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1.
ERJ Open Res ; 8(4)2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064727

ABSTRACT

The reduction of air pollution during the #COVID19 lockdown in Mexico City possibly reduced the exacerbation rate in #COPD patients due to biomass and tobacco despite that the self-isolation was not as strict as expected. https://bit.ly/3Iyv98t.

2.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(9)2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009948

ABSTRACT

The ability to interpret information through automatic sensors is one of the most important pillars of modern technology. In particular, the potential of biosensors has been used to evaluate biological information of living organisms, and to detect danger or predict urgent situations in a battlefield, as in the invasion of SARS-CoV-2 in this era. This work is devoted to describing a panoramic overview of optical biosensors that can be improved by the assistance of nonlinear optics and machine learning methods. Optical biosensors have demonstrated their effectiveness in detecting a diverse range of viruses. Specifically, the SARS-CoV-2 virus has generated disturbance all over the world, and biosensors have emerged as a key for providing an analysis based on physical and chemical phenomena. In this perspective, we highlight how multiphoton interactions can be responsible for an enhancement in sensibility exhibited by biosensors. The nonlinear optical effects open up a series of options to expand the applications of optical biosensors. Nonlinearities together with computer tools are suitable for the identification of complex low-dimensional agents. Machine learning methods can approximate functions to reveal patterns in the detection of dynamic objects in the human body and determine viruses, harmful entities, or strange kinetics in cells.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Viruses , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Machine Learning , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Frontiers in pediatrics ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1989316

ABSTRACT

Background The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 is broad, from asymptomatic to severe cases and death. The objective of this study is to analyze the clinical course of patients attended during the first months of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in a third-level pediatric hospital. Methods Design: prospective cohort study. Patients with viral respiratory disease or suspected cases of COVID-19 were evaluated at the Pediatric Hospital, National Medical Center XXI Century, Mexico City, from 21 March 2020 to 13 January 2021. Statistical analysis: Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test were used for comparisons;a logistic regression model was constructed to identify clinical or laboratory characteristics associated with critical disease. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A total of 697 patients met the operational definition of viral respiratory disease or suspected cases of COVID-19 and underwent real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) SARS-CoV-2 testing. Patients with a positive result were included. Of the 181 patients (26%), 121 (66.8%) had mild disease and were treated as outpatients and 60 (33.1%) were hospitalized. A total of six patients met the criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Of the 60 inpatients, 65% were males, and 82% had one or more comorbidities. The main comorbidities were cancer (42%) and overweight (15%). The median hospital stay was 9 days. The inpatients had a higher frequency of fever, general malaise, dyspnea, chills, polypnea, and cyanosis than the outpatients (p < 0.05). Only 21.4% of the outpatients had one or more comorbidities, which were lower than in the hospitalized patients (p < 0.001). Laboratory data at admission were similar between critically ill and those with moderate and severe disease. The patients who developed pneumonia were at higher risk of critical disease, while older age was associated with a better prognosis. A total of 13 of the 60 inpatients died (mortality 7.1%). All but one had one or more comorbidities: four had cancer, four congenital heart disease, one chronic kidney disease and epilepsy, one Epstein–Barr virus-induced hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, one obesity, and one diabetes mellitus. Conclusion Hospital mortality is high, especially in children with comorbidities. Despite 2 years having passed since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the epidemiological and clinical data on children are still helpful to improve their prognosis.

4.
Epidemics ; 40: 100606, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first wave of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Chile occurred during the cold season reaching a peak by the end of June 2020, with 80 % of the cases concentrated in its capital, Santiago. The main objective of this study was to estimate the attack rate during this first wave of SARS-CoV-2 in a large, densely populated city with more than seven million inhabitants. Since the number of confirmed cases provides biased information due to individuals' potential self-selection, mostly related to asymptomatic patients and testing access, we measured antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 to assess infection prevalence during the first wave in the city, as well as estimate asymptomatic cases, and infection fatality ratio. To our knowledge this is one of the few population-based cross-sectional serosurvey during the first wave in a highly affected emerging country. The challenges of pandemic response in urban settings in a capital city like Santiago, with heterogeneous subpopulations and high mobility through public transportation, highlight the necessity of more accurate information regarding the first waves of new emerging diseases. METHODS: From April 24 to June 21, 2020, 1326 individuals were sampled from a long-standing panel of household representatives of Santiago. Immunochromatographic assays were used to detect IgM and IgG antibody isotypes. RESULTS: Seroprevalence reached 6.79 % (95 %CI 5.58 %-8.26 %) in the first 107 days of the pandemic, without significant differences among sex and age groups; this figure indicates an attack rate 2.8 times higher than the one calculated with registered cases. It also changes the fatality rate estimates, from a 2.33 % case fatality rate reported by MOH to an estimated crude 1.00 % (CI95 % 0.97-1.03) infection fatality rate (adjusted for test performance 1.66 % [CI95 % 1.61-1.71]). Most seropositive were symptomatic (81,1 %). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high number of cases registered, mortality rates, and the stress produced over the health system, the vast majority of the people remained susceptible to potential new epidemic waves. We contribute to the understanding of the initial spread of emerging epidemic threats. Consequently, our results provide better information to design early strategies that counterattack new health challenges in urban contexts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Seroepidemiologic Studies
5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917865

