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Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2125393


Development of safe and efficient vaccines is still necessary to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic. Herein, we reported that yeast-expressed recombinant RBD proteins either from wild-type or Delta SARS-CoV-2 were able to elicit immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. The wild-type RBD (wtRBD) protein was overexpressed in Pichia pastoris, and the purified protein was used as the antigen to immunize mice after formulating an aluminium hydroxide (Alum) adjuvant. Three immunization programs with different intervals were compared. It was found that the immunization with an interval of 28 days exhibited the strongest immune response to SARS-CoV-2 than the one with an interval of 14 or 42 days based on binding antibody and the neutralizing antibody (NAb) analyses. The antisera from the mice immunized with wtRBD were able to neutralize the Beta variant with a similar efficiency but the Delta variant with 2~2.5-fold decreased efficiency. However, more NAbs to the Delta variant were produced when the Delta RBD protein was used to immunize mice. Interestingly, the NAbs may cross react with the Omicron variant. To increase the production of NAbs, the adjuvant combination of Alum and CpG oligonucleotides was used. Compared with the Alum adjuvant alone, the NAbs elicited by the combined adjuvants exhibited an approximate 10-fold increase for the Delta and a more than 53-fold increase for the Omicron variant. This study suggested that yeast-derived Delta RBD is a scalable and an effective vaccine candidate for SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.

Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 396, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517609


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a highly infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has infected more than 235 million individuals and led to more than 4.8 million deaths worldwide as of October 5 2021. Cryo-electron microscopy and topology show that the SARS-CoV-2 genome encodes lots of highly glycosylated proteins, such as spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), and ORF3a proteins, which are responsible for host recognition, penetration, binding, recycling and pathogenesis. Here we reviewed the detections, substrates, biological functions of the glycosylation in SARS-CoV-2 proteins as well as the human receptor ACE2, and also summarized the approved and undergoing SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics associated with glycosylation. This review may not only broad the understanding of viral glycobiology, but also provide key clues for the development of new preventive and therapeutic methodologies against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Glycosylation , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Protein Binding/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics
Nature ; 586(7830): 572-577, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691301


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a respiratory disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the spread of which has led to a pandemic. An effective preventive vaccine against this virus is urgently needed. As an essential step during infection, SARS-CoV-2 uses the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein to engage with the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on host cells1,2. Here we show that a recombinant vaccine that comprises residues 319-545 of the RBD of the spike protein induces a potent functional antibody response in immunized mice, rabbits and non-human primates (Macaca mulatta) as early as 7 or 14 days after the injection of a single vaccine dose. The sera from the immunized animals blocked the binding of the RBD to ACE2, which is expressed on the cell surface, and neutralized infection with a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus and live SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Notably, vaccination also provided protection in non-human primates to an in vivo challenge with SARS-CoV-2. We found increased levels of RBD-specific antibodies in the sera of patients with COVID-19. We show that several immune pathways and CD4 T lymphocytes are involved in the induction of the vaccine antibody response. Our findings highlight the importance of the RBD domain in the design of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and provide a rationale for the development of a protective vaccine through the induction of antibodies against the RBD domain.

Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Macaca mulatta/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Models, Animal , Models, Molecular , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum/immunology , Spleen/cytology , Spleen/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination