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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311951

ABSTRACT

After the epidemic of COVID-19, neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 has been developed for the preventative and therapeutic purposes. However, few methodologies are reported in detail on how to rapidly and efficiently generate NAbs of interest. Here, we present a strategically optimized screening method for NAbs, which has enabled us to obtain SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) specific monoclonal Abs within 4 days, followed by additional 2 days to evaluate their neutralizing activities. Using this method, we obtained 198 specific Abs against SARS-CoV-2 RBD from the blood samples of COVID-19 convalescent patients, and 96 of them showed neutralizing activity. At least 20% of these NAbs exhibited high neutralizing potency. The top 2 NAbs showed the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) to block authentic SARS-CoV-2 at 9.88 and 11.13 ng/ml, respectively. Altogether, our study provides a fundamental methodology for discovering NAbs with potential preventative and therapeutic value for emerging infectious diseases.

2.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 845-848, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641979

ABSTRACT

We report acute antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in 285 patients with COVID-19. Within 19 days after symptom onset, 100% of patients tested positive for antiviral immunoglobulin-G (IgG). Seroconversion for IgG and IgM occurred simultaneously or sequentially. Both IgG and IgM titers plateaued within 6 days after seroconversion. Serological testing may be helpful for the diagnosis of suspected patients with negative RT-PCR results and for the identification of asymptomatic infections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Antibody Formation/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Atmospheric Environment ; : 118809, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1482460

ABSTRACT

The weekday-weekend effect of anthropogenic emissions in cities, driven by the associated weekly changes in human activities, provides a unique opportunity to assess the sensitivity of observation networks (e.g., ground-based and space-borne instruments) on urban emissions. In this study, we focus on the weekly cycle amplitudes of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Los Angeles (LA) megacity, where a significant weekly cycle of human activities exists. In addition, abundant observations are being produced continuously from existing ground-based, mountaintop, and satellite platforms to monitor carbon emissions and air quality in LA. From our analysis, significant agreement can be found in observations from different platforms. For NO2, a 30%–35% Sunday decline relative to mid-week mixing ratios can be observed from both ground-based and satellite observations. For CO, the Sunday drops from ground-based, mountain-top and satellite observations are 13%–20%. The TROPOMI instrument with its high spatial resolution provides detailed spatial information on the reduction of tropospheric NO2 and CO columns on Sundays. The spatial pattern is in good agreement with traffic density in LA. Impact due to the prevailing winds from the coast in the afternoon can also be observed. For anthropogenic CO2, we show that the weekly cycle of XCO2 enhancement above background from OCO-2 observations has a Sunday decline (15%–20%) consistent with ground-based observations and TCCON. This weekly pattern of CO2 in a megacity directly detected by OCO-2 is reported for the first time. In addition, we also investigate the weekly cycles in the stable carbon isotopic composition of CO2 (δ13C) from ground-based observations, which demonstrates the weekly variation in fossil fuel usage in LA. Finally, using the COVID-19 lockdown period as an example of a short-term perturbation on anthropogenic emissions, we found that the weekly cycle amplitude became larger during the lockdown period primarily because of the traffic volume changes in light-duty vehicles. This study highlights the consistencies and effectiveness of existing observing platforms in monitoring the anthropogenic emissions of the LA megacity.

4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 653189, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172966

ABSTRACT

After the pandemic of COVID-19, neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 have been developed for the prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. However, few methodologies are described in detail on how to rapidly and efficiently generate effective NAbs to SARS-CoV-2. Here, we integrated and optimized a strategically screening method for NAbs, which has enabled us to obtain SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) specific NAbs within 6 days, followed by additional 9 days for antibody production and function analysis. Using this method, we obtained 198 specific Abs against SARS-CoV-2 RBD from the blood samples of COVID-19 convalescent patients, and 96 of them showed neutralizing activity. At least 20% of these NAbs exhibited advanced neutralizing potency and high affinity, with the top two NAbs showing half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) to block authentic SARS-CoV-2 at 9.88 and 11.13 ng/ml, respectively. Altogether, our study provides an effective methodology with high applicable value for discovering potential preventative and therapeutic NAbs for the emerging infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
5.
Journal of Clinical Investigation ; 130(12):6588-6599, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1021206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND. Marked progress is achieved in understanding the physiopathology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which caused a global pandemic. However, the CD4· T cell population critical for antibody response in COVID-19 is poorly understood. METHODS. In this study, we provided a comprehensive analysis of peripheral CD4· T cells from 13 COVID-19 convalescent patients, defined as confirmed free of SARS-CoV-2 for 2 to 4 weeks, using flow cytometry and magnetic chemiluminescence enzyme antibody immunoassay. The data were correlated with clinical characteristics. RESULTS. We observed that, relative to healthy individuals, convalescent patients displayed an altered peripheral CD4· T cell spectrum. Specifically, consistent with other viral infections, cTfh1 cells associated with SARS-CoV-2-targeting antibodies were found in COVID-19 covalescent patients. Individuals with severe disease showed higher frequencies of Tem and Tfh-em cells but lower frequencies of Tcm, Tfh-cm, Tfr, and Tnaive cells, compared with healthy individuals and patients with mild and moderate disease. Interestingly, a higher frequency of cTfh-em cells correlated with a lower blood oxygen level, recorded at the time of admission, in convalescent patients. These observations might constitute residual effects by which COVID-19 can impact the homeostasis of CD4· T cells in the long-term and explain the highest ratio of class-switched virus-specific antibody producing individuals found in our severe COVID-19 cohort. CONCLUSION. Our study demonstrated a close connection between CD4· T cells and antibody production in COVID-19 convalescent patients. FUNDING. Six Talent Peaks Project in Jiangsu Province and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC).

