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BMJ Open ; 12(2): e055137, 2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714413


OBJECTIVES: To examine the temporal patterns of patient characteristics, treatments used and outcomes associated with COVID-19 in patients who were hospitalised for the disease between January and 15 November 2020. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: COVID-19 subset of the Optum deidentified electronic health records, including more than 1.8 million patients from across the USA. PARTICIPANTS: There were 51 510 hospitalised patients who met the COVID-19 definition, with 37 617 in the laboratory positive cohort and 13 893 in the clinical cohort. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Incident acute clinical outcomes, including in-hospital all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Respectively, 48% and 49% of the laboratory positive and clinical cohorts were women. The 50- 65 age group was the median age group for both cohorts. The use of antivirals and dexamethasone increased over time, fivefold and twofold, respectively, while the use of hydroxychloroquine declined by 98%. Among adult patients in the laboratory positive cohort, absolute age/sex standardised incidence proportion for in-hospital death changed by -0.036 per month (95% CI -0.042 to -0.031) from March to June 2020, but remained fairly flat from June to November, 2020 (0.001 (95% CI -0.001 to 0.003), 17.5% (660 deaths /3986 persons) in March and 10.2% (580/5137) in October); in the clinical cohort, the corresponding changes were -0.024 (95% CI -0.032 to -0.015) and 0.011 (95% CI 0.007 0.014), respectively (14.8% (175/1252) in March, 15.3% (189/1203) in October). Declines in the cumulative incidence of most acute clinical outcomes were observed in the laboratory positive cohort, but not for the clinical cohort. CONCLUSION: The incidence of adverse clinical outcomes remains high among COVID-19 patients with clinical diagnosis only. Patients with COVID-19 entering the hospital are at elevated risk of adverse outcomes.

COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261707, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623660


The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to describe pre-treatment characteristics, treatment patterns, health resource use, and clinical outcomes among adults hospitalized with COVID-19 in the United States (US) who initiated common treatments for COVID-19. The Optum® COVID-19 electronic health records database was used to identify patients >18 years, diagnosed with COVID-19, who were admitted to an inpatient setting and received treatments of interest for COVID-19 between September 2020 and January 2021. Patients were stratified into cohorts based on index treatment use. Patient demographics, medical history, care setting, medical procedures, subsequent treatment use, patient disposition, clinical improvement, and outcomes were summarized descriptively. Among a total of 26,192 patients identified, the most prevalent treatments initiated were dexamethasone (35.4%) and dexamethasone + remdesivir (14.9%), and dexamethasone was the most common subsequent treatment. At day 14 post-index, <10% of patients received any treatments of interest. Mean (standard deviation [SD]) patient age was 65.6 (15.6) years, and the most prevalent comorbidities included hypertension (44.8%), obesity (35.4%), and diabetes (25.7%). At the end of follow-up, patients had a mean (SD) 8.1 (6.6) inpatient days and 1.4 (4.1) days with ICU care. Oxygen supplementation, non-invasive, or invasive ventilation was required by 4.5%, 3.0%, and 3.1% of patients, respectively. At the end of follow-up, 84.2% of patients had evidence of clinical improvement, 3.1% remained hospitalized, 83.8% were discharged, 4% died in hospital, and 9.1% died after discharge. Although the majority of patients were discharged alive, no treatments appeared to alleviate the inpatient morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19. This highlights an unmet need for effective treatment options for patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e051588, 2021 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346067


OBJECTIVE: To examine age, gender, and temporal differences in baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes of adult patients hospitalised with COVID-19. DESIGN: A cohort study using deidentified electronic medical records from a Global Research Network. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: 67 456 adult patients hospitalised with COVID-19 from the USA; 7306 from Europe, Latin America and Asia-Pacific between February 2020 and January 2021. RESULTS: In the US cohort, compared with patients 18-34 years old, patients ≥65 had a greater risk of intensive care unit (ICU) admission (adjusted HR (aHR) 1.73, 95% CI 1.58 to 1.90), acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS)/respiratory failure (aHR 1.86, 95% CI 1.76 to 1.96), invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV, aHR 1.93, 95% CI, 1.73 to 2.15), and all-cause mortality (aHR 5.6, 95% CI 4.36 to 7.18). Men appeared to be at a greater risk for ICU admission (aHR 1.34, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.39), ARDS/respiratory failure (aHR 1.24, 95% CI1.21 to 1.27), IMV (aHR 1.38, 95% CI 1.32 to 1.45), and all-cause mortality (aHR 1.16, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.24) compared with women. Moreover, we observed a greater risk of adverse outcomes during the early pandemic (ie, February-April 2020) compared with later periods. In the ex-US cohort, the age and gender trends were similar; for the temporal trend, the highest proportion of patients with all-cause mortality were also in February-April 2020; however, the highest percentages of patients with IMV and ARDS/respiratory failure were in August-October 2020 followed by February-April 2020. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided valuable information on the temporal trends of characteristics and outcomes of hospitalised adult COVID-19 patients in both USA and ex-USA. It also described the population at a potentially greater risk for worse clinical outcomes by identifying the age and gender differences. Together, the information could inform the prevention and treatment strategies of COVID-19. Furthermore, it can be used to raise public awareness of COVID-19's impact on vulnerable populations.

COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Global Health , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult