291-296, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191925

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine vaccine acceptance and hesitancy attitudes toward coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in pregnant women. METHODS: Three hundred pregnant women were surveyed face to face with 40 questions. Sociodemographic characteristics, vaccination history, perception of risk for the COVID-19 pandemic, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, and acceptance of and attitude toward future COVID-19 vaccination were prospectively evaluated. RESULTS: Among all participants, 111 (37%) stated their intent to receive the vaccine if it were recommended for pregnant women. Most common refusal reasons were lack of data about COVID-19 vaccine safety in pregnant populations and possibility of harm to the fetus. There was a weak positive correlation between COVID-19 vaccine acceptancy and number of school-age children. Pregnant women in the first trimester expressed higher acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination than those in the second and third trimesters. CONCLUSION: The present study reported low acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination in a sample of pregnant women. Concern about vaccine safety was the major reason for hesitancy. Identifying attitudes among priority groups will be useful for creating vaccination strategies that increase uptake during the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
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