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1.
Biologia Plantarum ; 65:351-358, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1614597

ABSTRACT

Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC has been used widely as a medicinal herb for centuries and is now being used to treat COVID-19 pneumonia. Terpenoids are thought to be its main pharmacologically active constituents. However, their biosynthesis remains uncharacterized in this species. In this study, the terpene synthase gene AlTPS1 was cloned and functionally characterized. We found that AlTPS1 was a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzed the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate to nerolidol and geranyl diphosphate to linalool in vitro. However, it functioned only in the nerolidol production in vivo by transient expression of the AlTPS1 gene in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves maybe due to subcellular compartmentalization of the AlTPS1 in the cytosol. Furthermore, AlTPS1 was highly expressed in leaves, considered to be the sites of nerolidol synthesis. This study is the first in which the cloning and expression of the AlTPS1 gene from A. lancea were analyzed, and it has provided new insights into terpene biosynthesis in A. lancea.

2.
Drying Technology ; : 8, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1585542

ABSTRACT

As the vaccine was successfully developed, the spread of the epidemic (COVID-19) was effectively controlled. But there are still thousands of people affected COVID-19 after being vaccinated. Neutralizing activity has become a critical method for quantifying neutralizing antibody against SARS-CoV-2. However, limited to the strict conditions of cold chain transportation, the neutralizing activity test has not been widely promoted. In this study, a room-temperature-storable chemiluminescence freeze-drying mixes for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody detection was developed to decrease the cost of lyophilization step for promoting its application in third world countries. Several freeze concentrated solutions were used to protect the antigen bioactivity. The mixes can be stored at room temperature over 12 months and still exhibited great accuracy and precision. Thus, the proposed room-temperature-storable chemiluminescence freeze-drying mixes offers a cheap and stable storage method for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody detection and shows a great potential for promoting the neutralizing activity test.

3.
Building and Environment ; 207:9, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1536457

ABSTRACT

In the indoor environment, toilet is one of the primary sources of bioaerosol because flushing events can disturb stool materials. Bioaerosol exposure has a significant impact on human health. Therefore, this research focused on systematical investigation of Staphylococcus aureus bioaerosol emission characteristics in an indoor toilet after flushing with time. Then, annual probability of infection and disease burden with time under various ventilation scenarios were determined using a Monte Carlo simulation-based quantitative microbial risk assessment. The results showed that at the initial phase, the highest and lowest bioaerosol concentrations were found in poor and combined ventilation scenarios, respectively. The bioaerosol concentration in natural ventilation scenario was 1.1 times higher than that in mechanical ventilation scenario. However, a decreasing trend was observed after flushing. The adult male's health risks were consistently higher than those of all other exposed persons. However, the maximum and minimum health risks were observed in the poor and combined ventilation scenario, respectively. The health risks in the mechanical ventilation scenario were lower than those in the natural ventilation scenario. However, the health infection risk varied with time: it was unbearable to the U.S. Envi-ronmental Protection Agency benchmark at 0 min-15 min after flushing, but it was tolerable after flushing 35 min. Moreover, the disease health burdens were below the World Health Organization benchmark after flushing 20 min to 35 min. This research delivered novel data and provide a guideline for controlling the essential health threats from bioaerosol emissions in various toilet usage scenarios.

4.
Cmes-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences ; 129(1):31-45, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1389999

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing health emergency. Several studies are related to COVID-19. However, its molecular mechanism remains unclear. The rapid publication of COVID-19 provides a new way to elucidate its mechanism through computational methods. This paper proposes a prediction method for mining genotype information related to COVID-19 from the perspective of molecular mechanisms based on machine learning. The method obtains seed genes based on prior knowledge. Candidate genes are mined from biomedical literature. The candidate genes are scored by machine learning based on the similarities measured between the seed and candidate genes. Furthermore, the results of the scores are used to perform functional enrichment analyses, including KEGG, interaction network, and Gene Ontology, for exploring the molecular mechanism of COVID-19. Experimental results show that the method is promising for mining genotype information to explore the molecular mechanism related to COVID-19.

5.
Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1091995

ABSTRACT

A non-state centric approach challenged the concept of security governance in response to a changed security environment, bringing fragmentation of authority and heterarchical structures into the framework. The existing studies on this approach are largely contextualized from the European experience and developments in its security architecture. This leads to the questions as to whether and how non-state centric security governance occurs in other regions. This article contributes to the literature by studying security governance in East Asia, where the state is a dominant feature in security governance, and through the lens of non-traditional security, with China’s COVID-19 response as a case study. In this particular case, we find that security governance that opens spaces for greater involvement of actors beyond the state could happen, albeit in a more circumscribed manner and subject of certain conditions. We identify three conditions that catalyze the opening of governance spaces: when the capacity of the state is stretched to the limits, when the legitimacy of the government is under pressure, and when there is trust between the government and other actors. © 2021, Fudan University.

6.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(7): 1004-1008, 2020 Jul 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-17432

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of the cases of COVID-19 epidemic clusters, and explore the influence of family factors and social factors such as group activities on the spread of the disease. Methods: The data of cases of COVID-19 epidemic clusters from 19 January, 2020 to 25 February, 2020 were collected from the official platforms of 36 cities in 6 provinces in China. Descriptive statistical methods, χ(2) test and curve fitting were used to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of the clustered cases. Results: By 25 February, 2020, the data of 1 052 cases in 366 epidemic clusters were collected. In these clustered cases, 86.9%(914/1 050) occurred in families. Among the 1 046 cases with gender information, 513 were males (49.0%) and 533 were females (51.0%). The cases were mainly young adults between 18 and 59 years old, accounting for 68.5% (711/1 038). In the 366 epidemic clusters , the clusters in which the first confirmed cases with the history of sojourn in Wuhan or Hubei accounted for 47.0%(172/366). From 19 January to 3 February, 2020, the first confirmed cases with Wuhan or Hubei sojourn history accounted for 66.5%. From 4 to 25 February, the first confirmed cases who had Wuhan or Hubei sojourn history accounted for only 18.2%. The median of interval between the first generation case onset and the second generation case onset was 5 (2-8) days. The median of onset- diagnosis interval of the initial cases was 6 (3-9) days, and the median of onset-diagnosis interval of the secondary cases was 5 (3-8) days. Conclusions: Epidemic clusters of COVID-19 were common in many cities outside Wuhan and Hubei. Close contact in family was one of the main causes for the spread of household transmission of the virus. After 4 February, the epidemic clusters were mainly caused by the first generation or second generation cases in local areas, and the time for diagnosis became shorter.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cities , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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