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Nature ; 609(7925): 101-108, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921636


As SARS-CoV-2 continues to spread and evolve, detecting emerging variants early is critical for public health interventions. Inferring lineage prevalence by clinical testing is infeasible at scale, especially in areas with limited resources, participation, or testing and/or sequencing capacity, which can also introduce biases1-3. SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentration in wastewater successfully tracks regional infection dynamics and provides less biased abundance estimates than clinical testing4,5. Tracking virus genomic sequences in wastewater would improve community prevalence estimates and detect emerging variants. However, two factors limit wastewater-based genomic surveillance: low-quality sequence data and inability to estimate relative lineage abundance in mixed samples. Here we resolve these critical issues to perform a high-resolution, 295-day wastewater and clinical sequencing effort, in the controlled environment of a large university campus and the broader context of the surrounding county. We developed and deployed improved virus concentration protocols and deconvolution software that fully resolve multiple virus strains from wastewater. We detected emerging variants of concern up to 14 days earlier in wastewater samples, and identified multiple instances of virus spread not captured by clinical genomic surveillance. Our study provides a scalable solution for wastewater genomic surveillance that allows early detection of SARS-CoV-2 variants and identification of cryptic transmission.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , Wastewater , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Wastewater/virology
J Appl Lab Med ; 6(5): 1109-1122, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281863


BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected over 110 million individuals and led to 2.5 million deaths worldwide. As more individuals are vaccinated, the clinical performance and utility of SARS-CoV-2 serology platforms needs to be evaluated. METHODS: The ability of 4 commercial SARS-CoV-2 serology platforms to detect previous infection or vaccination were evaluated using a cohort of 53 patients who were SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive, 89 SARS-CoV-2-vaccinated healthcare workers (Pfizer or Moderna), and 127 patients who were SARS-CoV-2 negative. Serology results were compared to a cell-based SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus (PSV) neutralizing antibodies assay. RESULTS: The Roche S-(spike) antibody and Diazyme neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) assays detected adaptive immune response in 100.0% and 90.1% of vaccinated individuals who received 2 doses of vaccine (initial and booster), respectively. The Roche N-(nucleocapsid) antibody assay and Diazyme IgG assay did not detect adaptive immune response in vaccinated individuals. The Diazyme NAbs assay correlated with the PSV SARS-CoV-2 median infective dose (ID50) neutralization titers (R2 = 0.70), while correlation of the Roche S-antibody assay was weaker (R2 = 0.39). Median PSV SARS-CoV-2 ID50 titers more than doubled in vaccinated individuals who received 2 doses of the Moderna vaccine (ID50, 597) compared to individuals who received a single dose (ID50, 284). CONCLUSIONS: The Roche S-antibody and Diazyme NAbs assays robustly detected adaptive immune responses in SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated individuals and SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. The Diazyme NAbs assay strongly correlates with the PSV SARS-CoV-2 NAbs in vaccinated individuals. Understanding the reactivity of commercially available serology platforms is important when distinguishing vaccination response versus natural infection.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Vaccination