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1.
Ann Transplant ; 25: e924768, 2020 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000625

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan and rapidly spread throughout the world. There are nearly 3 951 905 confirmed cases of novel coronary pneumonia and more than 275 067 deaths worldwide, [JHU data-09/05/2020, https://www.arcgis.com/apps/opsdashboard/index.html#/bda7594740fd40299423467b48e9ecf6]. A great number of patients contracted SARS-Cov-2 pneumonia (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 invades human target cells through receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2), which are expressed in the lung, kidney, and ileum and mediate inflammatory responses and immune activities. High plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines were detected in the infected patients. These factors may predispose transplant patients to high risk of poor outcomes. Therefore, transplant patients might be affected by this coronavirus infection and protection of allografts should receive special attention during this outbreak. In the present study we attempt to delineate the transplant-related biology of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Transplant Recipients , Humans , Organ Transplantation , Risk Factors
2.
Eur Cytokine Netw ; 2020 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955345

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first identified in China and has spread worldwide with a significant rate of infection. Considering the elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines in COVID-19, it is suggested that cytokine storms play a critical role in its pathogenesis, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there is no specific drug for preventing the cytokine release syndrome (CRS) caused by COVID-19. Indeed, interleukin 6 (IL-6) has been highlighted for its many biological functions, such as immune regulation, inflammatory response, and metabolism. Therapeutic blockade of the IL-6 signaling pathway is expected to reduce the excessive immune reponse observed in COVID-19. Currently, the IL-6 receptor antagonists tocilizumab and sarilumab, have been adopted for preventing CRS during the progression of COVID-19, and remarkable beneficial effects were observed by using these humanized monoclonal antibodies. Based on the pathogenesis of COVID-19, we reviewed the biological mechanism of IL-6 blockade in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection and evaluated its clinical applications.

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