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Journal of VitreoRetinal Diseases ; : 24741264211039960, 2021.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1410204


Purpose:This work evaluates demographic and socioeconomic predictors of delayed care for rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RRDs) during the spring 2020 COVID-19 shutdown in a US hot spot.Methods:This multicenter, retrospective, case-control study took place in 3 academic vitreoretinal practices in metropolitan Boston. Consecutive patients treated for RRD during the COVID-19 state of emergency were compared with patients treated during the same period in 2018 and 2019. The primary outcome was macula status for RRD. Secondary outcomes included visual acuity, symptom duration, proportion with proliferative vitreoretinopathy, time to procedure, method of repair, and patient demographics.Results:The total number of acute RRD decreased by 13.7% from 2018 to 2020 and 17.2% from 2019 to 2020. Symptom duration was significantly longer in 2020 than 2018 and 2019 (median, 7 vs 4 days) with a higher proportion of macula-off detachments (80 of 125 [64%] in 2020 vs 75 of 145 [51.7%] in 2018 and 78 of 151 [51.6%] in 2019). The 2020 cohort included significantly fewer patients in the racial and/or ethnic minority group than in 2019 (P = .02), and use of low-income, government-sponsored health insurance was a predictor of macula-off status during the pandemic (P = .04).Conclusions:RRDs during the spring 2020 COVID-19 lockdown were more likely to be macula-off at presentation. Because sociodemographic factors including race, ethnicity, and income level were associated with deferral of care, ophthalmologists should consider measures targeting vulnerable populations to avoid preventable vision loss as the pandemic continues or in future health care emergencies.

JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(4): 456-463, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116915


Importance: The American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) indicated that urgent or emergent vitreoretinal surgical procedures should continue during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Although decreases in the frequency of critical procedures have been reported outside the field of ophthalmology, analyses are limited by volume, geography, and time. Objective: To evaluate whether the frequency of ophthalmic surgical procedures deemed urgent or emergent by the AAO changed across the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: Vitreoretinal practices from 17 institutions throughout the US participated in this multicenter cross-sectional study. The frequency of 11 billed vitreoretinal Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes across respective weeks was obtained from each practice between January 1, 2019, and May 31, 2020. Data were clustered into intravitreal injections (code 67028), lasers and cryotherapy (codes 67141, 67145, and 67228), retinal detachment (RD) repairs (codes 67107, 67108, 67110, and 67113), and other vitrectomies (codes 67036, 67039, and 67040). Institutions were categorized by region (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West Coast), practice setting (academic [tax-exempt] or private [non-tax-exempt]), and date of respective statewide stay-at-home orders. Main Outcomes and Measures: Nationwide changes in the frequency of billing for urgent or emergent vitreoretinal surgical procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: A total of 526 536 CPT codes were ascertained: 483 313 injections, 19 257 lasers or cryotherapy, 14 949 RD repairs, and 9017 other vitrectomies. Relative to 2019, a weekly institutional decrease in injections was observed from March 30 to May 2, 2020, with a maximal 38.6% decrease (from a mean [SD] of 437.8 [436.3] to 273.8 [269.0] injections) from April 6 to 12, 2020 (95% CI, -259 to -69 injections; P = .002). A weekly decrease was also identified that spanned a longer interval, at least until study conclusion (March 16 to May 31, 2020), for lasers and cryotherapy, with a maximal 79.6% decrease (from a mean [SD] of 6.6 [7.7] to 1.5 [2.0] procedures) from April 6 to 12, 2020 (95% CI, -6.8 to -3.3 procedures; P < .001), for RD repairs, with a maximal 59.4% decrease (from a mean [SD] of 3.5 [4.0] to 1.6 [2.2] repairs) from April 13 to 19, 2020 (95% CI, -2.7 to -1.4 repairs; P < .001), and for other vitrectomies, with a maximal 84.3% decrease (from a mean [SD] of 3.0 [3.1] to 0.4 [0.8] other vitrectomies) from April 6 to 12, 2020 (95% CI, -3.3 to -1.8 other vitrectomies; P < .001). No differences were identified by region, setting, or state-level stay-at-home order adjustment. Conclusions and Relevance: Although the AAO endorsed the continued performance of urgent or emergent vitreoretinal surgical procedures, the frequency of such procedures throughout the country experienced a substantial decrease that may persist after the COVID-19 pandemic's initial exponential growth phase. This decrease appears independent of region, setting, and state-level stay-at-home orders. It is unknown to what extent vitreoretinal intervention would have decreased without AAO recommendations, and how the decrease is associated with outcomes. Although safety is paramount during the COVID-19 pandemic, practices should consider prioritizing availability for managing high-acuity conditions until underlying reasons for the reduction are fully appreciated.

COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitreoretinal Surgery/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Medical Services , Humans , Vitrectomy/statistics & numerical data