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1.
Journal of Bio-X Research ; 6(1):23-36, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20237621

ABSTRACT

Objective: Although the neurological and olfactory symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 have been identified, the neurotropic properties of the causative virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), remain unknown. We sought to identify the susceptible cell types and potential routes of SARS-CoV-2 entry into the central nervous system, olfactory system, and respiratory system. Method(s): We collected single-cell RNA data from normal brain and nasal epithelium specimens, along with bronchial, tracheal, and lung specimens in public datasets. The susceptible cell types that express SARS-CoV-2 entry genes were identified using single-cell RNA sequencing and the expression of the key genes at protein levels was verified by immunohistochemistry. We compared the coexpression patterns of the entry receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the spike protein priming enzyme transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS)/cathepsin L among the specimens. Result(s): The SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2 and the spike protein priming enzyme TMPRSS/cathepsin L were coexpressed by pericytes in brain tissue;this coexpression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In the nasal epithelium, ciliated cells and sustentacular cells exhibited strong coexpression of ACE2 and TMPRSS. Neurons and glia in the brain and nasal epithelium did not exhibit coexpression of ACE2 and TMPRSS. However, coexpression was present in ciliated cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts in tracheal tissue;ciliated cells and goblet cells in bronchial tissue;and alveolar epithelium type 1 cells, AT2 cells, and ciliated cells in lung tissue. Conclusion(s): Neurological symptoms in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 could be associated with SARS-CoV-2 invasion across the blood-brain barrier via pericytes. Additionally, SARS-CoV-2-induced olfactory disorders could be the result of localized cell damage in the nasal epithelium.Copyright © Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

2.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 57(5): 728-731, 2023 May 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325811

ABSTRACT

An epidemiological investigation was conducted on a cluster epidemic of COVID-19 in the vaccinated population in Beijing in 2022, and serum samples were collected from 21 infected cases and 61 close contacts (including 20 cases with positive nucleic acid in the isolation observation period). The results of antibody detection showed that the IgM antibody of two infected persons was positive, and the IgG antibody positive rates of patients who were converted, not converted to positive and infected persons were 36.84% (7/19), 63.41% (26/41) and 71.43% (15/21), respectively. About 98.78% of patients had been vaccinated with the SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine. The positive rate of IgG antibody in patients immunized with three doses of vaccine was 86.00% (43/50), which was higher than that in patients with one or two doses [16.12% (5/31)]. The antibody level of M (Q1, Q3) in patients immunized with three doses was 4.255 (2.303, 7.0375), which was higher than that in patients with one or two doses [0.500 (0.500, 0.500)] (all P values<0.001). The antibody level of patients who were vaccinated less than three months [7.335 (1.909, 7.858)] was higher than that of patients vaccinated more than three months after the last vaccination [2.125 (0.500, 4.418)] (P=0.007). The positive rate and level of IgG antibody in patients who were converted to positive after three doses were 77.78% (7/9) and 4.207 (2.216, 7.099), respectively, which were higher than those in patients who were converted after one or two doses [0 and 0.500 (0.500, 0.500)] (all P values<0.05).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Disease Outbreaks , COVID-19 Vaccines , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral
3.
Sustainability ; 15(5), 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2308678

ABSTRACT

Tourism is linked to multiple dimensions, such as the economy, society, and environment, and the relationships among its influencing factors are complex, diverse, and overlapping. This study constructed an evaluation index system to measure the degree of coordinated development of tourism, transportation, and the regional economy, then built a tourism-transportation-based Spatial Durbin Model (SDM) regarding the process of the coordinated development of tourism in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (BTHR) from 2010 to 2020. This paper explains the current status of sustainable tourism development in the BTHR and the impact and spillover effects of transportation on tourism development. The results show that the normalized tourism coordinated development index (NTCDI) of the BTHR increased from 13.61 in 2010 to 18.75 in 2019, then decreased to 14.45 in 2020. The results of SDM show that different transportation modes have different spillover effects on tourism. Specifically, civil aviation transportation has a positive impact and significant spillover on a city's tourism revenue (TR), while high-speed railway transportation has a negative spillover effect. The model results also show that the degree of openness of the city and city economic development level have significant positive effects and spillover effects on tourism development. Finally, the implications of related variables are discussed, and some suggestions are put forward on tourism development in the BTHR. However, there are some limitations in this study. In the future, international cooperation and data sharing will be strengthened, and multivariate methods such as social network analysis, artificial intelligence, and machine learning will be further integrated to achieve accurate simulation and prediction of the spatial spillover effects of tourism transportation.

4.
ChemPhysMater ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2296712

ABSTRACT

Pickering emulsions were prepared by phacoemulsification in an ice water bath with squalene as the oil phase and an aluminum adjuvant as the particle stabilizer. The effects of formulation and process conditions on the size and distribution of the Pickering emulsions were investigated. Pickering emulsions prepared under the optimal prescription and process conditions were mixed with a peptide antigen to obtain a peptide vaccine. The optimal prescription and process condition of the Pickering emulsion is as follows: squalene as the oil phase, ultra-pure water as the water phase with 5 mg/ml aluminum adjuvant, and an ultrasonication time of 4 min at 200 W power. BALB/c mice were immunized with the peptide vaccine, and the ability of the Pickering emulsion as an immunological adjuvant to improve the efficacy of the peptide vaccine was evaluated. Under optimal conditions, a Pickering emulsion with a small particle size (430.8 nm), uniform distribution (polydispersion index of 16.9%), and zeta potential of 31.5 mV, was obtained. Immunological results showed that the serum specific antibody level in the vaccinated group reached 1×104 after three immunizations. The proportion of CD4+T cells and CD4/CD8 cells was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the vaccinated groups than the blank control group. Further, cytokine (TNF-α) secretion decreased in the aluminum adjuvant and Pickering emulsion groups but increased in the Freund's adjuvant group. All three vaccinated groups of mice exhibited low but detectable levels of IFN-γ secretion. © 2023

5.
Cancer Research Conference ; 83(5 Supplement), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2271949

ABSTRACT

Background: Datopotamab deruxtecan (Dato-DXd) is an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) consisting of a humanized anti-TROP2 IgG1 monoclonal antibody covalently linked to a highly potent topoisomerase I (Topo I) inhibitor payload via a stable, tumor-selective, tetrapeptide-based cleavable linker. Dato-DXd demonstrated compelling single-agent antitumor activity in heavily pretreated patients (pts) with metastatic triple-negative BC (Krop, SABCS 2021). This is the first report of results from the TROPION-PanTumor01 study in pts with unresectable or metastatic hormone receptor- positive (HR+)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-;including HER2-low and HER2-zero) BC. Method(s): TROPION-PanTumor01 (NCT03401385) is a phase 1, multicenter, open-label, 2-part doseescalation/expansion study evaluating Dato-DXd in previously treated pts with solid tumors. Based on previous clinical findings and exposure-response results from pts with NSCLC, Dato-DXd 6 mg/kg IV Q3W is being evaluated in pts with unresectable or metastatic HR+/HER2- BC that progressed on standard therapies. The primary objectives were safety and tolerability. Tumor responses, including ORR (complete response [CR] + partial response [PR]) and DCR (CR + PR + stable disease [SD]), were assessed per RECIST version 1.1 by blinded independent central review. Result(s): As of the April 29, 2022, data cutoff, 41 pts had received Dato-DXd (median follow-up, 10.9 mo [range, 7-13]);9 pts were ongoing. The primary cause of treatment discontinuation was disease progression (63% progressive disease [PD] or clinical progression). Median age was 57 y (range, 33- 75);54% had de novo metastatic disease. Pts were heavily pretreated (Table) with a median of 5 (range, 3-10) prior regimens in the advanced setting;95% had prior CDK4/6i (adjuvant/metastatic). Median time from initial treatment for metastatic disease to the first dose of Dato-DXd was 42.7 mo (range, 10.2-131.1). Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs;all cause) were observed in 98% (any grade) and 41% (grade >=3) of pts. Most common TEAEs (any grade, grade >=3) were stomatitis (80%, 10%), nausea (56%, 0%), fatigue (46%, 2%), and alopecia (37%, 0%). Serious TEAEs were observed in 6 pts (15%);1 pt died due to dyspnea, which was not considered to be treatment related. Dose reductions occurred in 5 pts due to stomatitis (n=3), fatigue (n=2), keratitis (n=1), and decreased appetite (n=1) (>1 AE per pt);14 pts had treatment delayed due to stomatitis (n=8), retinopathy (n=1), dysphagia (n=1), fatigue (n=1), malaise (n=1), COVID-19 (n=1), cellulitis (n=1), urinary tract infection (n=1), decreased lymphocyte count (n=1), and nasal congestion (n=1;>1 AE per pt). Three pts discontinued treatment due to keratitis (n=1) and pneumonitis (n=2);1 case of pneumonitis was adjudicated as grade 2 drug-related interstitial lung disease. The ORR was 29% (11 confirmed PRs;1 pending confirmation), the DCR was 85% (35/41), and the clinical benefit rate (CR + PR + SD >=6 mo) was 41% (17/41). Conclusion(s): Dato-DXd demonstrated a manageable safety profile and encouraging antitumor activity, with high disease control in heavily pretreated pts, the majority having received prior CDK4/6i. Based on these findings, the TROPION-Breast01 (NCT05104866) randomized phase 3 study comparing 2L+ Dato-DXd vs investigator's choice chemotherapy is currently enrolling pts with HR+/HER2- BC.

6.
Journal of Applied Polymer Science ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2237308

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, the demand for natural latex products with increased mechanical properties and aging resistance has surged. Based on the excellent adhesion and antioxidant properties of polydopamine (PDA), we employed a one-pot method to modify the surface of silica substrates using PDA containing a polyphenol structure, to prepare a reinforced silica-PDA composite latex material with antioxidant properties. As expected, the silica-PDA composite achieved both uniform dispersion and good interfacial interactions with natural rubber latex (NRL). In addition, compared with common NRL/silica films, the mechanical properties of the NRL/silica-PDA film were significantly improved;specifically, silica-PDA can highly-enhanced the mechanical property of NRL film from 24.94 to 32.18 MPa of tensile strength. Further, the antioxidant activity of the silica-PDA film exceeded that of commercially available antioxidant D. Considering the notable performance boost of silica-PDA composites on NRL films, we believe that the treatment of silica with natural polyphenols offers a convenient and facile new route for the preparation of environmentally friendly multifunctional silica additives. © 2023 Wiley Periodicals LLC.

7.
Cambridge Journal of Regions Economy and Society ; : 17, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1883006

ABSTRACT

Standing at a crossroads, where ongoing 'slowbalisation' coincides with new forces such as the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic, heightened geopolitical tensions, the emergence of disruptive technologies and the increasing urgency of addressing environmental challenges, many important questions remain unsolved regarding the nature and impact of the current economic globalisation. This special issue on 'Globalisation in Reverse? Reconfiguring the Geographies of Value Chains and Production Networks' aims at showcasing recent work that seeks to contribute to, and advance, the debates on economic globalisation and the reconfiguration of global value chains and production networks. This introductory article has three objectives: first, based on a broad literature review, we aim to identify four key forces, as well as the fundamental relatively stable capitalist logics contributing to the complex reconfiguration of global economic activities. Second, we will position the papers included in this special issue against the four main forces identified and discuss the contributions of each article to capture some emerging cross-paper patterns among them. Finally, we outline the contours of a research agenda that suggests promising avenues for further investigation of the phenomenon of value chain and production network reconfigurations in times of uncertainty.

8.
Cambridge Journal of Regions Economy and Society ; : 25, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1853006

ABSTRACT

For regions that are deeply integrated into the global economy, the question of how to remain competitive and resilient in times of uncertainty is a key concern. While strategic coupling is a useful concept for understanding local-global economic dynamics, the idea that a region can simultaneously couple into multiple production networks organised at different spatial scales and that regional actors can increase their autonomy by creatively combining different coupling scenarios has been little explored. This paper explores how regional institutional innovations can facilitate such multiple couplings. We focus on the industrial chain chief model in China's Zhejiang province, which emerged against the backdrop of the U.S.-China trade war and the COVID-19 pandemic. We argue that this institutional innovation offers a different way of thinking for regions that have long been exposed to the influence of globalisation, and that it increases the agency of local actors in global production networks.

9.
International Journal of Communication ; 16:840-863, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1710635

ABSTRACT

In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, this study derives from construal level theory and integrates self-construal, temporal framing, and narrative strategies to test the interactions between these variables. Two experiments entailing two culturally sensitive variables—self-construal (interdependent vs. independent) and temporal framing (present vs. future oriented)—were conducted with some similar patterns identified between cultures: For one, narrative persuasion can successfully increase the matching effect of interdependent self-construal and present-oriented temporal framing on eliciting higher intentions of preventative behaviors;nonnarrative messages, on the other hand, are more effective to enhance the matching effect of independent selfconstrual and future-oriented temporal framing. The study also confirms the mediating role of self-efficacy. When “collective efficacy,” a multilayered mediator was added to the hypothesized model, it was found that Chinese participants attained collective efficacy at familial and national levels, whereas American participants’ behavioral intentions were mostly mediated by collective efficacy at familial and organizational levels. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. © 2022 (He Gong, Miaohong Huang, and Xiyuan Liu). Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives (by-nc-nd). Available at http://ijoc.org.

10.
2021 International Conference on Computer Vision, Application, and Design, CVAD 2021 ; 12155, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1707917

ABSTRACT

As we all know, COVID-19 is causing more and more human infections and deaths. In order to quickly and efficiently detect COVID-19, this paper has firstly proposed a detection framework based on reinforcement learning for COVID-19 diagnosis. We use the accuracy of the validation set as the reward value, and obtain the initial model for the next epoch by searching the model corresponding to the maximum reward value in each epoch. We also have proposed a prediction framework that integrates multiple detection frameworks using parameter sharing to predict the progression of patients' disease. We experimented with our own dataset screened by professional physicians and obtained more excellent results. In external validation, we still achieved a high accuracy rate without additional training. Finally, the experimental results show that our classification accuracy can reach 96.81%, and the precision, sensitivity, specificity, and AUC (Area Under Curve) are 95.47%, 98.64%, 95.91%, and 0.9698, respectively. The accuracy of external verification can reach 93.04% and 90.85%. The accuracy of our prediction framework is 91.04%. A large number of experiments have proved that our proposed method is effective and robust for COVID-19 detection and prediction. © SPIE 2021.

11.
Journal of Diversity in Higher Education ; : 14, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1586025

ABSTRACT

Using neoracism (Lee & Rice, 2007) as a theoretical framework, this study explored international students' experiences, challenges, and perceptions of racism and racial discrimination during COVID-19 in the U.S. By conducting three virtual focus group interviews with 18 international students in total, we identified three key themes that encapsulated participants' challenges and experiences of perceived racism: perceptions of racism-explicit discrimination and fear of threats, feelings of being unwelcome and unsafe, and two faces of quarantine-navigating tensions of relief and isolation. Implications for research and practice to support international students are discussed.

12.
Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 73(1):e79-e85, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To assess the case fatality risk (CFR) of COVID-19 in mainland China, stratified by region and clinical category, and estimate key time-to-event intervals. METHODS: We collected individual information and aggregated data on COVID-19 cases from publicly available official sources from 29 December 2019 to 17 April 2020. We accounted for right-censoring to estimate the CFR and explored the risk factors for mortality. We fitted Weibull, gamma, and log-normal distributions to time-to-event data using maximum-likelihood estimation. RESULTS: We analyzed 82 719 laboratory-confirmed cases reported in mainland China, including 4632 deaths and 77 029 discharges. The estimated CFR was 5.65% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.50-5.81%) nationally, with the highest estimate in Wuhan (7.71%) and lowest in provinces outside Hubei (0.86%). The fatality risk among critical patients was 3.6 times that of all patients and 0.8-10.3-fold higher than that of mild-to-severe patients. Older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.14 per year;95% CI, 1.11-1.16) and being male (OR, 1.83;95% CI, 1.10-3.04) were risk factors for mortality. The times from symptom onset to first healthcare consultation, to laboratory confirmation, and to hospitalization were consistently longer for deceased patients than for those who recovered. CONCLUSIONS: Our CFR estimates based on laboratory-confirmed cases ascertained in mainland China suggest that COVID-19 is more severe than the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic in hospitalized patients, particularly in Wuhan. Our study provides a comprehensive picture of the severity of the first wave of the pandemic in China. Our estimates can help inform models and the global response to COVID-19.

13.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(1):121-122, 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1184210
14.
Journal of Xi'an Jiaotong University (Medical Sciences) ; 42(1):132-136, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1042268

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the negative emotions among university students during home quarantine under the epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) so as to provide scientific basis for psychological counseling. Methods: We conducted an online questionnaire survey to collect 405 undergraduates' and postgraduates' DASS-21 scale scores and responses to epidemic prevention knowledge, and analyzed the university students' negative emotions during the epidemic and influencing factors. Results: Of the 405 students surveyed, 178 individuals (44.0%) had depression, 171(42.2%) felt anxious, and 119(29.4%) felt stressed. Individuals in the DASS21+ group spent much time on entertainment on the cell phone daily than those in the DASS21- group (P< 0.001), and the degree of impact by COVID-19 on daily life was significantly higher (P< 0.001). Correlation analysis showed that entertainment time on the cell phone, the severity of COVID-19, and the impact of the epidemic were positively related to DASS-21 scores, with correlation coefficients of 0.231, 0.143 and 0.259, respectively (all P< 0.01). Binary logistic regression analysis found that mobile entertainment time for over 5 hours per day (OR=3.370, 95% CI: 1.369-8.294, P=0.008) was a risk factor for negative emotions during quarantine at home. Conclusion: During quarantine at home in the epidemic of COVID-19, nearly half of university students are prone to breed negative emotions, like depression, anxiety or stress, which may be related to long-term mobile phone entertainment.

15.
Fudan University Journal of Medical Sciences ; 47(2):179-183 and 191, 2020.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-831370

ABSTRACT

Since the occurrence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, Hubei Province of China in December 2019, the epidemic has developed rapidly and has now spread to the whole country. The pediatric hospital affiliated to Fudan University, as a designated hospital for treating children with infectious diseases in Shanghai, must be responsible for the treatment in children. The standardized hospital outpatient screening process management can improve the efficiency of diagnosis and treatment, reduce nosocomial infection, and control the spread of the epidemic. In order to deal with the epidemic situation, we carefully studied a series of laws and regulations, as well as instructions documents issued by the National Health and Health Commission, we reviewed and referenced recently published domestic and foreign literature, we also combined with the characteristics of children's specialist hospital, then formulated this screening process and management strategy of COVID-19 in outpatient and emergency departments. © 2020, Editorial Department of Fudan University Journal of Medical Sciences. All right reserved.

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