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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325199

ABSTRACT

Currently, the global situation of COVID-19 is aggravating, pressingly calling for efficient control and prevention measures. Understanding spreading pattern of COVID-19 has been widely recognized as a vital step for implementing non-pharmaceutical measures. Previous studies investigated such an issue in large-scale (e.g., inter-country or inter-state) scenarios while urban spreading pattern still remains an open issue. Here, we fill this gap by leveraging the trajectory data of 197,808 smartphone users (including 17,808 anonymous confirmed cases) in 9 cities in China. We find a universal spreading pattern in all cities: the spatial distribution of confirmed cases follows a power-law-like model and the spreading centroid is time-invariant. Moreover, we reveal that human mobility in a city drives the spatialtemporal spreading process: long average travelling distance results in a high growth rate of spreading radius and wide spatial diffusion of confirmed cases. With such insight, we adopt Kendall model to simulate urban spreading of COVID-19 that can well fit the real spreading process. Our results unveil the underlying mechanism behind the spatial-temporal urban evolution of COVID-19, and can be used to evaluate the performance of mobility restriction policies implemented by many governments and to estimate the evolving spreading situation of COVID-19.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324176

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was identified in China in December 2019, and has spread rapidly to more than 200 countries and areas in four months. A few studies have reported that transmissibility exists during the late incubation period based on one single infection cluster caused by SARS-CoV-2. Here based on 178 SARS-CoV-2 clusters confirmed in Zhejiang Province, we analyzed the epidemic link between all 212 secondary cases with their previous cases, and found 49 secondary cases (from 26 clusters), which were 23.11% (49/212) of the total secondary cases infected from previous cases during the latter’s incubation period. The median days from the last exposure of secondary cases to the onset of previous cases was 2.0 days (IQR: 1.00~5.00 days, 90th percentile: 9.00 days) .This study has shown transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 during the incubation period and indicated that some cases might be infectious soon after they were exposed to a prior transmitter. The results highlight the importance of extending the contact group for medical observation and isolation to those in contact with the index case nine (90th percentile) or more days before the latter’s illness onset, when medical resources were sufficient.

3.
Biosci Trends ; 15(6): 418-423, 2022 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580006

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been the biggest public health crisis in a century. Since it was initially reported in 2019, the duration and intensity of its impacts are still in serious question around the world, and it is about to enter its third year. The first public health revolution failed to achieve its ultimate targets, as previously contained infectious diseases seem to have returned, and new infectious diseases continue to emerge. The prevention and control of infectious diseases is still a public health priority worldwide. After SARS, China adjusted a series of its infectious disease policies. In order to ensure the effectiveness and implementation of prevention and control interventions, the government should integrate the concept of public health. Perhaps we need a global public health system at the government level to fight the potential threat of infectious disease. This system could include multifaceted strategies, not just specific prevention and control interventions, and it could also be a comprehensive system to ensure unimpeded communication and cooperation as well as sustainable development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , China , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Policy , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Disease Surveillance ; 36(8):756-761, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1524240

ABSTRACT

In order to summarize the experience and lessons of the disease prevention and control system in dealing with COVID-19 and other public health emergencies, the weak links of the public health emergency management system were found. This paper analyzes the contribution of the public health system to people's health, reviews the historical process of the establishment, development, impact, transformation and reform of the disease prevention and control system, analyzes the difficulties and problems existing in the disease prevention and control system, and puts forward the next reform suggestions. At present, the mixed epidemic of new and old infectious diseases poses new and huge challenges to the public health system. There are a series of difficulties and challenges in disease prevention and control institutions, such as insufficient funding, unclear functions and responsibilities, serious separation of "medical" and "prevention", insufficient total number of public health personnel, low level of treatment guarantee, weak network, aging team, and weakened prevention and control of acute infectious diseases. Therefore, we must keep in mind the Chinese communist party's original heart of wholeheartedly striving for the people's health, attach importance to prevention first, strengthen the construction of disease prevention and control system, solve the weakness of acute infectious disease prevention and control function of CDC institutions from the institutional mechanism, increase the investment in infectious disease prevention and control of CDC institutions, improve the monitoring and early warning, improve the field epidemiological investigation ability, make up for the weakness of disinfection and vector control, speed up the implementation of medical prevention integration, and improve the ability of disease control institutions to undertake emergency public health work.

5.
Biosci Trends ; 15(3): 188-191, 2021 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271034

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to ravage the world. As many countries have entered the postpandemic period, current efforts to prevent and control COVID-19 have gradually been normalized in many countries. Although the focus is on vaccines to achieve herd immunity, conventional physical containment strategies should be reassessed as part of efforts to prevent and control infectious diseases. Continued respiratory protective measures such as social distancing and the wearing of masks have been extensively accepted by the public in most countries. A point worth noticing is that the activities of influenza and other respiratory diseases have decreased as these strategies have been implemented. Public mobilization and large-scale campaigns to promote health are also important to interrupting the transmission of pathogens. A good example can be found in the achievements of China's Patriotic Public Health Campaign. These practices underscore the importance of enhancing physical containment strategies and public mobilization and management, with support from the legal system, to respond to any potential emerging infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology
7.
Korean J Radiol ; 21(3): 365-368, 2020 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949

ABSTRACT

Since the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV or officially named by the World Health Organization as COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in 2019, there have been a few reports of its imaging findings. Here, we report two confirmed cases of 2019-nCoV pneumonia with chest computed tomography findings of multiple regions of patchy consolidation and ground-glass opacities in both lungs. These findings were characteristically located along the bronchial bundle or subpleural lungs.


Subject(s)
Bronchi/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Disease Outbreaks , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Radiography, Thoracic , World Health Organization
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