ABSTRACT

Using levels of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs), we evaluate the successful Chilean SARS-CoV-2 vaccine campaign, which combines different vaccine technologies and heterologous boosters. From a population-based study performed in November 2021, we randomly selected 120 seropositive individuals, organized into six groups of positive samples (20 subjects each) according to natural infection history and the five most frequent vaccination schemes. We conclude that the booster dose, regardless of vaccine technology or natural infection, and mRNA vaccines significantly improve nAbs response.

6.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911710

ABSTRACT

Chile is among the most successful nations worldwide in terms of its COVID-19 vaccine rollout. By 31 December 2021, 84.1% of the population was fully vaccinated, and 56.1% received booster doses using different COVID-19 vaccines. In this context, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies following the infection and vaccination campaign. Using a three-stage stratified sampling, we performed a population-based cross-sectional serosurvey based on a representative sample of three Chilean cities. Selected participants were blood-sampled on-site and answered a short COVID-19 and vaccination history questionnaire using Wantai SARS-CoV-2 Ab ELISA to determine seroprevalence. We recruited 2198 individuals aged 7-93 between 5 October and 25 November 2021; 2132 individuals received COVID-19 vaccinations (97%), 67 (3.1%) received one dose, 2065 (93.9%) received two doses, and 936 received the booster jab (42.6%). Antibody seroprevalence reached 97.3%, ranging from 40.9% among those not vaccinated to 99.8% in those with booster doses (OR = 674.6, 154.8-2938.5). SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were associated with vaccination, previous COVID-19 diagnosis, age group, and city of residence. In contrast, we found no significant differences in the type of vaccine used, education, nationality, or type of health insurance. We found a seroprevalence close to 100%, primarily due to the successful vaccination program, which strongly emphasizes universal access.

7.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337887

ABSTRACT

Measles is the most contagious airborne viral infection and the leading cause of child death among vaccine-preventable diseases. We show here that aerosolized lipopeptide fusion inhibitors, derived from heptad-repeat regions of the measles virus (MeV) fusion protein, block respiratory MeV infection in a non-human primate model, the cynomolgus macaque. We used a custom-designed mesh nebulizer to ensure efficient aerosol delivery of peptides to the respiratory tract and demonstrated the absence of adverse effects and lung pathology in macaques. The nebulized peptide efficiently prevented MeV infection, resulting in the complete absence of MeV RNA, MeV-infected cells, and MeV-specific humoral responses in treated animals. This strategy provides an additional shield which complements vaccination to fight against respiratory infection, presenting a proof-of-concept for the aerosol delivery of fusion inhibitory peptides to protect against measles and other airborne viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, in case of high-risk exposure, that can be readily translated to human trials.

8.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335567

ABSTRACT

Objective: Chile is among the most successful nations worldwide in COVID-19 vaccine rollout. By December 31st, 2021, 84.1% of the population was fully vaccinated, and 56.1% received booster doses using DIFFERENT TYPES OF COVID-19 VACCINES. In this context, we aimed to estimate the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies following the infection and vaccination campaign.Study design: Population-based cross-sectional serosurvey based on a representative sample of the cities of Santiago, Coquimbo/La Serena, and Talca used in a previous study. Methods: We selected the participants using a three-stage stratified sampling. They were blood-sampled on-site and answered a questionnaire regarding COVID-19-associated variables and vaccination antecedents using Wantai SARS-CoV-2 Ab ELISA to determine seroprevalence. This research followed the generic protocol of World Health Organization Unity studies. Results: We recruited 2,198 individuals aged 7-93 between October 5th and November 25th, 2021. In our sample, 2,132 individuals received COVID-19 vaccinations (97%);67 (3.1%) received one dose;2,065 (93.9%) received the complete scheme;and 936 received the booster jab (42.6%). Antibody seroprevalence reached 97.3%, ranging from 40.9% among those not vaccinated to 99.8% in those with booster doses (OR=674.6, 154.8-2938.5). SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were associated with vaccination, previous COVID-19 diagnosis, age group, and city of residence. In contrast, we found no significant differences in the type of vaccine used, education, nationality, or type of health insurance. Conclusion: We found a seroprevalence close to 100% in the population aged seven years and older, primarily due to the successful vaccination program, which has a strong emphasis on universal access.

9.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335284

ABSTRACT

Using levels of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs), we evaluate the successful Chilean SARS-CoV-2 vaccine campaign, which combines technologies and heterologous boosters. In 120 randomly selected seropositive individuals from a population-based study, we conclude that the booster dose, regardless of vaccine technology or natural infection, and mRNA vaccines significantly improve nAbs response.

10.
EBioMedicine ; 78: 103972, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828378

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A major challenge of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is to better define "protective thresholds" to guide the global response. We aimed to characterize the longitudinal dynamics of the antibody responses in naturally infected individuals in Chile and compared them to humoral responses induced after immunization with CoronaVac-based on an inactivated whole virus -or the BNT162b2- based on mRNA-vaccines. We also contrasted them with the respective effectiveness and efficacy data available for both vaccines. METHODS: We determined and compared the longitudinal neutralizing (nAb) and anti-nucleocapsid (anti-N) antibody responses of 74 COVID-19 individuals (37 outpatient and 37 hospitalized) during the acute disease and convalescence. We also assessed the antibody boosting of 36 of these individuals who were immunized after convalescence with either the CoronaVac (n = 30) or the BNT162b2 (n = 6) vaccines. Antibody titres were also measured for 50 naïve individuals immunized with two doses of CoronaVac (n = 35) or BNT162b2 (n = 15) vaccines. The neutralizing level after vaccination was compared to those of convalescent individuals and the predicted efficacy was estimated. FINDINGS: SARS-CoV-2 infection induced robust nAb and anti-N antibody responses lasting >9 months, but showing a rapid nAb decay. After convalescence, nAb titres were significantly boosted by vaccination with CoronaVac or BNT162b2. In naïve individuals, the calculated mean titre induced by two doses of CoronaVac or BNT162b2 was 0·2 times and 5.2 times, respectively, that of convalescent individuals, which has been proposed as threshold of protection. CoronaVac induced no or only modest anti-N antibody responses. Using two proposed logistic models, the predicted efficacy of BNT162b2 was estimated at 97%, in close agreement with phase 3 efficacy studies, while for CoronaVac it was ∼50% corresponding to the lowest range of clinical trials and below the real-life data from Chile (from February 2 through May 1, 2021 during the predominant circulation of the Gamma variant), where the estimated vaccine effectiveness to prevent COVID-19 was 62·8-64·6%. INTERPRETATION: The decay of nAbs titres in previously infected individuals over time indicates that vaccination is needed to boost humoral memory responses. Immunization of naïve individuals with two doses of CoronaVac induced nAbs titres that were significantly lower to that of convalescent patients, and similar to vaccination with one dose of BTN162b2. The real life effectiveness for CoronaVac in Chile was higher than estimated; indicating that lower titres and additional cellular immune responses induced by CoronaVac might afford protection in a highly immunized population. Nevertheless, the lower nAb titre induced by two doses of CoronaVac as compared to the BTN162b2 vaccine in naïve individuals, highlights the need of booster immunizations over time to maintain protective levels of antibody, particularly with the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants. FUNDING: FONDECYT 1161971, 1212023, 1181799, FONDECYT Postdoctorado 3190706 and 3190648, ANID Becas/Doctorado Nacional 21212258, PIA ACT 1408, CONICYT REDES180170, Centro Ciencia & Vida, FB210008, Financiamiento Basal para Centros Científicos y Tecnológicos de Excelencia grants from the Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID) of Chile; NIH-NIAD grants U19AI135972, R01AI132633 and contracts HHSN272201400008C and 75N93019C00051; the JPB Foundation, the Open Philanthropy Project grant 2020-215611 (5384); and by anonymous donors. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Convalescence , Humans
11.
Cuaderno de Trabajo Social ; - (16):86-114, 2021.
Article in Spanish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1790212

ABSTRACT

El artículo tiene como propósito problematizar el género en tiempos de pandemia, reconociendo las conductas de autocuidado, emociones y percepciones de cambios de rutina en la vida diaria desde la perspectiva de los hombres. Desde un diseño mixto se accede a hombres y mujeres de diversas edades y territorios quienes responden, en el segundo semestre de 2020, un cuestionario semiestructurado que busca recoger sus experiencias en tiempos de pandemia. Los supuestos de trabajo se fundamentan en una visión de masculinidades hegemónicas donde los hombres cuidan menos de su salud, no expresan sus emociones y desarrollan menos tareas domésticas, volcando su vida hacia el trabajo. Se plantea el supuesto que los hombres más jóvenes tienden a alejarse de estas conductas y estarían desarrollando de forma tácita masculinidades contra hegemónicas, pues están compartiendo diariamente con mujeres de una nueva generación que en el discurso y en sus acciones buscan dar un vuelco al patriarcado. Los resultados dan cuenta que en algunos aspectos los supuestos se relacionan con los datos obtenidos en lo que refiere, principalmente, a las labores domésticas, gestión de las emociones y cuidado de la salud mental donde mayormente se establece la diferencia entre hombres y mujeres. Entre los mismos hombres no se observan diferencias importantes entre jóvenes y adultos, por lo que se hace necesario continuar educando a las nuevas generaciones sobre relaciones de convivencia más amigables y equitativa entre los géneros.Alternate : The article aims to problematize gender in times of pandemic, recognizing self-care behaviors, emotions, and perceptions of routine changes in daily life from the perspective of men. From a quantitative design, men and women of different ages and territories are accessed who respond in the second semester of 2020 to a semi-structured questionnaire that seeks to collect their experiences in times of pandemic. The research assumption is based on a vision of hegemonic masculinities where men take less care of their health, do not express their emotions, and carry out fewer domestic tasks, turning their lives towards work. The idea is put forward those younger men tend to move away from these behaviors and are tacitly developing counter-hegemonic masculinities, since they are sharing daily with women of a new generation who in their discourse and in their actions seek to overturn patriarchy. The results show that in some aspects the assumptions are related to the data obtained with regard, mainly, to housework, emotional management, and mental health care where the difference between men and women is mostly established. Among men themselves, there are no significant differences between young people and adults, so it is necessary to continue educating the new generations about more friendly and equitable coexistence relationships between the genders.

12.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332779

ABSTRACT

Objective: Chile is among the most successful nations worldwide in COVID-19 vaccine rollout. By December 31st, 2021, 84.1% of the population was fully vaccinated, and 56.1% received booster doses using DIFFERENT TYPES OF COVID-19 VACCINES. In this context, we aimed to estimate the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies following the infection and vaccination campaign.Study design: Population-based cross-sectional serosurvey based on a representative sample of the cities of Santiago, Coquimbo/La Serena, and Talca used in a previous study. Methods: We selected the participants using a three-stage stratified sampling. They were blood-sampled on-site and answered a questionnaire regarding COVID-19-associated variables and vaccination antecedents using Wantai SARS-CoV-2 Ab ELISA to determine seroprevalence. This research followed the generic protocol of World Health Organization Unity studies. Results: We recruited 2,198 individuals aged 7-93 between October 5th and November 25th, 2021. In our sample, 2,132 individuals received COVID-19 vaccinations (97%);67 (3.1%) received one dose;2,065 (93.9%) received the complete scheme;and 936 received the booster jab (42.6%). Antibody seroprevalence reached 97.3%, ranging from 40.9% among those not vaccinated to 99.8% in those with booster doses (OR=674.6, 154.8-2938.5). SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were associated with vaccination, previous COVID-19 diagnosis, age group, and city of residence. In contrast, we found no significant differences in the type of vaccine used, education, nationality, or type of health insurance. Conclusion: We found a seroprevalence close to 100% in the population aged seven years and older, primarily due to the successful vaccination program, which has a strong emphasis on universal access.

13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296228

ABSTRACT

Background: Seroprevalence studies provide an accurate measure of SARS-CoV-2 spread and the presence of asymptomatic cases. They also provide information on the uneven impact of the pandemic, pointing out vulnerable groups to prioritize who is particularly relevant in unequal societies. Here, we estimate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in three urban centers of Chile and model its spatial risk distribution. <br><br>Methods :We conducted a population-based serosurvey in Santiago, Talca, and Coquimbo–La Serena (2,493 individuals) and explored the association between positive results and socio-economic and health-related variables by logistic regression for complex surveys. Using an Empirical Bayesian Kriging model, we evaluated the infection risk distribution using individual, household, and census information and compared these results with official records. <br><br>Findings: Seroprevalence was 10·4% (95%CI 7·8-13·7%), ranging from 2% (Talca) to 11% (Santiago), almost three times the number officially reported. Approximately 36% of these were asymptomatic, reaching 82% below 15 years old. Seroprevalence was associated with the city of residence, previous COVID-19 diagnosis, contact with confirmed cases (especially at household), and foreign nationality. The spatial model accurately interpolated the distribution of disease risk within the cities finding significant differences in the predicted probabilities of SARS-CoV-2 infection by census zone (IQR 2·5%-15·0%), related to population density and education.<br><br>Interpretation: Our results underscore the transmission heterogeneity of SARS-CoV-2 within and across three urban centers of Chile. Socio-economic factors and the outcomes of this seroprevalence study enable us to identify priority areas for intervention. Our methodological approach and results can help guide the design of interdisciplinary strategies for urban contexts, not only for SARS-CoV-2 but also for other communicable diseases. <br><br>Funding Information: Chilean National Research Agency, ANID-COVID-19-0589<br><br>Declaration of Interests: None declared.<br><br>Ethics Approval Statement: The Ethics Committees of the Universities el Desarrollo and Talca and the Faculty of Medicine of the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Numbers 2020-54, 34-2020, and 21 2020, respectively) approved the study protocols. Depending on age, the participants provided a signed consent to participate in the study;children participated with their assent and parental consent.

14.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294824

ABSTRACT

Background SARS-CoV-2 mutations appeared recently and can lead to conformational changes in the spike protein and probably induce modifications in antigenicity. In this study, we wanted to assess the neutralizing capacity of antibodies to prevent cell infection, using a live virus neutralisation test. Methods Sera samples were collected from different populations: two-dose vaccinated COVID-19-naïve healthcare workers (HCWs;Pfizer-BioNTech BNT161b2), 6-months post mild COVID-19 HCWs, and critical COVID-19 patients. We tested various clades such as 19A (initial one), 20B (B.1.1.241 lineage), 20I/501Y.V1 (B.1.1.7 lineage), and 20H/501Y.V2 (B.1.351 lineage). Results No significant difference was observed between the 20B and 19A isolates for HCWs with mild COVID-19 and critical patients. However, a significant decrease in neutralisation ability was found for 20I/501Y.V1 in comparison with 19A isolate for critical patients and HCWs 6-months post infection. Concerning 20H/501Y.V2, all populations had a significant reduction in neutralising antibody titres in comparison with the 19A isolate. Interestingly, a significant difference in neutralisation capacity was observed for vaccinated HCWs between the two variants whereas it was not significant for the convalescent groups. Conclusion Neutralisation capacity was slightly reduced for critical patients and HCWs 6-months post infection. No neutralisation escape could be feared concerning the two variants of concern in both populations. The reduced neutralising response observed towards the 20H/501Y.V2 in comparison with the 19A and 20I/501Y.V1 isolates in fully immunized subjects with the BNT162b2 vaccine is a striking finding of the study.

15.
Front Trop Dis ; 2: 769330, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547227

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a major international public health concern. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on March 11, 2020. In Panama, the first SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed on March 9, 2020, and the first fatal case associated to COVID-19 was reported on March 10. This report presents the case of a 44-year-old female who arrived at the hospital with a respiratory failure, five days after the first fatal COVID-19 case, and who was living in a region where hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases caused by Choclo orthohantavirus (CHOV), are prevalent. Thus, the clinical personnel set a differential diagnosis to determine a respiratory disease caused by the endemic CHOV or the new pandemic SARS-CoV-2. This case investigation describes the first coinfection by SARS-CoV-2 and CHOV worldwide. PCR detected both viruses during early stages of the disease and the genomic sequences were obtained. The presence of antibodies was determined during the patient's hospitalization. After 23 days at the intensive care unit, the patient survived with no sequelae, and antibodies against CHOV and SARS-CoV-2 were still detectable 12 months after the disease. The detection of the coinfection in this patient highlights the importance, during a pandemic, of complementing the testing and diagnosis of the emergent agent, SARS-CoV-2, with other common endemic respiratory pathogens and other zoonotic pathogens, like CHOV, in regions where they are of public health concern.

16.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1499-1502, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337230

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 mutations appeared recently and can lead to conformational changes in the spike protein and probably induce modifications in antigenicity. We assessed the neutralizing capacity of antibodies to prevent cell infection, using a live virus neutralization test with different strains [19A (initial one), 20B (B.1.1.241 lineage), 20I/501Y.V1 (B.1.1.7 lineage), and 20H/501Y.V2 (B.1.351 lineage)] in serum samples collected from different populations: two-dose vaccinated COVID-19-naive healthcare workers (HCWs; Pfizer-BioNTech BNT161b2), 6-months post mild COVID-19 HCWs, and critical COVID-19 patients. No significant difference was observed between the 20B and 19A isolates for HCWs with mild COVID-19 and critical patients. However, a significant decrease in neutralization ability was found for 20I/501Y.V1 in comparison with 19A isolate for critical patients and HCWs 6-months post infection. Concerning 20H/501Y.V2, all populations had a significant reduction in neutralizing antibody titers in comparison with the 19A isolate. Interestingly, a significant difference in neutralization capacity was observed for vaccinated HCWs between the two variants but not in the convalescent groups.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
17.
Indian Pediatr ; 58(7): 639-642, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328545

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the differential characteristics of SARS-COV-2 associated inflammatory multisystem syndrome (MIS-C) in children. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted.  The definition of MIS- C was based on WHO criteria. Temporally related COVID-19 patients were included as controls. RESULTS: 25 patients with MIS-C and 75 controls were included. Multivariate multiple logistic regression model of variables that showed to be significant in univariate analysis revealed that age ≥2 years (OR 24.7; 95% CI 1.03 -592.4; P=0.048), lymphopenia (OR 9.03, 95%CI 2.05-39.7; P=0.004), and platelet count <150x109/L (OR 11.7; 95% CI 1.88-75.22; P=0.009) were significantly associated with MIS-C. Presence of underlying disease seemed to reduce the risk of MIS-C (OR 0.06; 95% CI 0.01-0.3). CONCLUSIONS: MIS-C was more common in patients older than 2 years and in those with lymphopenia or thrombocytopenia. Underlying disease appears to reduce the risk of MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Argentina/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
18.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 119(4): S198-S211, 2021 08.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325948

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus declared by the WHO in March 11th 2020, affects a small number of pediatric patients, who mostly present mild respiratory compromise and favorable evolution. However began to be observed in previously healthy children, an increase in cases defined as "Multisystemic Inflammatory Syndrome" (MIS-C) or "Kawasaki-like" post-COVID 19 (KLC) that evolve to shock and require hospitalization in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. MIS-C and KL-C are characterized by fever; signs of inflammation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and cardiovascular dysfunction, associated with sever forms of presentation with higher incidence of hypotension and/or shock. In the laboratory, markers of inflammation, hypercoagulability and myocardial damage are observed. Firstline drug treatment consists of intravenous immunoglobulin plus oral acetylsalicylic acid. A multidisciplinary approach is recommended for an accurate diagnosis and an early and effective treatment, in order to reduce morbidity and mortality.


La pandemia ocasionada por el nuevo coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), declarada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud OMS) en marzo de 2020, afecta a un reducido número de pacientes pediátricos, quienes presentan, en su mayoría, compromiso respiratorio leve y evolución favorable. Sin embargo, en niños previamente sanos, comenzó a observarse un aumento de casos definidos como síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico (SIM-C) o similar a Kawasaki (Kawasaki-like) asociado a la enfermedad por el nuevo coronavirus (COVID-19) (KL-C) que evolucionan al shock y requieren internación en la unidad de cuidados intensivos. Los cuadros de SIM-C y los KL-C se caracterizan por fiebre, signos de inflamación, síntomas gastrointestinales y disfunción cardiovascular; las formas graves de presentación tienen mayor incidencia de hipotensión y/o shock. En el laboratorio se observan marcadores de inflamación, hipercoagulabilidad y daño miocárdico. El tratamiento farmacológico de primera línea consiste en la administración de inmunoglobulina por vía intravenosa más ácido acetilsalicílico por vía oral. Se recomienda un abordaje multidisciplinario para un diagnóstico certero y un tratamiento temprano y eficaz para disminuir la morbimortalidad.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Adolescent , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Combined Modality Therapy , Critical Care/methods , Diagnosis, Differential , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Respiratory Therapy/methods , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 588-591, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253019

ABSTRACT

We report a case of reinfection by SARS-CoV-2 with the second virus harboring amino acid changes in the Spike protein (141-143del, D215A, ins215AGY, L452R, D614G), orf1a, helicase, orf3a, and Nucleocapside. The virus associated with the reinfection, from an endemic lineage containing the S:L452R immune escape mutation, was circulating in Panama at the time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Mutation , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Reinfection , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
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