6.
J Clin Invest ; 130(12): 6588-6599, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013100

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDMarked progress is achieved in understanding the physiopathology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which caused a global pandemic. However, the CD4+ T cell population critical for antibody response in COVID-19 is poorly understood.METHODSIn this study, we provided a comprehensive analysis of peripheral CD4+ T cells from 13 COVID-19 convalescent patients, defined as confirmed free of SARS-CoV-2 for 2 to 4 weeks, using flow cytometry and magnetic chemiluminescence enzyme antibody immunoassay. The data were correlated with clinical characteristics.RESULTSWe observed that, relative to healthy individuals, convalescent patients displayed an altered peripheral CD4+ T cell spectrum. Specifically, consistent with other viral infections, cTfh1 cells associated with SARS-CoV-2-targeting antibodies were found in COVID-19 covalescent patients. Individuals with severe disease showed higher frequencies of Tem and Tfh-em cells but lower frequencies of Tcm, Tfh-cm, Tfr, and Tnaive cells, compared with healthy individuals and patients with mild and moderate disease. Interestingly, a higher frequency of cTfh-em cells correlated with a lower blood oxygen level, recorded at the time of admission, in convalescent patients. These observations might constitute residual effects by which COVID-19 can impact the homeostasis of CD4+ T cells in the long-term and explain the highest ratio of class-switched virus-specific antibody producing individuals found in our severe COVID-19 cohort.CONCLUSIONOur study demonstrated a close connection between CD4+ T cells and antibody production in COVID-19 convalescent patients.FUNDINGSix Talent Peaks Project in Jiangsu Province and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism
7.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 668, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690347

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To survey the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and its influencing factors among patients with COVID-19 in their first medical follow up. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were discharged from 12 hospitals in Wenzhou, Zhejiang from Jan 17, 2020 to Mar 20, 2020. Prospectively collected and analyzed data included demographics, clinical symptoms, comorbidity, and chest CT imaging features at the first follow up, 1 month after discharge. All patients underwent the HRQoL evaluation with the Chinese version of Short-Form 36-item questionnaire (SF-36) as well as a general condition questionnaire. Factors associated with SF-36 were constructed using linear regression. Predictors of impaired physical component summary (PCS) and a mental component summary (MCS) were identified by logistic regression. RESULTS: SF-36 demonstrated a significant difference in HRQoL in patients with COVID-19, except in physical function (PF), when compared to the general Chinese population (p<0.05). The multiple linear regressions demonstrated that age was negatively associated with PF, role physical (RP), but positively associated with vitality (VT) (p<0.05). PF, bodily pain (BP), and role-emotional (RE) were negatively associated with the female sex (p<0.05). For mental health, the clinical subtypes were significant associated factors (p < 0.05). Length of stay (LOS) was strongly negatively associated with RE and RP, and positively associated with VT (p< 0.05). Logistical regression revealed that non-obese overweight (OR 3.71) and obesity (OR 3.94) were risk factors for a low PCS and female sex (OR 2.22) was a risk factor for a low MCS. CONCLUSIONS: Health-related quality of life was poor among COVID-19 patients at the 1 month follow-up. Patients suffered from significant physical and psychological impairment. Therefore, prospective monitoring of individuals exposed to SARS-CoV-2 is needed in order to fully understand the long-term impact of COVID-19, as well as to inform prompt and efficient interventions to alleviate suffering.

8.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(10): 623, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-609905

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To clarify the characteristic and the duration of positive nucleic acid in children infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), including asymptomatic children. METHODS: A total of 32 children confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infection between January 24 and February 12, 2020 from four provinces in western China were enrolled in this study and followed up until discharge and quarantine 14 days later. RESULTS: Eleven children (34%) were asymptomatic, among whom six children had normal computed tomographic (CT) scan images. Age and gender were not associated with clinical symptoms or the results of CT scan in children infected with SARS-CoV-2. The concentrations of white blood cells and neutrophils were higher in children with asymptomatic infection than in children with clinical symptoms or CT abnormalities. Patients who presented with CT abnormalities had lower D-dimer or lower total bilirubin than those who had normal CT scan but clinical symptoms. All children recovered and no one died or was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). The mean duration of positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid was 15.4 (SD =7.2) days and similar for both asymptomatic children and children with symptoms or CT abnormalities. We found a significant negative correlation between the lymphocyte count and the duration of positive nucleic acid test. CONCLUSIONS: Children with asymptomatic infection should be quarantined for the same duration as symptomatic patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. The clinical significance and mechanism behind the negative correlation between the number of lymphocytes and the duration of positive SARS-CoV-2 needs further study.

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